Disambiguations:
James A. Marcum [35]James Marcum [10]James Arthur Marcum [1]
  1.  15
    James Marcum (2010). An Introductory Philosophy of Medicine: Humanizing Modern Medicine. Springer.
    In this book the author explores the shifting philosophical boundaries of modern medical knowledge and practice occasioned by the crisis of quality-of-care, especially in terms of the various humanistic adjustments to the biomedical model.
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  2.  16
    James A. Marcum (2015). Metaphysics of the Cognition Debate: A Plurimodel Theory of Cognition. Philosophica 90.
    Proponents of the dual-process theory claim that two distinct types of mental faculties or minds are responsible for human cognition. The first is evolutionarily old and not unique to humans but shared with other organisms. Type-1’s key feature is autonomy from cognitive capacities; hence, it does not require working memory. Type-2 is evolutionarily recent and thought to be uniquely human. Its key feature is reflective cognitive-decoupling of Type-1 processes, if warranted; and it requires working memory. Critics, however, argue that one (...)
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  3.  19
    James Marcum (2015). What’s the Support for Kuhn’s Incommensurability Thesis? A Response to Mizrahi and Patton. Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 2015.
    Moti Mizrahi (2015) examines whether there are “good arguments” to support Kuhn’s taxonomic incommensurability (TI) thesis. He concludes that there is neither “valid deductive” nor “strong inductive” support for the thesis and that consequently TI should not be believed or accepted. In response, Lydia Patton (2015) claims that the most “influential” arguments within the history of science are abductive or inference to the best explanation (IBE) rather than deductive or inductive arguments. After reviewing and analyzing this exchange, I propose that (...)
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  4.  10
    James A. Marcum (2012). An Integrated Model of Clinical Reasoning: Dual‐Process Theory of Cognition and Metacognition. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):954-961.
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  5.  1
    James A. Marcum (2011). The Role of Prudent Love in the Practice of Clinical Medicine. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (5):877-882.
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  6. James A. Marcum (2015). Caring for Patients During Challenging Clinical Encounters. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 21 (3):404-409.
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  7.  41
    James A. Marcum (2009). The Epistemically Virtuous Clinician. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 30 (3):249-265.
    Today, modern Western medicine is facing a quality-of-care crisis that is undermining the patient–physician relationship. In this paper, a notion of the epistemically virtuous clinician is proposed in terms of both the reliabilist and responsibilist versions of virtue epistemology, in order to help address this crisis. To that end, a clinical case study from the literature is first reconstructed. The reliabilist intellectual virtues, including the perceptual and conceptual virtues, are then discussed and applied to the case study. Next, a similar (...)
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  8.  27
    James A. Marcum (2005). Metaphysical Presuppositions and Scientific Practices: Reductionism and Organicism in Cancer Research. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 19 (1):31 – 45.
    Metaphysical presuppositions are important for guiding scientific practices and research. The success of twentieth-century biology, for instance, is largely attributable to presupposing that complex biological processes are reducible to elementary components. However, some biologists have challenged the sufficiency of reductionism for investigating complex biological phenomena and have proposed alternative presuppositions like organicism. In this article, contemporary cancer research is used as a case study to explore the importance of metaphysical presuppositions for guiding research. The predominant paradigm directing cancer research is (...)
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  9.  21
    James A. Marcum (2005). Biomechanical and Phenomenological Models of the Body, the Meaning of Illness and Quality of Care. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 7 (3):311-320.
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  10.  7
    James A. Marcum, Kuhn, Thomas S. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Thomas S. Kuhn Thomas Samuel Kuhn, although trained as a physicist at Harvard University, became an historian and philosopher of science through the support of Harvard’s president, James Conant. In 1962, Kuhn’s renowned The Structure of Scientific Revolutions helped to inaugurate a revolution—the 1960s historiographic revolution—by providing a new image of science. For … Continue reading Kuhn, Thomas S. →.
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  11.  9
    James A. Marcum, Kuhn, Thomas S. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Thomas S. Kuhn Thomas Samuel Kuhn, although trained as a physicist at Harvard University, became an historian and philosopher of science through the support of Harvard’s president, James Conant. In 1962, Kuhn’s renowned The Structure of Scientific Revolutions helped to inaugurate a revolution—the 1960s historiographic revolution—by providing a new image of science. For … Continue reading Kuhn, Thomas S. →.
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  12. James A. Marcum (2009). Human Origins and Human Nature. Faith and Philosophy 26 (5):566-570.
