This paper examines the discursive construction of collective identity in several feminist organizations, as a way of shedding new light on the debate over essentializing or totalizing terms in contemporary feminist/postmodernist theory. We argue that while this debate is about language, it has remained largely untouched by the insights of a discursive approach. The latter as we take it up here treats language as irremediably strategic or interested. In contrast, the feminist argument over essentializing terms appears to hold to a (...) correspondence version of language, a position which limits the debate in fatal ways. Part 1 reviews the argument that terms such as women, feminist and feminist identity are essentializing discourses which dominate by silencing difference. Part 2 then considers the way one such concept – feminist identity – is actually constructed and used in the routine talk of members of feminist organizations. In Part 3 we draw out the implications of a discursive approach to such terms for the feminist/postmodernist debate. (shrink)
Abstract In this article we develop a relational understanding of sociality, that is, an account of social life that takes relation as primary. This stands in contrast to the common assumption that relations arise when subjects interact, an account that gives logical priority to separation. We will develop this relational understanding through a reading of the work of Martin Buber, a social philosopher primarily interested in dialogue, meeting, relationship, and the irreducibility and incomparability of reality. In particular, the article contrasts (...) Buber’s work with that of poststructuralist theorists who take as their starting point the deconstruction of the Hegelian logic of binary oppositions. Deconstruction understands difference as the excess that undoes the binary, but Buber, we argue, shows how difference derives from the primacy and ontological undefinability of relation. Relational logic does not exclude the logic of separations and oppositions: relation is the primal ground that makes separations possible. Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-13 DOI 10.1007/s11841-011-0278-9 Authors Andrew Metcalfe, School of Social Sciences and International Studies, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia Ann Game, School of Social Sciences and International Studies, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia Journal Sophia Online ISSN 1873-930X Print ISSN 0038-1527. (shrink)
This paper provides new theoretical insights into the interconnections and relationships between women, management and globalization in the Middle East (ME). The discussion is positioned within broader globalization debates about women’s social status in ME economies. Based on case study evidence and the UN datasets, the article critiques social, cultural and economic reasons for women’s limited advancement in the public sphere. These include the prevalence of the patriarchal work contract within public and private institutions, as well as cultural and ethical (...) values which create strongly defined gender roles. The discussion examines the complexities of conceptualizing women’s equality and empowerment in Islamic states. The paper reveals that there have been significant achievements in advancing women in leadership and political roles, but that there are still institutional and cultural barriers embedded in business systems. Linking feminist, development and management theoretical strands a development framework is proposed which is sensitive to the Islamic Shar’ia encompassing government, organization and individual level strategies. It is suggested that scholars should integrate literatures from gender and management, development and Middle East studies, and in particular that critical scholars of gender and organization should consider the interrelations of the national and transnational in critiques of contemporary global capitalism to understand the complexity of women and social change in the ME. (shrink)
In the 1970s, Robin Giles introduced a game combining Lorenzen-style dialogue rules with a simple scheme for betting on the truth of atomic statements, and showed that the existence of winning strategies for the game corresponds to the validity of formulas in Łukasiewicz logic. In this paper, it is shown that ‘disjunctive strategies’ for Giles’s game, combining ordinary strategies for all instances of the game played on the same formula, may be interpreted as derivations in a corresponding proof system. In (...) particular, such strategies mirror derivations in a hypersequent calculus developed in recent work on the proof theory of Łukasiewicz logic. (shrink)
Only two of the many experiments described by Smith et al., as indicating metacognitive ability in nonhuman animals, involved metacognition as understood in the human literature. Of these, one gave negative results. In the other, one of two rhesus monkeys provided data suggesting that he might have metacognitive ability. The conjecture that any nonhuman animals have metacognitive ability is, therefore, tenuous.
