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  1. Nicola Dimitri & Jan van Eijck, Time Discounting and Time Consistency.
    Time discounting is the phenomenon that a desired result in the future is perceived as less valuable than the same result now. Economic theories can take this psychological fact into account in several ways. In the economic literature the most widely used type of additive time discounting is exponential discounting. In exponential discounting, the fall of valuation depends by a constant factor on the length of the delay period. It is well known, however, that exponential time discounting often does not (...)
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  2. Balder ten Cate & Jan van Eijck, Expressivity of Extensions of Dynamic First-Order Logic.
    Dynamic predicate logic (DPL), presented in [5] as a formalism for representing anaphoric linking in natural language, can be viewed as a fragment of a well known formalism for reasoning about imperative programming [6]. An interesting difference from other forms of dynamic logic is that the distinction between formulas and programs gets dropped: DPL formulas can be viewed as programs. In this paper we show that DPL is in fact the basis of a hierarchy of formulas-as-programs languages.
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  3. Johan van Benthem, Hans van Ditmarsch & Jan van Eijck, Logica in Actie.
    Meer informatie over de uitgaven van Sdu Uitgevers en Academic Service kunt u verkrijgen bij: Sdu Klantenservice Postbus 20014 2500 EA Den Haag tel.: (070) 378 98 80 www.sdu.nl/service..
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  4. Johan van Benthem, Jan van Eijck & Vera Stebletsova, Modal Logic, Transition Systems and Processes.
    Transition systems can be viewed either as process diagrams or as Kripke structures. The rst perspective is that of process theory, the second that of modal logic. This paper shows how various formalisms of modal logic can be brought to bear on processes. Notions of bisimulation can not only be motivated by operations on transition systems, but they can also be suggested by investigations of modal formalisms. To show that the equational view of processes from process algebra is closely related (...)
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  5. Jan van Eijck, A Conversation with Wittgenstein.
    Thinking about Martin Stokhof as a philosopher and colleague, his formal analysis (together with Jeroen Groenendijk) of questions and question answering is the first thing that comes to mind. This work is part of a fruitful tradition that has recently spawned inquisitive semantics, and the focus on question answering in dynamic epistemic logic. The theme is still very much alive at ILLC today. Next, I am reminded of the dynamic turn in natural language semantics, of the way he and Jeroen (...)
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  6. Jan van Eijck, A Geometric Look at Manipulation.
    We take a fresh look at voting theory, in particular at the notion of manipulation, by employing the geometry of the Saari triangle. This yields a geometric proof of the Gibbard/Satterthwaite theorem, and new insight into what it means to manipulate the vote. Next, we propose two possible strengthenings of the notion of manipulability (or weakenings of the notion of non-manipulability), and analyze how these affect the impossibility proof for non-manipulable voting rules.
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  7. Jan van Eijck, A First Order Axiomatisation of Least Fixpoint on Finite Models.
    Let R be a relational variable of arity m, and let ¯ x be an m-tuple of variables. Let φ be a first order formula that is positive in R, i.e., all occurrences of R in φ are in the scope of an even number of negations. Then λRλ¯.
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  8. Jan van Eijck, APPENDIX — The Functional Approach To Parsing.
    No index information on NPs, except for pronouns. Otherwise, virtually the same as a datatype declaration for a fragment of dynamic Montague grammar. The module Cat imports the standard List module. Lists will be employed to implement a simple feature agreement mechanism.
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  9. Jan van Eijck, Afscheid van Jaco.
    Mijn wetenschappelijke bijdrage sluit aan bij het stuk van Jan Willem Klop in deze zelfde afscheidsbundel, dat ik van Jan Willem onder embargo te lezen heb gekregen. Je zult je herinneren dat Jan Willem in de CWI lezing ter gelegenheid van zijn eredoctoraat kort refereerde aan de Thue Morse reeks. Noem deze reeks M . Jan Willem gaf de versie die start met 1. Noem het resultaat van omwisselen van nullen en enen in de Thue Morse reeks M . De (...)
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  10. Jan van Eijck, Context and the Composition of Meaning.
    Key ingredients in discourse meaning are reference markers: objects in the formal representation that the discourse is about. It is well-known that reference markers are not like first order variables. Indeed, it is the received view that reference markers are like the variables in imperative programming languages. However, in a computational semantics of discourse that treats reference markers as ‘dynamically bound’ variables, every noun phrase will get linked to a dynamic variable, so it will give rise to a marker index. (...)
