39 found
Sort by:
See also:
Profile: Jay Odenbaugh (Lewis & Clark College)
  1. Jay Odenbaugh, A Philosophy for Biodiversity?
    Sahotra Sarkar’s Biodiversity and Environmental Philosophy is a welcome addition to the fields of environmental philosophy and the philosophy of science. First, his book has a rigorous and careful discussion of why we should preserve biodiversity. This is all the more important since much of environmental ethics has rested on normative claims which are unclear in meaning, appear unjustified at best and unjustifiable at worst, and are politically ineffective. Second, Sarkar is at home in the science of conservation biology and (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. Jay Odenbaugh, Why Ecosystems Need Not Be Social Constructed (Though Their Health May Be).
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. Jay Odenbaugh, Matt Haber, Andrew Hamilton & and Samir Okasha, Philosophy of Biology.
    Philosophy of the Special Sciences, edited by Fritz Allhof, Blackwell Press.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. Mark Colyvan, William Grey, Paul E. Griffiths, Jay Odenbaugh & Stefan Linquist, Philosophical Issues in Ecology: Recent Trends and Future Directions.
    A good philosophical understanding of ecology is important for a number of reasons. First, ecology is an important and fascinating branch of biology, with distinctive philosophical issues. Second, ecology is only one small step away from urgent political, ethical, and management decisions about how best to live in an apparently fragile and increasingly-degraded environment. Third, philosophy of ecology, properly conceived, can contribute directly to both our understanding of ecology and help with its advancement. Philosophy of ecology can thus be seen (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. Mark Colyvan, William Grey, Jay Odenbaugh & Stefan Linquist, A Field Guide to the Philosophy of Ecology.
    Philosophical interest in ecology is relatively new. Standard texts in the philosophy of biology pay little or no attention to ecology (though Sterelny and Griffiths 1999 is an exception). This is in part because the science of ecology itself is relatively new, but whatever the reasons for the neglect in the past, the situation must change. A good philosophical understanding of ecology is important for a number of reasons. First, ecology is an important and fascinating branch of biology with distinctive (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. Kevin de Laplante & Jay Odenbaugh, What Isn't Wrong with Ecosystem Ecology.
    Philosophers of the life sciences have devoted considerably more attention to evolutionary theory and genetics than to the various sub-disciplines of ecology, but recent work in the philosophy of ecology suggests reflects a growing interest in this area (Cooper 2003; Ginzburg and Colyvan 2004). However, philosophers of biology and ecology have focused almost entirely on conceptual and methodological issues in population and community ecology; conspicuously absent are foundational investigations in ecosystem ecology. This situation is regrettable. Ecosystem concepts play a central (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  7. Jay Odenbaugh, Models.
    I. Introduction. Philosophical discussions of models and modeling in the biological sciences have exploded in the last few decades. Given that there are three-dimensional models of DNA in molecular genetics, individual-based computer simulations in population ecology, statistical models in paleontology, diffusion models in population genetics, and remnant models in taxonomy, we clearly should have a philosophical account of such models and their relation to the world. In this essay, I provide a critical survey of the accounts of models provided by (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. Jay Odenbaugh, Models in Biology.
    In recent years, there has much attention given by philosophers to the ubiquitous role of models and modeling in the biological sciences. Philosophical debates has focused on several areas of discussion. First, what are models in the biological sciences? The term ‘model’ is applied to mathematical structures, graphical displays, computer simulations, and even concrete organisms. Is there an account which unifies these disparate structures? Second, scientists routinely distinguish between theories and models; however, this distinction is more difficult to draw in (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. Jay Odenbaugh, Seeing the Forest and the Trees: On the Very Idea of an Ecological Community.
    I. Introduction. Throughout the history of ecology, there have been many different views held about the nature of ecological communities. Some ecologists have argued that they exist mind-independently with discrete boundaries and others have contended that they are merely ephemeral collections of species with minimal interactions. In this essay, first I provide an analysis of the concept of ecological community; or better yet, community concepts. Second, I consider the most serious challenge to the reality of ecological communities; what is called (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. Jay Odenbaugh, The “Structure” of Population Ecology: Philosophical Reflections on Unstructured and Structured Models.