A. Koriat distinguishes between feeling-based and inferentially based feeling-of-knowing judgments. The former are attributable to partial information that is activated in implicit memory but not fully articulated. They are not, however, attributable to direct access to the target-an hypothesis that Koriat specifically repudiates. While there is considerable merit in the distinction that Koriat draws, and his emphasis on the possibility that people base at least some of their metacognitive judgments on implicit information seems well founded, it is argued that his (...) rejection of the direct access view is premature. There may be a state-a true noetic state-in which people actually know the answer before they are able to express it. A case is made for further consideration of the scientific merits of the direct-access view of the noetic feelings people experience in imminent tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) states. (shrink)
It is commonplace to say that the modern economy is knowledge based but a moment’s reflection points to the vacuity of this notion. For all economies are knowledge based and could not be otherwise. The question is rather how is one kind of knowledge based economy to be distinguished from another? This essay proposes that the answer may lie in three directions: (1) in terms of the variety of knowledge that is engaged; (2) in terms of the processes by which (...) the production of knowledge is organised, and its corollary the resources devoted to knowledge production and dissemination; and, (3) in terms of the purposes to which knowledge is put. In respect of each of these dimensions, the rise of the modern university as a custodian of knowledge in Western economy and society has been of central importance; but universities are not alone in this role, a wide range of other agencies, private firms, public research laboratories for instance play an important role in defining a knowledge economy and have done so increasingly since the turn of the nineteenth century—a first indication of the systemic dimensions of a modern knowledge economy. (shrink)
Substructural fuzzy logics are substructural logics that are complete with respect to algebras whose lattice reduct is the real unit interval [0.1]. In this paper, we introduce Uninorm logic UL as Multiplicative additive intuitionistic linear logic MAILL extended with the prelinearity axiom ((A → B) ∧ t) ∨ ((B → A) ∧ t). Axiomatic extensions of UL include known fuzzy logics such as Monoidal t-norm logic MTL and Gödel logic G, and new weakening-free logics. Algebraic semantics for these logics are (...) provided by subvarieties of (representable) pointed bounded commutative residuated lattices. Gentzen systems admitting cut-elimination are given in the framework of hypersequents. Completeness with respect to algebras with lattice reduct [0, 1] is established for UL and several extensions using a two-part strategy. First, completeness is proved for the logic extended with Takeuti and Titani's density rule. A syntactic elimination of the rule is then given using a hypersequent calculus. As an algebraic corollary, it follows that certain varieties of residuated lattices are generated by their members with lattice reduct [0, 1]. (shrink)
A method is described for obtaining conjunctive normal forms for logics using Gentzen-style rules possessing a special kind of strong invertibility. This method is then applied to a number of prominent fuzzy logics using hypersequent rules adapted from calculi defined in the literature. In particular, a normal form with simple McNaughton functions as literals is generated for łukasiewicz logic, and normal forms with simple implicational formulas as literals are obtained for Gödel logic, Product logic, and Cancellative hoop logic.
Structural completeness properties are investigated for a range of popular t-norm based fuzzy logics—including Łukasiewicz Logic, Gödel Logic, Product Logic, and Hájek's Basic Logic—and their fragments. General methods are defined and used to establish these properties or exhibit their failure, solving a number of open problems.
Axiomatizations are presented for fuzzy logics characterized by uninorms continuous on the half-open real unit interval [0,1), generalizing the continuous t-norm based approach of Hájek. Basic uninorm logic BUL is defined and completeness is established with respect to algebras with lattice reduct [0,1] whose monoid operations are uninorms continuous on [0,1). Several extensions of BUL are also introduced. In particular, Cross ratio logic CRL, is shown to be complete with respect to one special uninorm. A Gentzen-style hypersequent calculus is provided (...) for CRL and used to establish co-NP completeness results for these logics. (shrink)
We argue that pedagogic authority relies on love, which is misunderstood if seen as a matter of actions and subjects. Love is based not on finite subjects and objects existing in Euclidean space and linear time, but, rather, on the non-finite ontology, space and time of relations. Loving authority is a matter of calling and vocation, arising from the spontaneous and simultaneous call-and-response of a lively relation. We make this argument through a reading of Buber’s I–You relation and Murdoch’ s (...) account of the responsiveness of ascetic discipline. In presenting this analysis, we draw upon a case study from a research project on Australian teachers and students. (shrink)
BaTiO3 nanoparticles were synthesized from a polymer template of Ba2+ and Ti4+ ions embedded in polymer molecules of polyvinyl alcohol. The polymer burns off upon heating in air at temperature as high as 450°C, resulting in a Pnma orthorhombic crystal structure for pure BaTiO3 (o-BT-II). Distinct peaks appear in the X-ray diffractogram after 2?h of heating the sample at 550°C, with lattice parameters a?=?0.6435?nm, b?=?0.5306?nm, c?=?0.8854?nm, and density ??=?5.124?g cm?3. The usual tetragonal phase with a?=?0.3994?nm, c?=?0.4038?nm, and ??=?6.012?g?cm?3 appears as (...) early as 650°C, with average crystallite size (D) growing as large as 25?nm from a value of 15?nm after 550°C. Two electron paramagnetic resonance signals occur for g???2.00 and 4.30 due to interstitial oxygen , or vacancies , and modified Ti4+???Ti3+ (3d 1) especially in the surfaces of small particles. (shrink)
Product logic Π is an important t-norm based fuzzy logic with conjunction interpreted as multiplication on the real unit interval [0,1], while Cancellative hoop logic CHL is a related logic with connectives interpreted as for Π but on the real unit interval with 0 removed (0,1]. Here we present several analytic proof systems for Π and CHL, including hypersequent calculi, co-NP labelled calculi and sequent calculi.