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  11. Jan van Eijck, Creativiteit, Onderzoek, Communicatie.
    • Wat wil ik doen/maken/cre¨eren (in het klein, in het groot . . . )? • Welke richting kies ik? • Wat is belangrijk? Wat minder belangrijk? Je kunt helderheid voor jezelf cre¨eren (weer: in het klein, in het groot) door de dingen die je wilt doen te rangschikken in volgorde van belangrijkheid.
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  12. Jan van Eijck, Context Semantics.
    Destructive assignment is the main weakness of Dynamic Predicate Logic (DPL, [GS91], but see also [Bar87]) as a basis for a compositional semantics of natural language: in DPL, the semantic effect of a quantifier action ∃x is that the previous value of x gets lost forever.
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  13. Jan van Eijck, Computing with Dynamic First Order Logic.
    We de ne an executable process interpretation for dynamic rst order logic and show that it is a faithful approximation of a dynamic interpre tation procedure for rst order formulas familiar from natural language semantics extended with constructs for bounded choice and bounded it eration This new interpretation of extended dynamic FOL is inspired by an executable interpretation for standard FOL proposed by Apt and Bezem The relation to the Apt Bezem style execution process and the advantages of taking dynamic (...)
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  14. Jan van Eijck, Demo Light for Composing Models.
    Light version of DEMO for composing epistemic models, based on the code for the ESSLLI 2008 course on Dynamic Epistemic Logic (see http:// homepages.cwi.nl/~jve/courses/esslli08/) extended with vocabulary information [EWS10]. Factual change is also treated. The piece ends with some examples: the muddy children, and hat puzzles, dealing with the interaction of perception and change [Eijar].
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  15. Jan van Eijck, Haskell: Programmeren in Een Luie, Puur Functionele Taal.
    • Een programma puzzle • Puzzelen met steentjes • Functies en functioneel programmeren • Functies maken met lambda abstractie • Eigenschappen van dingen en karakteristieke functies • De ‘filter’ functie • Oneindige lijsten • Priemgetallen herkennen en genereren • Opdrachten..
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  16. Jan van Eijck, HyLoTab — Tableau-Based Theorem Proving for Hybrid Logics.
    This paper contains the full code of a prototype implementation in Haskell [5], in ‘literate programming’ style [6], of the tableau-based calculus and proof procedure for hybrid logic presented in [4].
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  17. Jan van Eijck, Limits and Strengths of Predicate Logic (and its Alloy Implementation).
    • The transitive closure of R is the smallest relation S for which: –R⊆S, – S is transitive. • To express ^r one would need an ‘infinite formula’: {(x, y) | R(x, y) ∨ ∃z(R(x, z) ∧ R(z, y)) ∨∃z, v(R(x, z) ∧ R(z, v) ∧ R(v, y)) ∨∃z, v, w(R(x, z) ∧ R(z, v) ∧ R(v, w) ∧ R(w, y)) ∨ · · ·.
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  18. Jan van Eijck, Literate Programming.
    The frame is made by means of the environment \bc . . . \ec. The program text is rendered verbatim. To turn the file LP.tex into a new file LP.lhs with the same number of lines, where each line containing \bc\begin{verbatim} is turned into a line containing \begin{code}, and each line containing \end{verbatim}\ec is turned into a line containing \end{code}, we use the following script, called lhs.
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  19. Jan van Eijck, Perception and Change in Update Logic.
    Three key ways of updating one’s knowledge are (i) perception of states of affairs, e.g., seeing with one’s own eyes that something is the case, (ii) reception of messages, e.g., being told that something is the case, and (iii) drawing new conclusions from known facts. If one represents knowledge by means of Kripke models, the implicit assumption is that drawing conclusions is immediate. This assumption of logical omniscience is a useful abstraction. It leaves the distinction between (i) and (ii) to (...)
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  20. Jan van Eijck, Powering Decision Machines with Dynamo.
