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Profile: Jay Garfield (Smith College)
  1. Nalini Bhushan & Jay L. Garfield, Can Indian Philosophy Be Written in English? A Conversation with Daya Krishna.
    The period of British colonial rule in India is typically regarded as philosophically sterile. Indian philosophy written in English during the British colonial period is often ignored in histories of Indian philosophy, or, when considered explicitly, dismissed either as uncreative or as inauthentic. The late Daya Krishna thought hard about this at the end of his life, and we have been thinking about this in conversation with him. We show that this dismissal is unjustified and that this is a fertile (...)
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  2. Jay Garfield, Can Indian Philosophy Be Written in English? A Conversation with Daya Krishna.
    The period of British colonial rule in India is typically regarded as philosophically sterile. Indian philosophy written in English during the British colonial period is often ignored in histories of Indian philosophy, or, when considered explicitly, dismissed either as uncreative or as inauthentic. The late Daya Krishna thought hard about this at the end of his life, and we have been thinking about this in conversation with him. We show that this dismissal is unjustified and that this is a fertile (...)
     
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  3. Jay Garfield, What is It Like to Be a Bodhisattva? Moral Phenomenology in Íåntideva's Bodhicaryåvatåra.
    Bodhicaryåvatåra was composed by the Buddhist monk scholar Íåntideva at Nalandå University in India sometime during the 8th Century CE. It stands as one the great classics of world philosophy and of Buddhist literature, and is enormously influential in Tibet, where it is regarded as the principal source for the ethical thought of Mahåyåna Buddhism. The title is variously translated, most often as A Guide to the Bodhisattva’s Way of Life or Engaging in the Bodhisattva Deeds, translations that follow the (...)
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  4. Jay L. Garfield, Ask Not What Buddhism Can Do.
    Enthusiasts for the scientific character of Buddhism wax eloquent regarding the insights that the Buddhist tradition can deliver to cognitive science, and the contributions that meditative technique can make to understanding cognitive and affective processes. To be sure, there are contributions in this direction, though their significance may be overestimated. Less attention is paid to the value of cognitive theory for developing Buddhist insights in the 21 st Century, and the role of science in the dissemination of Buddhism in the (...)
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  5. Jay L. Garfield, Buddhism and Modernity.
    Those of us who are involved as teachers, scholars or practitioners with Buddhism in the West are— whether we wish to be or not—involved in a complex process of interaction between two cultures. Just as in the West Socrates urged that the most important task set for us in life is to know ourselves in the Buddhist tradition we are admonished to know the nature of our own minds as the key to awakening. In every Buddhist tradition, to know the (...)
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  6. Jay L. Garfield, Intention (Doing Away with Mental Representation).
    Mental representation is a metaphor. It has perhaps become so entrenched that it appears to have been frozen, and it is easy to lose sight of its metaphorical character. Literally, a representation is a re-presentation, a symbol that stands for something else because that thing can’t be with us. I send my parents photos of the grandchildren because e-mail is cheaper than air tickets. I consult a map of Adelaide to find the shortest route to the philosophy department because wandering (...)
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  7. Cynthia Townley & Jay L. Garfield, Public Trust.
    We often think of trust as an interpersonal relation, and of the distinction between trust and reliance as a distinction between kinds of interpersonal relations. Indeed this is often the case. I may trust one colleague but not find her reliable; rely on another but find him untrustworthy; both trust and rely on my best friend; neither trust nor rely on my dean. One of us has discussed the nature of such relations and distinctions at length. But trust is not (...)
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  8. Jay Garfield, Buddhist Ethics.
    There are two temptations to be resisted when approaching Buddhist moral theory. The first is to assimilate Buddhist ethics to some system of Western ethics, usually either some form of Utilitarianism or some form of virtue ethics. The second is to portray Buddhist ethical thought as constituting some grand system resembling those that populate Western metaethics. The first temptation, of course, can be avoided simply by avoiding the second. In Buddhist philosophical and religious literature we find many texts that address (...)
     
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  9. Jay Garfield, Buddhist Studies, Buddhist Practice and the Trope of Authenticity.