The growth of BaTiO3 (BT) nanoparticles, via support of a polymer template of PVA molecules, in a new polymorph with Pnma orthorhombic crystal structure (o-BT-II) is proposed. A metal ion?polymer complex forms of small templates with selective degrees of the cationic loading and regeneration of small PVA molecules of reaction in solution. The species is a derived skeleton of Ba2+, Ti4+ and O2? after burning off the polymer in air and grows in a specific lattice structure, which shares a minimal (...) value of the surface (or energy) per unit mass, . The o-BT-II polymorph has a value of as small as 1782.28?m2?g?1, compared with 2004.2?m2?g?1 for the known polymorph (o-BT-I) or 2490.9?m2?g?1 for t-BT (tetragonal). As a high-energy polymorph with crystallite size ≤15?nm, it converts slowly to t-BT via a composite structure at temperatures as low as 650°C in air. (shrink)
The field of metacognition, richly sampled in the book under review, is recognized as an important and growing branch of psychology. However, the field stands in need of a general theory that (1) provides a unified framework for understanding the variety of metacognitive processes, (2) articulates the relation between metacognition and consciousness, and (3) tells us something about the form of meta-level representations and their relations to object-level representations. It is argued that the higher-order thought theory of consciousness supplies us (...) with the rudiments of a theory that meets these desiderata and integrates the principal findings reported in this collection. (shrink)
Tekst jest wyborem fragmentów przypisywanych Janowi Potockiemu. Jean Potocki (1761–1815), mistrz ironii, twardo usadowiony w nieuchwytnym na pozór miejscu pomiędzy oświeceniem a romantyzmem, pozostaje najczęściej plagiatowanym autorem Europy. Zapewne przysłużył się pośmiertnie sprawie praw autorskich, ale i stało się tak, jakby oryginalność i płodność jego myśli była na tyle inna, że nie sposób przedstawić go inaczej jak wymazując jego imię, jeśli po prostu nie niszcząc. Choć historia jego francuskich i amerykańskich plagiatów jest wyczerpująco udokumentowana, nie istnieje jeszcze definitywne wydanie jego (...) arcydzieła: Rękopisu znalezionego w Saragossie, już w 1809 roku przełożonego po części na niemiecki, a w 1847, również w Lipsku, zapewne z udziałem Societas Jablonoviana, w całości na polski (cytaty podług dotychczas najpełniejszego, francuskiego wydania René Radrizzianiego z 1989). W latach pięćdziesiątych XX wieku trud przywrócenia należnego mu miejsca podjęli R. Caillois, L. Kukulski, W. Has, Emanuel Rostworowski i Maria-Ewelina Żółtowska-Weintraub, której wciąż nieopublikowany doktorat (Yale, 1973) stanowi najpełniejszą biografię hrabiego Jana, powiązaną z karierą bohatera Rękopisu. Skromny ów oficer gwardii walońskiej: Alfons van Worden (nie tylko z habsburskiej Walonii, żeby nie powiedzieć: „Galonii”, ale i ze „Słów”), po wielu straszliwych próbach, które w gruncie rzeczy niczym innym dla niego nie były jak straszliwymi, teatralnie zaaranżowanymi opowieściami, awansował na gubernatora Saragossy, gdzie wiódł spokojny żywot troszcząc się o córeczkę swą Fatimę. […]. (shrink)
Cognitio abstractiva secundum Scotum: elementa doctrinaeSecundum Duns Scoti sententiam cognitio abstractiva est, quae ab actuali existentia obiecti non dependet, et ideo speciebus impressis niti debet. Scotus nonnulla argumenta pro necessitate speciei intelligibilis ad cognitionem abstractivam universalem perficiendam praebet. Reiectis sententiis eorum, qui causam cognitionis aut obiectumsolum, aut intellectum esse putabant, Scotus causam totalem cognitionis ex obiecto cognito et intellectu ut ex causis partialibus essentialiter ordinatis componi concludit: species intelligibilis et a phantasmate, et ab intellectu