    Dynamic 10gic programming is the result 0f making dynamic versions 0f first order predicate 10gic executable. The main sources of inspiration for this are the dynamic variable binding strategies that have become fashionable in natural language analysis (DRT [8], Anaphora, Logic [2], DPL [7]), the idea of implementing identity assertions as assignment commands familiar from constraint programming, and more in particular from Alma,-0 [1], and the genera.] injunction to explore logical dynamics emanating from the works of J 01121,11 van Benthemw (...)
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  21. Jan van Eijck, Redeneren Over Communicatie.
    Het communicatieve effect van een collectieve email van Wouter Bos aan al zijn contacten is totaal anders dan van hetzelfde bericht gestuurd aan iedere geadresseerde persoonlijk. In de lezing zal worden ingegaan op de vraag hoe je dit soort verschillen kunt modelleren in epistemische logica. Een centrale notie hierbij is ‘common knowledge’ of ‘collectief weten’. Dit begrip zal worden geillustreerd aan de hand van een aantal logische puzzles, en van protocollen uit het dagelijks leven die bedoeld zijn om collectief weten (...)
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  22. Jan van Eijck, Reference Resolution in Context.
    This paper sketches an approach to pronoun reference resolution in context based on a dynamic incremental semantics for NL in polymorphic type theory. Our set-up provides full incrementality of processing, and can handle salience and pronoun resolution in context. An implementation of the system in Haskell, in ‘literate programming’ style, exists. The full literate source code can be found at http://www.cwi.nl/ jve/papers/02/rric.
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  23. Jan van Eijck, Verzamelingen, Lijsten, Functioneel Programmeren.
    • Een voorbeeld van direct inzicht • Puzzelen met steentjes en programma’s • Functies en functioneel programmeren • Functies maken met lambda abstractie • Eigenschappen van dingen en karakteristieke functies • De ‘filter’ functie • Oneindige lijsten • Priemgetallen herkennen en genereren • Opdrachten..
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  24. Jan van Eijck & Albert Visser, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Notice: This PDF version was distributed by request to members of the Friends of the SEP Society and by courtesy to SEP content contributors. It is solely for their fair use. Unauthorized distribution is prohibited. To learn how to join the Friends of the..
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  25. Balder ten Cate & Jan van Eijck, Expressivity of Extensions of Dynamic First-Order Logic.
    Dynamic predicate logic (DPL), presented in [5] as a formalism for representing anaphoric linking in natural language, can be viewed as a fragment of a well known formalism for reasoning about imperative programming [6]. An interesting difference from other forms of dynamic logic is that the distinction between formulas and programs gets dropped: DPL formulas can be viewed as programs. In this paper we show that DPL is in fact the basis of a hierarchy of formulas-as-programs languages.
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  26. Hans van Ditmarsch & Jan van Eijck, One Hundred Prisoners and a Lightbulb — the Logic.
    We model the ‘100 prisoners and a lightbulb’ puzzle in an epistemic logic incorporating dynamic operators for the effects of information changing events. Such events include both informative actions, where agents become more informed about the non-changing state of the world, and factual changes, wherein the world and the facts describing it change themselves as well. We specify the underlying nondeterministic protocol and verify its postconditions in a recent extension of the model checker DEMO with factual change. We also present (...)
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  27. Hans van Ditmarsch & Jan van Eijck, One Hundred Prisoners and a Lightbulb — Logic and Computation.
    This is a case-study in knowledge representation. We analyze the ‘one hundred prisoners and a lightbulb’ puzzle. In this puzzle it is relevant what the agents (prisoners) know, how their knowledge changes due to observations, and how they affect the state of the world by changing facts, i.e., by their actions. These actions depend on the history of previous actions and observations. Part of its interest is that all actions are local, i.e. not publicly observable, and part of the problem (...)
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  28. Hans van Ditmarsch, Jan van Eijck & Yanjing Wang, On the Logic of Lying.
    We look at lying as an act of communication, where (i) the proposition that is communicated is not true, (ii) the utterer of the lie knows that what she communicates is not true, and (iii) the utterer of the lie intends the lie to be taken as truth. Rather than dwell on the moral issues, we provide a sketch of what goes on logically when a lie is communicated. We present a complete logic of manipulative updating, to analyse the effects (...)
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  29. Jan van Eijck, A First Order Axiomatisation of Least Fixpoint on Finite Models.
    Let R be a relational variable of arity m, and let ¯ x be an m-tuple of variables. Let φ be a first order formula that is positive in R, i.e., all occurrences of R in φ are in the scope of an even number of negations. Then λRλ¯.