    Both religion and science provide powerful images of human origins and human nature. Often these images are seen as incompatible or irreconcilable, with the religious image generally marginalized vis-à-vis the scientific image. Recent genetic studies into human origins, especially in terms of common cellular features like the mitochondrion from females and the Y-chromosome from males, provide evidence for common ancestors called mitochondrial Eve and Y-chromosomal Adam. The aim of this paper is to expound upon the Judeo-Christian and western scientific images (...)
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  13.  17
    James A. Marcum (2008). Reflections on Humanizing Biomedicine. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 51 (3):392-405.
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  14.  2
    James Marcum (2002). From Heresy to Dogma in Accounts of Opposition to Howard Temin's DNA Provirus Hypothesis. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 24 (2):165 - 192.
    In 1964 the Wisconsin virologist Howard Temin proposed the DNA provirus hypothesis to explain the mechanism by which a cancer-producing virus containing only RNA infects and transforms cells. His hypothesis reversed the flow of genetic information, as ordained by the central dogma of molecular biology. Although there was initial opposition to his hypothesis it was widely accepted, after the discovery of reverse transcriptase in 1970. Most accounts of Temin's hypothesis after the discovery portray the hypothesis as heretical, because it challenged (...)
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  15.  40
    James A. Marcum (2011). Horizon for Scientific Practice: Scientific Discovery and Progress. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 24 (2):187-215.
    In this article, I introduce the notion of horizon for scientific practice (HSP), representing limits or boundaries within which scientists ply their trade, to facilitate analysis of scientific discovery and progress. The notion includes not only constraints that delimit scientific practice, e.g. of bringing experimentation to a temporary conclusion, but also possibilities that open up scientific practice to additional scientific discovery and to further scientific progress. Importantly, it represents scientific practice as a dynamic and developmental integration of activities to investigate (...)
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  16.  8
    James A. Marcum (forthcoming). Clinical Decision-Making, Gender Bias, Virtue Epistemology, and Quality Healthcare. Topoi:1-8.
    Robust clinical decision-making depends on valid reasoning and sound judgment and is essential for delivering quality healthcare. It is often susceptible, however, to a clinician’s biases such as towards a patient’s age, gender, race, or socioeconomic status. Gender bias in particular has a deleterious impact, which frequently results in cognitive myopia so that a clinician is unable to make an accurate diagnosis because of a patient’s gender—especially for female patients. Virtue epistemology provides a means for confronting gender bias (...)
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  17.  3
    James A. Marcum (2011). Care and Competence in Medical Practice: Francis Peabody Confronts Jason Posner. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14 (2):143-153.
    In this paper, I discuss the role of care and competence, as well as their relationship to one another, in contemporary medical practice. I distinguish between two types of care. The first type, care1, represents a natural concern that motivates physicians to help or to act on the behalf of patients, i.e. to care about them. However, this care cannot guarantee the correct technical or right ethical action of physicians to meet the bodily and existential needs of patients, i.e. to (...)
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  18.  24
    James A. Marcum (1998). Defending the Priority of 'Remarkable Researches': The Discovery of Fibrin Ferment. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 20 (1):51 - 76.
    At times scientists manipulate their community's perception of scientific discoveries. The following case study illustrates the extent to which a community's understanding of a discovery was influenced by one of its members. In the 1870s the British physiologist Arthur Gamgee undertook a campaign to insure Andrew Buchanan of Glasgow credit for his blood clotting research, conducted from the early 1830s to the mid-1840s. Gamgee endeavored to establish Buchanan as the discoverer of fibrin ferment, a clotting factor first isolated and named (...)
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  19.  22
    James A. Marcum (2008). Instituting Science: Discovery or Construction of Scientific Knowledge? International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 22 (2):185 – 210.
    Is knowledge in the natural sciences discovered or constructed? For objectivists, scientific knowledge is discovered through investigations into a mind-independent, natural world. For constructivists, such knowledge is produced through negotiations among members of a professional guild. I examine the clash between the two positions and propose that scientific knowledge is the concurrent outcome from investigations into a natural world and from consensus reached through negotiations of a professional guild. Specifically, I introduce the general methodological notion, instituting science, which incorporates both (...)
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  20.  13
    James A. Marcum (2007). Experimental Series and the Justification of Temin's DNA Provirus Hypothesis. Synthese 154 (2):259 - 292.
