This article debates about the proposal of reviewing philosophical aesthetics advanced by french philosopher Jean-Marie Schaeffer from his Les celibataires de l’art (1996) to Adieu à l’esthétique (2000). From a definition of aesthetic attitude as an endogenous and autotelic cognitive behaviour, Schaeffer proposes a naturalization of aesthetics in the problematical area of interest of a general anthropology.
Already in his lifetime, the naturalist Louis-Jean-Marie Daubenton was dramatically contrasted with his patron and collaborator on the Histoire naturelle (Natural History), Buffon figuring as stylish and prone to hypothesizing, Daubenton as narrow and unwilling to generalize. This caricatural image of Daubenton as an anti-Buffon persists even now. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the development of Daubenton's reputation and then to moderate it by showing that he was not so averse to theorizing or generalization as history (...) has made him. Evidence for this argument comes from the Histoire naturelle and from unpublished manuscripts proving that he originally planned to contribute two synthetic treatises on animal anatomy to the Histoire naturelle. Reconstituting the series as he envisaged it allows a more balanced portrait of one of the founders of comparative anatomy and a look behind the scenes of one of the eighteenth century's most important scientific publications. (shrink)
Dès son introduction, J.-M. Salamito, professeur d’histoire du christianisme à la Sorbonne, inscrit sa réflexion dans le sillage des « intuitions lumineuses » de G. de Plinval, P. Brown et Ch. Pietri concernant la signification sociale des positions pélagiennes. Pour en présenter les enjeux, décisifs pour le christianisme au début du Ve siècle, et définir ce qui oppose si radicalement Augustin à Pélage et ses disciples, l’A. déploie sa connaissance des sources - on peut se réjouir que les tex..
Jean-Marie Schaeffer | : La question de la relation entre vérité et littérature se pose autrement selon qu’on aborde la littérature comme une forme d’art ou comme une forme de discours. Il faut aussi distinguer plusieurs régimes de vérité/fausseté, voire plusieurs types de réussite et d’échec littéraires qui ne peuvent peut-être pas tous être analysés en termes de vérité/non-vérité. À partir de là on peut envisager la relation entre valeur de vérité et fonction cognitive. | : Answers to the (...) problem of the relation of literature and truth differ according to whether one takes literature as a form of art or as a form of discourse. One must also distinguish various regimes of truth and falsity and various kinds of literary success or failures which cannot all be analysed in terms of truth and falsity. Once these points are examined on can deal with the relation between truth value and cognitive function. (shrink)
Van Heijenoort’s main contribution to history and philosophy of modern logic was his distinction between two basic views of logic, first, the absolutist, or universalist, view of the founding fathers, Frege, Peano, and Russell, which dominated the first, classical period of history of modern logic, and, second, the relativist, or model-theoretic, view, inherited from Boole, Schröder, and Löwenheim, which has dominated the second, contemporary period of that history. In my paper, I present the man Jean van Heijenoort (Sect. 1); then (...) I describe his way of arguing for the second view (Sect. 2); and finally I come down in favor of the first view (Sect. 3). There, I specify the version of universalism for which I am prepared to argue (Sect. 3, introduction). Choosing ZFC to play the part of universal, logical (in a nowadays forgotten sense) system, I show, through an example, how the usual model theory can be naturally given its proper place, from the universalist point of view, in the logical framework of ZFC; I outline another, not rival but complementary, semantics for admissible extensions of ZFC in the very same logical framework; I propose a way to get universalism out of the predicaments in which universalists themselves believed it to be (Sect. 3.1). Thus, if universalists of the classical period did not, in fact, construct these semantics, it was not that their universalism forbade them, in principle, to do so. The historical defeat of universalism was not technical in character. Neither was it philosophical. Indeed, it was hardly more than the victory of technicism over the very possibility of a philosophical dispute (Sect. 3.2). (shrink)
Jean-Luc Nancy is a contemporary continental philosopher who argues that the hope of fully unifying a community through work is problematic. This is because people cannot be reduced to their function as workers. Thus, community is, at best, inoperative. This article takes Nancy’s ideas of community and applies them to the notion of teamwork in business. It shows how in some literature on business teamwork, there is a desire to build a team through shared work experiences. It then explains Nancy’s (...) view as to why this cannot work, and it enters into Nancy’s positive account of how a community should be seen as a web of people communicating and sharing with each other in a variety of ways. The practical conclusion the study draws is that team members need to be careful about allowing goal orientation to obfuscate the richness of the relationships that occur among team members. People need to explore all of the ways in which people share with each other rather than just those ways that advance a narrow set of goals. If the richness of those relationships is recognized, many new directions for business and for general human development may appear. (shrink)