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  30. Jan van Eijck, An Inference Engine with a Natural Language Interface.
    ‘all A are B’ ; A ⊆ B ‘no A are B’ ; A ⊆ B ‘some A are not B’ ; A ⊆ B ‘some A are B’ ; A ⊆ B (equivalently: A ∩ B = ∅). A knowledge base is a list of triples (Class1, Class2, Boolean) where (A, B, ) expresses that A ⊆ B, and (A, B, ⊥) expresses that A ⊆ B.
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  31. Jan van Eijck, A Program for Computational Semantics.
    Just as war can be viewed as continuation of diplomacy using other means, computational semantics is continuation of logical analysis of natural language by other means. For a long time, the tool of choice for this used to be Prolog. In our recent textbook we argue (and try to demonstrate by example) that lazy functional programming is a more appropriate tool. In the talk we will lay out a program for computational semantics, by linking computational semantics to the general analysis (...)
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  32. Jan van Eijck, About Testing and Specification . . . And About First Order Logic.
    to a number of issues related to testing and specification. Brief review of first order logic. Use of first order logic for specification, in the specification tool Alloy.
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  33. Jan van Eijck, Border Crossings.
    It is well established by now that computer science has a number of concerns in common with natural language understanding. Common themes show up in particular with algorithmic aspects of text processing. This chapter gives an overview of border crossings from NLP to CS and back. Starting out from syntactic analysis, we trace our route via a philosophical puzzle about meaning, Hoare correctness rules for dynamic semantics, error state analysis of presupposition, equational reasoning about state change, programming with frameworks originally (...)
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  34. Jan van Eijck, Constrained Hyper Tableaux.
    Hyper tableau reasoning is a version of clausal form tableau reasoning where all negative literals in a clause are resolved away in a single inference step. Constrained hyper tableaux are a generalization of hyper tableaux, where branch closing substitutions, from the point of view of model generation, give rise to constraints on satisfying assignments for the branch. These variable constraints eliminate the need for the awkward ‘purifying substitutions’ of hyper tableaux. The paper presents a non-destructive and proof confluent calculus for (...)
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  35. Jan van Eijck, Common Knowledge and Common Ground.
    We sketch recent insights in dynamic epistemic logic and use them to shed new light on old ideas about common knowledge as a prerequisite for linguistic communication.
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  36. Jan van Eijck, Common Knowledge in Update Logics.
    Current dynamic epistemic logics often become cumbersome and opaque when common knowledge is added for groups of agents. Still, postconditions regarding common knowledge express the essence of what communication achieves. We present some methods that yield so-called reduction axioms for common knowledge. We investigate the expressive power of public announcement logic with relativized common knowledge, and present reduction axioms that give a detailed account of the dynamics of common knowledge in some major communication types.
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  37. Jan van Eijck, Comments on 'Modal Fixed Point Logic and Changing Models'.
    This is indeed a very nice draft that I have read with great pleasure, and that has helped me to better understand the completeness proof for LCC. Modal fixed point logic allows for an illuminating new version (and a further extension) of that proof. But still. My main comment is that I think the perspective on substitutions in the draft paper is flawed. The general drift of the paper is that relativization, (predicate) substitution and product update are general operations on (...)
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  38. Jan van Eijck, Comparing Process Algebra and Dynamic Epistemic Logic with Focus on Protocol Analysis.
    Eric: “We were wondering if you could give a talk on DEL and Process Algebra (in the sense that both are languages to describe how the model changes).” Jan: “I will give it a try.”.
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  39. Jan van Eijck, Collective Rational Action: Is It Possible?
    Individual rational action consists of (i) knowing what you want, (ii) taking proper steps to approach what you want as closely as possible, within the confines of the law. This one can learn, although some people are more skilled in it than others. Modern democracies are set up in such a way that they leave as much room as possible for individual rational action. Education for citizenship is sometimes taken to be: getting young citizens acquainted with the legal possibilities for (...)
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  40. Jan van Eijck, Computational Semantics, Type Theory, and Functional Programming.
    An emerging standard for polymorphically typed, lazy, purely functional programming is Haskell, a language named after Haskell Curry. Haskell is based on (polymorphically typed) lambda calculus, which makes it an excellent tool for computational semantics.