agente causatur. Hoc modo ovus repraesentationis (...) ordo oritur, in quo natura communis in modo universalitatis repraesentetur. Processus cognoscendi a Scoto ut successio dynamica actionum et passionum describitur. Ex dictis patet, Scoti de cognitione doctrinam a traditione Aristotelica discedere et germina epistemologiae modernae continere elucet.Abstractive cognition according to Duns Scotus: the Basic ApproachAccording to Scotus, abstractive cognition is independent of the actual existence of its object, and must therefore rely on the intentional species. Scotus presents several arguments in favour of the necessity of the species intelligibilis for abstractive universal cognition. After discussing opinions that ascribed exclusive causality in the process of cognition either to the intellect or to the object, Scotus arrives at the conclusion that both the object and the intellect act as essentially ordered partial causes of cognition: the intelligible species is caused both by the phantasm and the active intellect. Thus results a new order of representation, in which the common nature is represented as universal. The process of cognition is described by Scotus as a dynamic succession of active and passive phases. On the basis of these and other characteristic features, Scotus’s epistemology can be described as departing from the Aristotelian tradition, and as the locus of the first appearance of the motives of modern epistemology. (shrink)
Intellectiva intuitio secundum Scotum: elementa doctrinaeProblema cognitionis individui qua talis, scil. quoad eius individualitatem („principii individuationis“) ad multas disceptationes ansam praebuit. In lumine revelationis Christianae quidem quaestio haec immo vehementius urget, nam fides Christiana primo singularia et individualia (et ideo contingentia) ante oculos ponit, universalia vero mere secundarie respicit. Ioannes Duns Scotus quaestionem hanc theologico-philosophicam tractans cognitionem intuitivam intellectivam totius rei individualis defendit, tria genera talis cognitionis distinguendo: primo cognitionem intuitivam intellectivam perfectam, quae non est possibilis nisi „in patria“, secundo (...) cognitionem intuitivam intellectivam directam sed imperfectam (scil. ad principium individuationis cognoscendum non penetrantem) quaeveritates contingentes actusque animae respicit, tertio cognitionem intuitivam intellectivam imperfectam et indirectam – actus commemorandi cognitiones intuitivas praeteritas. Ex his tribus intuitivae cognitionis modis, quomodo Scotus Aristotelis de cognitione doctrinam mutaverit, elucet.Intellective Intuition according to Scotus: the Basic ApproachThe problem of the intuition of the individual as such, i. e. of its individuality (the „principle of individuation“) gave rise to many controversies. The problem becomes especially urgent in the light of the Christian revelation, since Christianity in the first place relates to the singular and individual (and therefore contingent), whereas the universal assumes only a secondary rôle. John Duns Scotus deals with this theologico-philosophical problem and sets out to defend intellective intuition of the individual as a whole. He distinguishes three kinds within this type of cognition: perfect intuitive intellective cognition which is possible only in patria, direct but imperfect (i. e. not penetrating the principle of individuation) intuitiveintellective cognition which relates to contingent truths and spiritual acts, and, finally, imperfect and indirect intuitive intellective cognition, i. e. acts of recalling the past intuitive cognitions. In these three examples the fundamental Scotus’s arguments are exhibited and the extent to which Scotus transgresses the limits of Aristotelian epistemology is made clear. (shrink)