    In conversation, in the lecture hall, in the Dharma centre and in the public teaching, Buddhists and students of Buddhism worry about authenticity. Is the doctrine defended in a particular text or is a particular textual interpretation authentic? Is a particular teacher authentic? Is a particular practice authentic? Is a phenomenon under examination in a scholarly research project authentically Buddhist? If the doctrine, teacher, practice or phenomenon is not authentically Buddhist, we worry that it is a fraud, that our scholarship, (...)
     
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  10. Jay Garfield, Let's Pretend: How Pretence Scaffolds the Acquisition of Theory of Mind.
    De Villiers and de Villiers (2000) propose that the acquisition of the syntactic device of sentential complementation is a necessary condition for the acquisition of theory of mind (ToM). It might be argued that ToM mastery is simply a consequence of grammatical development. On the other hand, there is also good evidence (Garfield, Peterson & Perry 2001) that social learning is involved in ToM acquisition. We investigate the connection between linguistic and social-cognitive development, arguing that pretence is crucially involved in (...)
     
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  11. Jay Garfield, Reductionism and Fictionalism Comments on Siderits' Personal Identity and Buddhist Philosophy.
    As a critic, I am in the unenviable position of agreeing with nearly all of what Mark does in this lucid, erudite and creative book. My comments will hence not be aimed at showing what he got wrong, as much as an attempt from a Madhyamaka point of view to suggest another way of seeing things, in particular another way of seeing how one might think of how Madhyamaka philosophers, such as Någårjuna and Candrak¥rti, see conventional truth, our engagement with (...)
     
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  12. Jay Garfield, Translation as Transmission and Transformation.
    This is not a general essay on the craft and institution of translation, though some of the claims and arguments I proffer here might generalize. I am concerned in particular with the activity of the translation of Asian Buddhist texts into English in the context of the current extensive transmission of Buddhism to the West, in the context of the absorption of cultural influences of the West by Asian Buddhist cultures, and in the context of the increased interaction between Buddhist (...)
     
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  13. Jay L. Garfield, Hey, Buddha! Don't Think! Just Act! Reply to Finnigan.
    Finnigan (200x), in the course of a careful and astute discussion of the difficulties facing a Buddhist account of the moral agency of a buddha, develops a challenging critique of a proposal I made in Garfield (2006). Much of what she says is dead on target, and I have learned much from her paper. But I have serious reservations about the central thrust both of her critique of my own thought and about her proposal for a positive account of (...)
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  14. Jay L. Garfield (2014). Just Another Word for Nothing Left to Lose. In Matthew R. Dasti & Edwin F. Bryant (eds.), Free Will, Agency, and Selfhood in Indian Philosophy. Oxford University Press. 164.
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  15. Yasuo Deguchi, Jay L. Garfield & Graham Priest (2013). A Mountain by Any Other Name: A Response to Koji Tanaka. Philosophy East and West 63 (3):335-343.
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  16. Yasuo Deguchi, Jay L. Garfield & Graham Priest (2013). Does a Table Have Buddha-Nature?: A Moment of Yes and No. Answer! But Not in Words or Signs! A Response to Mark Siderits. Philosophy East and West 63 (3):387-398.
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  17. Yasuo Deguchi, Jay L. Garfield & Graham Priest (2013). How We Think Mādhyamikas Think: A Response To Tom Tillemans. Philosophy East and West 63 (3):426-435.
    In his article in this issue, " 'How do Mādhyamikas Think?' Revisited," Tom Tillemans reflects on his earlier article "How do Mādhyamikas Think?" (2009), itself a response to earlier work of ours (Deguchi et al. 2008; Garfield and Priest 2003). There is much we agree with in these non-dogmatic and open-minded essays. Still, we have some disagreements. We begin with a response to Tillemans' first thoughts, and then turn to his second thoughts.Tillemans (2009) maintains that it is wrong to attribute (...)
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  18. Yasuo Deguchi, Jay L. Garfield & Graham Priest (2013). The Contradictions Are True—And It's Not Out of This World! A Response to Takashi Yagisawa. Philosophy East and West 63 (3):370-372.
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  19. Yasuo Deguchi, Jay L. Garfield & Graham Priest (2013). Those Concepts Proliferate Everywhere: A Response to Constance Kassor. Philosophy East and West 63 (3):411-416.