    In 1974, John Maynard Smith wrote in his little book Models in Ecology, A theory of ecology must make statements about ecosystems as a whole, as well as about particular species at particular times, and it must make statements that are true for many species and not just for one… For the discovery of general ideas in ecology, therefore, different kinds of mathematical description, which may be called models, are called for. Whereas a good simulation should include as much detail (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. Jay Odenbaugh, What Isn't Wrong with Ecosystem Ecology.
    Philosophers of the life sciences have devoted considerably more attention to evolutionary theory and genetics than to the various sub-disciplines of ecology, but recent work in the philosophy of ecology suggests reflects a growing interest in this area (Cooper 2003; Ginzburg and Colyvan 2004). However, philosophers of biology and ecology have focused almost entirely on conceptual and methodological issues in population and community ecology; conspicuously absent are foundational investigations in ecosystem ecology. This situation is regrettable. Ecosystem concepts play a central (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. Jay Odenbaugh, Mark Colyvan, Stefan Linquist, William Grey, Paul E. Griffiths & and Hugh P. Possingham, A Field Guide to the Philosophy of Ecology.
    Mark Colyvan (University of Sydney)∗ Stefan Linquist (University of Queensland) William Grey (University of Queensland) Paul E. Griffiths (University of Sydney) Jay Odenbaugh (Lewis and Clark College).
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. Jay Odenbaugh (forthcoming). Pessimism About Ecosystem Ecology: A Reply to Sagoff. Inquiry.
    No categories
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. Jay Odenbaugh (forthcoming). Semblance or Similarity? Reflections on Simulation and Similarity. Biology and Philosophy:1-15.
    In this essay, I critically evaluate components of Michael Weisberg’s approach to models and modeling in his book Simulation and Similarity. First, I criticize his account of the ontology of models and mathematics. Second, I respond to his objections to fictionalism regarding models arguing that they fail. Third, I sketch a deflationary approach to models that retains many elements of his account but avoids the inflationary commitments.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. Jay Odenbaugh (2014). Environmental Philosophy 2.0: Ethics and Conservation Biology for the 21st Century. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 45:92-96.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16. Jay Odenbaugh (2014). Sahotra Sarkar , Environmental Philosophy: From Theory to Practice . Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell (2012), Xii+226 Pp., $96.95 (Cloth). [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 81 (2):292-296.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  17. Jay Odenbaugh (2012). Refounding Environmental Ethics: Pragmatism, Principle, and Practice. BioScience 62 (8):769-770.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. Jay Odenbaugh (2012). Reconstruction in Environmental Philosophy. BioScience 62 (8):769-770.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. Jay Odenbaugh (2011). A General, Unifying Theory of Ecology? In Samuel M. Scheiner & Michael R. Willig (eds.), The Theory of Ecology. The University of Chicago Press.
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20. Jay Odenbaugh (2011). Philosophical Themes in the Work of Robert H. Macarthur. In Kevin deLaplante, Bryson Brown & Kent A. Peacock (eds.), Philosophy of Ecology. North-Holland. 11--109.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  21. Jay Odenbaugh (2011). This American Life. Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):27-29.
  22. Jay Odenbaugh (2011). True Lies: Realism, Robustness, and Models. Philosophy of Science 78 (5):1177-1188.
  23. Jay Odenbaugh & Anna Alexandrova (2011). Buyer Beware: Robustness Analyses in Economics and Biology. Biology and Philosophy 26 (5):757-771.