    A notion of experimental series is developed, in which experiments or experimental sets are connected through experimental suggestions arising from previous experimental outcomes. To that end, the justification of Howard Temin’s DNA provirus hypothesis is examined. The hypothesis originated with evidence from two exploratory experimental sets on an oncogenic virus and was substantiated by including evidence from three additional experimental sets. Collectively these sets comprise an experimental series and the accumulative evidence from the series was adequate to justify the hypothesis (...)
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  21.  25
    James Marcum (2003). Exploring the Rational Boundaries Between the Natural Sciences and Christian Theology1. Theology and Science 1 (2):203-220.
    The reticulated model of scientific rationality includes the goal of the investigation, the method by which the goal is achieved, and the epistemic values needed to assess whether the goal was achieved by the applied method. I expand this model of rationality to include metaphysical assumptions and commitments that inform the origins of epistemic claims. I then explore the rational boundaries between the natural sciences and Christian theology in terms of goals, methods, and metaphysics. Finally, I discuss the advantages and (...)
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  22.  42
    James A. Marcum (2007). Montgomery, Kathryn, How Doctors Think: Clinical Judgment and the Practice of Medicine. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 28 (6):525-530.
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  23.  11
    James A. Marcum (2012). Johnson, Lawrence E: A Life-Centered Approach to Bioethics: Biocentric Ethics. [REVIEW] Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 33 (3):227-231.
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  24.  38
    James Marcum (2009). Intellectual Virtues: An Essay in Regulative Epistemology • by R. C. Roberts and W. J. Wood. Analysis 69 (1):181-182.
    Since the publication of Edmund Gettier's challenge to the traditional epistemological doctrine of knowledge as justified true belief, Roberts and Wood claim that epistemologists lapsed into despondency and are currently open to novel approaches. One such approach is virtue epistemology, which can be divided into virtues as proper functions or epistemic character traits. The authors propose a notion of regulative epistemology, as opposed to a strict analytic epistemology, based on intellectual virtues that function not as rules or even as skills (...)
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  25.  30
    Bryce Huebner, Janette Dinishak, James A. Marcum & Jelle De Schrijver (2008). Reviews. [REVIEW] Philosophical Psychology 21 (6):843 – 858.
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  26.  14
    James A. Marcum & Geert M. N. Verschuuren (1986). Hemostatic Regulation and Whitehead's Philosophy of Organism. Acta Biotheoretica 35 (1-2):123-133.
    Biology as a scientific discipline has relied heavily upon advances in chemistry and physics. An inherent danger in this relationship is the reduction of living phenomena to physico-chemical terms. Whitehead's Philosophy of Organism is utilized to examine current methodologies within biology and to evaluate their appropriateness for future research. Hemostatic regulation is employed to illustrate the applications of organistic concepts to biological research. It is concluded that understanding of living entities and their properties as well as possibly life itself (...)
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  27.  8
    James A. Marcum (2012). 3 From Paradigm to Disciplinary Matrix and Exemplar. In Vasō Kintē & Theodore Arabatzis (eds.), Kuhn's the Structure of Scientific Revolutions Revisited. Routledge 41.
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  28.  11
    James A. Marcum & Carolyn M. Soke (2005). The End of Modern Medicine: Biomedical Science Under a Microscope. Journal of Medical Humanities 26 (2):191-193.
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  29.  30
    James Marcum, Newton's Experimentum Crucis Vs. Goethe's Series of Experiments: Implications for the Underdetermination Thesis.
    In the seventeenth century, Newton published his famous experimentum crucis, in which he claimed that light is heterogeneous and is composed of (colored) rays with different refrangibilities. Experiments, especially a crucial experiment, were important for justifying Newton’s theory of light, and eventually his theory of color. Goethe conducted a series of experiments on the nature of color, especially in contradistinction to Newton, and he defended his research with a methodological principle formulated in “Der Versuch als Vermittler.” Goethe’s principle included a (...)
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  30.  26
    James A. Marcum (2010). Ingvar Johansson, Neils Lynøe: Medicine & Philosophy: A Twenty-First Century Introduction. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31 (5):395-399.
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  31.  25
    James A. Marcum (2009). The Nature of Light and Color: Goethe's “der Versuch AlS Vermittler” Versus Newton's Experimentum Crucis. Perspectives on Science 17 (4):pp. 457-481.
    In the seventeenth century, Newton published his famous experimentum crucis, in which he claimed that light is heterogeneous and is composed of rays with different refrangibilities. Experiments, especially the crucial experiment, were important for justifying Newton’s theory of light, and eventually his theory of color. A century later, Goethe conducted a series of experiments on the nature of color, especially in contradistinction to Newton, and he defended his research with a methodological principle formulated in “Der Versuch als Vermittler.” Goethe’s principle (...)