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  41. Jan van Eijck, Computational Semantics with Functional Programming.
    Almost forty years ago Richard Montague proposed to analyse natural language with the same tools as formal languages. In particular, he gave formal semantic analyses of several interesting fragments of English in terms of typed logic. This led to the development of Montague grammar as a particular style of formal analysis of natural language.
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  42. Jan van Eijck, Dynamic Epistemic Modelling.
    This paper introduces DEMO, a Dynamic Epistemic Modelling tool. DEMO allows modelling epistemic updates, graphical display of update results, graphical display of action models, formula evaluation in epistemic models, translation of dynamic epistemic formulas to PDL formulas, and so on. The paper implements the reduction of dynamic epistemic logic [16, 2, 3, 1] to PDL given in [12]. The reduction of dynamic epistemic logic to automata PDL from [24] is also discussed and implemented. Epistemic models are minimized under bisimulation, and (...)
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  43. Jan van Eijck, Determined Game Logic is Complete.
    Non-determined game logic is the logic of two player board games where the game may end in a draw: unlike the case with determined games, a loss of one player does not necessarily constitute of a win of the other player. A calculus for non-determined game logic is given in [4] and shown to be complete. The calculus adds a new rule for the treatment of greatest fixpoints, and a new unfolding axiom for iterations of the universal player. The technique (...)
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  44. Jan van Eijck, Deductive Parsing in Haskell.
    This paper contains the full code of an implementation in Haskell [2], in ‘literate programming’ style [3], of an approach to deductive parsing based on [4]. We focus on the case of the Earley [1] parsing algorithm for CF languages.
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  45. Jan van Eijck, Deductive Parsing with Sequentially Indexed Grammars.
    This paper extends the Earley parsing algorithm for context free languages [3] to the case of sequentially indexed languages. Sequentially indexed languages are related to indexed languages [1, 2]. The difference is that parallel processing of index stacks is replaced by sequential processing [4].
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  46. Jan van Eijck, Discourse Representation Theory.
    Discourse Representation Theory is a specific name for the work of Hans Kamp in the area of dynamic interpretation of natural language. Also, it has gradually become a generic term for proposals for dynamic interpretation of natural language in the same spirit. These proposals have in common that each new sentence is interpreted in terms of the contribution it makes to an existing piece of interpreted discourse. The interpretation conditions for sentences are given as instructions for updating the representation of (...)
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  47. Jan van Eijck, Defining (Reflexive) Transitive Closure on Finite Models.
    Let R be a binary relation on some domain. Use R∗ for the reflexive transitive closure of R, i.e., the smallest binary relation S with R ⊆ S that is reflexive and transitive. Use R+ for the transitive closure of R, i.e., the smallest binary relation S with R ⊆ S that is transitive. Use I for the identity relation on the domain. Let n range over natural numbers. Define Rn as follows, by induction: R0 := I Rn+1 := R (...)
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  48. Jan van Eijck, Epistemic Verification of Anonymity.
    Model checking techniques for communication protocols usually are phrased in terms of processes, basically labelled arcs in a labelled transition system. We propose to lift checking for such protocols to a more abstract level by analysing the protocols as composite communicative actions, with a communicative action viewed as a mapping on an appropriate class of epistemic models. As an example, we analyse an anonymous broadcast protocol (Chaum’s well-known dining cryptographers protocol) and an electronic voting protocol.
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  49. Jan van Eijck, Formal Concept Analysis and Lexical Semantics.
    To ascertain that a formalization of the intuitive notion of a ‘concept’ is linguistically interesting, one has to check whether it allows to get a grip on distinctions and notions from lexical semantics. Prime candidates are notions like ‘prototype’, ‘stereotypical attribute’, ‘essential attribute versus accidental attribute’, ‘intension versus extension’. We will argue that although the current paradigm of formal concept analysis as an application of lattice theory is not rich enough for an analysis of these notions, a lattice theoretical approach (...)
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  50. Jan van Eijck, Formal Specification with Alloy: Specification of Algorithms.
    Overview • Alloy peculiarity • Alloy utilities • Assignments and pre- and postconditions in Alloy • Alloy for automated logical reasoning • Alloy specifications of algorithms • On your to do list: – Look through the example code in these slides, – make sure you understand what is happening. Note: Alloy Peculiarity..
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