    Theoretical biology and economics are remarkably similar in their reliance on mathematical models, which attempt to represent real world systems using many idealized assumptions. They are also similar in placing a great emphasis on derivational robustness of modeling results. Recently philosophers of biology and economics have argued that robustness analysis can be a method for confirmation of claims about causal mechanisms, despite the significant reliance of these models on patently false assumptions. We argue that the power of robustness analysis has (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  24. Jay Odenbaugh (2010). Philosophy of the Environmental Sciences. In P. D. Magnus & Jacob Busch (eds.), New Waves in Philosophy of Science. Palgrave Macmillan.
    In this essay, I consider three philosophical issues that arise in the environmental sciences. First, these sciences depend on mathematical models and simulations which are highly idealized and are coupled with very uncertain data. Why should we trust these models and simulations? Second, in standard hypothesis testing, the burden of proof is in favor of the null hypothesis which claims some causal factor has no effect. The alternative hypothesis is accepted only when the likelihood of the null hypothesis is very (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  25. Jay Odenbaugh (2010). Subsistence Versus Sustainable Emissions? Equity and Climate Change. Environmental Philosophy 7 (1):1-15.
    In this essay, I first consider what the implications of global climate change will be regarding issues of equity. Secondly, I consider two types of proposals which focus on sustainable emissions and subsistence rights respectively. Thirdly, I consider where these proposal types conflict. Lastly, I argue under plausible assumptions, these two proposals actually imply similar policies regarding global climate change.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26. Jay Odenbaugh (2009). Sahotra Sarkar, Biodiversity and Environmental Philosophy: An Introduction. Biology and Philosophy 24 (4):541-550.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  27. Jay Odenbaugh (2008). Ecology and the Inescapability of Values. Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (4):593-596.
  28. Cristina Bicchieri, Jason McKenzie Alexander, Kevin T. Kelly, Kevin Js Zollman, Malcolm R. Forster, Predrag Šustar, Patrick Forber, Kenneth Reisman, Jay Odenbaugh & Yoichi Ishida (2007). 10. Philosophy of Chemistry. Philosophy of Science 74 (5).
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  29. Jay Odenbaugh (2007). Seeing the Forest and the Trees: Realism About Communities and Ecosystems. Philosophy of Science 74 (5):628-641.
    In this essay I first provide an analysis of various community concepts. Second, I evaluate two of the most serious challenges to the existence of communities—gradient and paleoecological analysis respectively—arguing that, properly understood, neither threatens the existence of communities construed interactively. Finally, I apply the same interactive approach to ecosystem ecology, arguing that ecosystems may exist robustly as well. ‡I would like to thank to the participants at the Ecology and Environmental Ethics Conference at the University of Utah, the Philosophy (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  30. Jay Odenbaugh (2006). Message in the Bottle: The Constraints of Experimentation on Model Building. Philosophy of Science 73 (5):720-729.
    (Total word count 2,647) I. Introduction. Given the work of Robert MacArthur and his followers, some skeptical ecologists charge that theoretical modeling building has gone evidentially unconstrained. That is, models are often constructed which resist empirical testing. In this essay, I argue that “bottle experiments” do provide model building with important evidential constraints using an example of chaos producing models that have been tested against the dynamics of flour beetle populations. Critics reply however that this and other bottle experiments are (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  31. Jay Odenbaugh (2006). Struggling with the Science of Ecology. Biology and Philosophy 21 (3):395-409.
    Greg Cooper’s The Science of the Struggle for Existence is a must read for those interested in the history and philosophy of ecology and in topics like laws of nature, scientific explanation, and mathematical modeling. If you want to explore some of the metaphysical and methodological challenges that face ecology, there is no better place to go. Thus, this book marks an important moment in the philosophy of ecology. Folks like myself will be responding to it for quite a while. (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  32. Jay Odenbaugh (2006). The Strategy of “the Strategy of Model Building in Population Biology”. Biology and Philosophy 21 (5):607-621.