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  32.  5
    James A. Marcum (2014). Hillel D. Braude: Intuition in Medicine: A Philosophical Defense of Clinical Reasoning. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 35 (5):401-405.
    The book starts with a scandal, that is, Socrates’s mortality as entailed in the Aristotelian syllogism,All men are mortal,Socrates is a man,Therefore, Socrates is mortal. The scandal pertains to the deduction of Socrates’s death from the logical connections of premises, which, according to Braude, renders it “meaningless.” But, what does this scandal have to do with a philosophical defense of intuition in medicine? For Braude, the scandal is emblematic of a crisis in medicine and philosophy—a crisis in which human mortality (...)
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  33.  9
    James A. Marcum (2008). Whitehead's Philosophy of Organism and Systems Biology. Chromatikon: Annales de la Philosophie En Procès / Yearbook of Philosophy in Process 4:143-152.
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  34.  15
    James A. Marcum (2011). Jeremy Howick: The Philosophy of Evidence-Based Medicine. [REVIEW] Medicine Studies 3 (2):125-128.
  35.  10
    James A. Marcum (2011). Medical Cure and Progress The Case of Type-1 Diabetes. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 54 (2):176-188.
    What is medical progress? The answer to this question is often associated with advances in diagnostic technology, with greater understanding of disease or pathological mechanisms particularly at the molecular level, or with the discovery of drugs and the developmental of surgical procedures to treat diseases. However, this facile answer can be problematic. In a New York Times Magazine article, for example, Lisa Sanders (2003) recounts a lecture delivered to her first-year class, at a "white-coat" ceremony, by the medical school dean. (...)
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  36.  6
    James A. Marcum (2001). Constructing a Scientific Paper: Howell's Prothrombin Laboratory Notebook and Paper. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 15 (3):293 – 310.
    Scientists generally record their laboratory activities and experimental results in notebooks, from which they construct scientific papers. The Johns Hopkins physiologist William Henry Howell kept a laboratory notebook from 1913 to 1914, in which he recorded experiments on the blood clotting factor prothrombin. In 1914 he published a paper using this notebook, to justify his theory of prothrombin activation. Howell's paper is reconstructed, in terms of its narrative and argument elements, from the laboratory activities and experimental results recorded in the (...)
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  37.  8
    James A. Marcum (2006). Book Review. [REVIEW] Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (3):265-269.
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  38.  1
    James A. Marcum (2006). 'Soup' Vs. 'Sparks': Alexander Forbes and the Synaptic Transmission Controversy. Annals of Science 63 (2):139-156.
    During the twentieth century, a controversy raged over the role of electrical forces and chemical substances in synaptic transmission. Although the story of the ‘main’ participants is well documented, the story of ‘lesser’ known participants is seldom told. For example, Alexander Forbes, who was a prominent member of the axonologists, played an active role in the controversy and yet is seldom mentioned in standard accounts of the controversy. During the 1930s, Forbes incorporated chemical substances into his theory of synaptic transmission, (...)
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  39.  1
    James A. Marcum (1995). The Discovery of Heparin Revisited: The Peptone Connection. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 39 (4):610-625.
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  40. Bradley Lail, Jason MacGregor, James Marcum & Martin Stuebs (forthcoming). Virtuous Professionalism in Accountants to Avoid Fraud and to Restore Financial Reporting. Journal of Business Ethics.
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  41. James A. Marcum (2007). Experimental Series and the Justification of Temin’s DNA Provirus Hypothesis. Synthese 154 (2):259-292.
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  42. James Marcum (2001). Great Feuds in Science: Ten of the Liveliest Disputes Ever by Hal Hellman. [REVIEW] Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 92:143-144.
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  43. James Marcum (2000). Philosophy of Science: The Historical Background by Joseph J. Kockelmans. [REVIEW] Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 91:838-838.
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  44. James Marcum (1998). Self-Generation: Biology, Philosophy, and Literature Around 1800 by Helmut Mueller-Sievers. [REVIEW] Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 89:136-137.
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  45. James A. Marcum (2015). The Evolving Notion and Role of Kuhn’s Incommensurability Thesis. In Alisa Bokulich & William J. Devlin (eds.), Kuhn’s Structure of Scientific Revolutions - 50 Years On. Springer International Publishing
     
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