    In this issue, Constance Kassor describes Gorampa's attitude to contradictions as they occur in various contexts of Buddhist pursuit. We agree with much of what she says; with some things we do not.First, some preliminary comments, and a fundamental disagreement. Kassor says:Based on . . . [the assumption that Nāgārjuna has a coherent system of thought] one must resolve apparent contradictions in Nāgārjuna's texts in order to maintain the coherency of his logic. The problem with contradictions is that if they (...)
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  20. Yasuo Deguchi, Jay L. Garfield & Graham Priest (2013). Two Plus One Equals One: A Response to Brook Ziporyn. Philosophy East and West 63 (3):353-358.
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  21. Jay L. Garfield (2013). Erratum To: Max Charlesworth's Sophia: The First Half-Century and the Next. [REVIEW] Sophia 52 (1):217-217.
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  22. Jay L. Garfield (2013). The Self: Naturalism, Consciousness and the First-Person Stance. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 92 (1):1-4.
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  23. Jay Garfield & Arindam Chakrabarti (2013). Remembering Daya Krishna and G. C. Pande: Two Giants of Post-Independence Indian Philosophy. Philosophy East and West 63 (4):458-464.
    Daya Krishna(Photo courtesy of Jay Garfield)Govind Chandra Pande(Photo courtesy of his daughter amita sharma)Daya Krishna was the public face of Indian philosophy in the first half-century after Indian independence. Nobody on the Indian scene in that period came close to him in influence or in contribution to the profession. Nobody else in the world thought as hard or as fruitfully about the relation of Indian philosophy to that of the rest of the world, and nobody else dared to think as (...)
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  24. Mark Siderits & Jay L. Garfield (2013). Defending the Semantic Interpretation: A Reply to Ferraro. [REVIEW] Journal of Indian Philosophy 41 (6):655-664.
    In a recent article in this journal, Giuseppe Ferraro mounted a sustained attack on the semantic interpretation of the Madhyamaka doctrine of emptiness, an interpretation that has been championed by the authors. The present paper is their reply to that attack.
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  25. Jay L. Garfield (2012). Max Charlesworth's Sophia: The First Half-Century and the Next. [REVIEW] Sophia 51 (4):419-421.
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  26. Jay L. Garfield (2012). Sellarsian Synopsis: Integrating the Images. Humana.Mente - Journal of Philosophical Studies 21.
    Most discussion of Sellars’ deployment of the distinct images of “man-in-the-world” in "Philosophy and the Scientific Image of Man" focus entirely on the manifest and the scientific images. But the original image is important as well. In this essay I explore the importance of the original image to the Sellarsian project of naturalizing epistemology, connecting Sellars’ insights regarding this image to recent work in cognitive development.
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  27. Nalini Bhushan & Jay L. Garfield (eds.) (2011). Indian Philosophy in English: From Renaissance to Independence. OUP USA.
    This book publishes, for the first time in decades, and in many cases, for the first time in a readily accessible edition, English language philosophical literature written in India during the period of British rule. Bhushan's and Garfield's own essays on the work of this period contextualize the philosophical essays collected and connect them to broader intellectual, artistic and political movements in India. This volume yields a new understanding of cosmopolitan consciousness in a colonial context, of the intellectual agency of (...)
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  28. Georges Dreyfus, Bronwyn Finnigan, Jay Garfield, Guy Newland, Graham Priest, Mark Siderits, Koji Tanaka, Sonam Thakchoe, Tom Tillemans & Jan Westerhoff (eds.) (2011). Moonshadows. Conventional Truth in Buddhist Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
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  29. Georges Dreyfus & Jay L. Garfield (2011). Madhyamaka and Classical Greek Skepticism. In Georges Dreyfus, Bronwyn Finnigan, Jay Garfield, Guy Newland, Graham Priest, Mark Siderits, Koji Tanaka, Sonam Thakchoe, Tom Tillemans & Jan Westerhoff (eds.), Moonshadows. Conventional Truth in Buddhist Philosophy. Oxford University Press. 115--130.
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  30. Jay L. Garfield (2011). Hey, Buddha! Don't Think! Just Act!—A Response to Bronwyn Finnigan. Philosophy East and West 61 (1):174-183.
    In the course of a careful and astute discussion of the difficulties facing a Buddhist account of the moral agency of a buddha, Bronwyn Finnigan develops a challenging critique of a proposal I made in a recent article (Garfield 2006). Much of what she says is dead on target, and I have learned much from her comment. But I have serious reservations about both the central thrust of her critique of my own thought and her proposal for a positive account (...)
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  31. Jay L. Garfield (2011). Nub Phyogs Paʼi Sems Gtsoʼi Grub Mthaʼ Daṅ der Rgol Ba Rnams Kyi Lugs =. Central University of Tibetan Studies.
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  32. Jay L. Garfield (2011). The Meaning of Life. Teaching Co..
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  33. Jay L. Garfield & William Edelglass (eds.) (2011). The Oxford Handbook of World Philosophy. OUP USA.
    The Oxford Handbook of World Philosophy provides the advanced student or scholar a set of introductions to each of the world's major non-European philosophical traditions. It offers the non-specialist a way in to unfamiliar philosophical texts and methods and the opportunity to explore non-European philosophical terrain and to connect her work in one tradition to philosophical ideas or texts from another. Sections on Chinese Philosophy, Indian Philosophy, Buddhist Philosophy, East Asian Philosophy, African Philosophy, and Recent Trends in Global Philosophy are (...)
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  34. Jay L. Garfield & Jan Westerhoff (2011). Acquiring the Notion of a Dependent Designation: A Response to Douglas L. Berger. Philosophy East and West 61 (2):365-367.
    In a recent issue of Philosophy East and West Douglas Berger defends a new reading of Mūlamadhyamakakārikā XXIV : 18, arguing that most contemporary translators mistranslate the important term prajñaptir upādāya, misreading it as a compound indicating "dependent designation" or something of the sort, instead of taking it simply to mean "this notion, once acquired." He attributes this alleged error, pervasive in modern scholarship, to Candrakīrti, who, Berger correctly notes, argues for the interpretation he rejects.Berger's analysis, and the reading of (...)
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  35. Jan Westerhoff, Jay Garfield, Tom Tillemans, Graham Priest, Georges Dreyfus, Sonam Thakchoe, Guy Newland, Mark Siderits, Brownwyn Finnigan & Koji Tanaka (2011). Moonshadows. Conventional Truth in Buddhist Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    The doctrine of the two truths - a conventional truth and an ultimate truth - is central to Buddhist metaphysics and epistemology. The two truths (or two realities), the distinction between them, and the relation between them is understood variously in different Buddhist schools; it is of special importance to the Madhyamaka school. One theory is articulated with particular force by Nagarjuna (2nd ct CE) who famously claims that the two truths are identical to one another and yet distinct. One (...)
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  36. Jay Garfield (2010). Taking Conventional Truth Seriously: Authority Regarding Deceptive Reality. Philosophy East and West 60 (3):341 - 354.
    Mädhyamika philosophers in India and Tibet distinguish between two truths: the conventional and the ultimate. It is difficult, however, to say in what sense conventional truth is indeed a truth, as opposed to falsehood. Indeed, many passages in prominent texts suggest that it is entirely false. It is explained here in the sense in which, for Candrakïrti and Tsong khapa, conventional truth is truth.
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  37. Jay Garfield & William Edelglass (eds.) (2010). . Oxford University Press.
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  38. Mario D'Amato, Jay L. Garfield & Tom J. F. Tillemans (eds.) (2009). Pointing at the Moon: Buddhism, Logic, Analytic Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
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  39. Jill de Villiers & Jay Garfield (2009). Evidentiality and Narrative. Journal of Consciousness Studies 16 (6-8):6-8.
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  40. William Edelglass & Jay L. Garfield (eds.) (2009). Buddhist Philosophy: Essential Readings. Oxford University Press.
    This volume is an ideal single text for an intermediate or advanced course in Buddhist philosophy, and makes this tradition immediately accessible to the ...
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  41. Jay Garfield (2009). Mmountains Are Just Mountains. In Mario D'Amato, Jay L. Garfield & Tom J. F. Tillemans (eds.), Pointing at the Moon: Buddhism, Logic, Analytic Philosophy. Oxford University Press. 71--82.
    four ancestry, is that there are . A proposition may be true (and true only), false (and false only), both true and false, neither true nor false , ,.
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  42. Jay L. Garfield (2009). Nagarjuna's Mulamadhyamakakarika (Fundamental Verses of the Middle Way): Chapter 24: Examination of the Four Noble Truths. In Jay Garfield & William Edelgass (eds.), Buddhist Philosophy: Essential Readings. Oup Usa. 26--34.
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  43. Jay L. Garfield, Tom J. F. Tillemans & Mario D'Amato, eds (2009). Pointing at the Moon: Buddhism, Logic, Analytic Philosophy. OUP USA.
    This volume collects essays by philosophers and scholars working at the interface of Western philosophy and Buddhist Studies. Many have distinguished scholarly records in Western philosophy, with expertise in analytic philosophy and logic, as well as deep interest in Buddhist philosophy. Others have distinguished scholarly records in Buddhist Studies with strong interests in analytic philosophy and logic. All are committed to the enterprise of cross-cultural philosophy and to bringing the insights and techniques of each tradition to bear in order to (...)
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  44. Jay Garfield & William Edelgass (eds.) (2009). Buddhist Philosophy: Essential Readings. OUP USA.
    The Buddhist philosophical tradition is vast, internally diverse, and comprises texts written in a variety of canonical languages. It is hence often difficult for those with training in Western philosophy who wish to approach this tradition for the first time to know where to start, and difficult for those who wish to introduce and teach courses in Buddhist philosophy to find suitable textbooks that adequately represent the diversity of the tradition, expose students to important primary texts in reliable translations, that (...)
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  45. Yasuo Deguchi, Jay L. Garfield & Graham Priest (2008). Comment and Discussion. Philosophy East and West 58 (3):395-402.
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  46. Yasuo Deguchi, Jay L. Garfield & Graham Priest (2008). The Way of the Dialetheist: Contradictions in Buddhism. Philosophy East and West 58 (3):395 - 402.
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  47. Jay L. Garfield (2008). Turning a Madhyamaka Trick: Reply to Huntington. [REVIEW] Journal of Indian Philosophy 36 (4):507-527.
    Huntington (2007); argues that recent commentators (Robinson, 1957; Hayes, 1994; Tillemans, 1999; Garfield and Priest, 2002) err in attributing to Nāgārjuna and Candrakīrti a commitment to rationality and to the use of argument, and that these commentators do violence to the Madhyamaka project by using rational reconstruction in their interpretation of Nāgārjuna’s and Candrakīrti’s texts. Huntington argues instead that mādhyamikas reject reasoning, distrust logic and do not offer arguments. He also argues that interpreters ought to recuse themselves from argument (...)
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  48. Jay Garfield & Graham Priest (2008). The Way of the Dialetheist: Contradictions in Buddhism. Philosophy East and West 58 (3):395 - 402.
    Anyone who is accustomed to the view that contradictions cannot be true, and cannot be accepted, and who reads texts in the Buddhists traditions will be struck by the fact that they frequently contain contradictions. Just consider, for example.
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  49. Jay L. Garfield (2007). Educating for Virtuoso Living: Papers From the Ninth East-West Philosophers' Conference. Philosophy East and West 57 (3):285-289.
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  50. Jay L. Garfield (2006). The Conventional Status of Reflexive Awareness: What's at Stake in a Tibetan Debate? Philosophy East and West 56 (2):201-228.
    ‘Ju Mipham Rinpoche, (1846-1912) an important figure in the _Ris med_, or non- sectarian movement influential in Tibet in the late 19th and early 20th Centuries, was an unusual scholar in that he was a prominent _Nying ma_ scholar and _rDzog_ _chen_ practitioner with a solid dGe lugs education. He took dGe lugs scholars like Tsong khapa and his followers seriously, appreciated their arguments and positions, but also sometimes took issue with them directly. In his commentary to Candrak¥rti’s _Madhyamakåvatåra, _Mi (...)
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