    In this essay, I argue for four related claims. First, Richard Levins’ classic “The Strategy of Model Building in Population Biology” was a statement and defense of theoretical population biology growing out of collaborations between Robert MacArthur, Richard Lewontin, E. O. Wilson, and others. Second, I argue that the essay served as a response to the rise of systems ecology especially as pioneered by Kenneth Watt. Third, the arguments offered by Levins against systems ecology and in favor of his own (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  33. Jay Odenbaugh (2005). Idealized, Inaccurate but Successful: A Pragmatic Approach to Evaluating Models in Theoretical Ecology. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 20 (2-3):231-255.
    Ecologists attempt to understand the diversity of life with mathematical models. Often, mathematical models contain simplifying idealizations designed to cope with the blooming, buzzing confusion of the natural world. This strategy frequently issues in models whose predictions are inaccurate. Critics of theoretical ecology argue that only predictively accurate models are successful and contribute to the applied work of conservation biologists. Hence, they think that much of the mathematical work of ecologists is poor science. Against this view, I argue that model (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  34. Jay Odenbaugh (2003). Complex Systems, Trade‐Offs, and Theoretical Population Biology: Richard Levin's “Strategy of Model Building in Population Biology” Revisited. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1496-1507.
    Ecologist Richard Levins argues population biologists must trade‐off the generality, realism, and precision of their models since biological systems are complex and our limitations are severe. Steven Orzack and Elliott Sober argue that there are cases where these model properties cannot be varied independently of one another. If this is correct, then Levins's thesis that there is a necessary trade‐off between generality, precision, and realism in mathematical models in biology is false. I argue that Orzack and Sober's arguments fail since (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  35. Jay Odenbaugh (2003). Complex Systems, Trade-Offs, and Theoretical Population Biology: Richard Levin's "Strategy of Model Building in Population Biology" Revisited. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1496-1507.
    Ecologist Richard Levins (1966, 1968) argues population biologists must trade-off the generality, realism and precision of their models since biological systems are complex and our limitations are severe. Elliott Sober and Steven Orzack (1993) argue that there are cases where these model properties cannot be varied independently of one another. If this is correct, then Levins` thesis that there is a necessary trade-off between generality, precision, and realism in mathematical models in biology is false. I argue that Sober and Orzack`s (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  36. Jay Odenbaugh (2003). Complex Systems, Trade-Offs and Mathematical Modeling: A Response to Sober and Orzack. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1496-1507.
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  37. Jay Odenbaugh (2003). Values, Advocacy and Conservation Biology. Environmental Values 12 (1):55 - 69.
    In this essay, I examine the controversy concerning the advocacy of ethical values in conservation biology. First, I argue, as others have, that conservation biology is a science laden with values both ethical and non-ethical. Second, after clarifying the notion of advocacy at work, I contend that conservation biologists should advocate the preservation of biological diversity. Third, I explore what ethical grounds should be used for advocating the preservation of ecological systems by conservation biologists. I argue that conservation biologists should (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  38. Jay Odenbaugh (2001). Ecological Stability, Model Building, and Environmental Policy: A Reply to Some of the Pessimism. Philosophy of Science 68 (S1):S493-.
    Recently, there has been a rise in pessimism concerning what theoretical ecology can offer conservation biologists in the formation of reasonable environmental policies. In this paper, I look at one of the pessimistic arguments offered by Kristin Shrader-Frechette and E. D. McCoy (1993, 1994)--the argument from conceptual imprecision. I suggest that their argument rests on an inadequate account of the concepts of ecological stability and that there has been conceptual progress with respect to complexity-stability hypotheses. Such progress, I maintain, can (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  39. Andrew Hamilton, Samir Okasha & Jay Odenbaugh, Philosophy of Biology.
    Philosophy of biology is a vibrant and growing field. From initial roots in the metaphysics of species (Ghiselin, Hull), questions about whether biology has laws of nature akin to those of physics (Ruse, Hull), and discussions of teleology and function (Grene 1974, Brandon 1981), the field has grown since the 1970s to include a vast range of topics. Over the last few decades, philosophy has had an important impact on biology, partly through following the model of engagement with science that (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation