We describe the educational character and leadership development processes used by the United States Air Force Academy that other educational institutions may find useful. Our processes include an integrated educational curriculum designed to complement and integrate the experiential learning that results in achieving specific organizational outcomes, co-curricular activities in cadet living, and a specific focus on the ethical development of leaders’ respect for human dignity and cultural competency as well as the mechanisms to assess and refine our processes.
Four studies show that observers and readers imagine different alternatives to reality. When participants read a story about a protagonist who chose the more difficult of two tasks and failed, their counterfactual thoughts focused on the easier, unchosen task. But when they observed the performance of an individual who chose and failed the more difficult task, participants' counterfactual thoughts focused on alternative ways to solve the chosen task, as did the thoughts of individuals who acted out the event. We conclude (...) that these role effects may occur because participants' attention is engaged when they experience or observe an event more than when they read about it. (shrink)
Although somewhat neglected in the scholarly debate, Vṛṣabhadeva’s commentary (known as Sphuṭākṣarā or Paddhati, possibly 8th c. CE) on Vākyapadīya’s first chapter, offers a remarkable analysis of Bhartṛhari’s views on metaphysics and philosophy of language. Vākyapadīya’s first four kārikās deal with ontological issues, defining the key elements of Bhartṛhari’s non-dualistic edifice such as the properties of the unitary principle, its powers, the role of time and the ontological status of worldly objects. Vṛṣabhadeva’s interpretation of the kārikās in question is intriguing (...) and seems to be guided by the urgency to find a solution to the riddle which every non-dualistic theory has to face: how is it possible to postulate a unitary principle of reality when reality is cognized as multiple? In accomplishing the task Vṛṣabhadeva proposes various solutions (some of them based on concepts which are hardly detectable in Vākyapadīya and appear close to the ones propounded in certain trends of Advaita Vedānta), finally suggesting an explanation which, focusing on the pragmatic aspect of language, is altogether consistent with Bhartṛhari’s theoretical picture. (shrink)
The Catholic Monarchy is the short-lived dynastic union (1580-1640) between the kingdoms of Spain and Portugal. By returning on the legal, political and pragmatic foundations of this empire which cannot be called Empire (because this name belongs to the Holy Roman Empire of the cousins of Vienna), the article tries to seize better the internal functioning of this heterogeneous political set, by adopting two points of view: that of America (how the notion of Catholic Monarchy is understood in the reynos, (...) far from Madrid and Lisbon) and that of Rome (how Holy See reaches - or not - to exist in the heart of this space). It emerges from it that the pope and the Catholic King are natural allies (around the Roman Christianity) but not objectives (their purposes do not match), and that Rome and Mexico as well picture themselves not as margins of the Catholic Monarchy, but as real centers. (shrink)
A soundness proof for an axiomatization of common belief in minimal neighbourhood semantics is provided, thereby leaving aside all assumptions of monotonicity in agents’ reasoning. ‘Minimality’ properties of common belief are thus emphasized, in contrast to the more usual ‘fixed point’ properties. The proof relies on the existence of transfinite fixed points of sequences of neighbourhood systems even when they are not closed under supersets. Obvious shortcoming of the note is the lack of a completeness proof.
In a recent paper, Jeanne Peijnenburg and David Atkinson [ Studia Logica , 89(3):333-341 (2008)] have challenged the foundationalist rejection of infinitism by giving an example of an infinite, yet explicitly solvable regress of probabilistic justification. So far, however, there has been no criterion for the consistency of infinite probabilistic regresses, and in particular, foundationalists might still question the consistency of the solvable regress proposed by Peijnenburg and Atkinson.
Ronney Mourad and Dianne Guenin-Lelle provide here the first English translation of the Prison Narratives written by the seventeenth-century French mystic and Quietist, Jeanne Guyon (1648-1717). Guyon was a fascinating figure in the court of Louis XIV and, although she was marginalized and ignored by French historians for two centuries after her death, she became a major figure in the development of transatlantic Protestant spirituality in the eighteenth century. -/- Guyon's narrative describes her confinement between 1695 and 1703 in (...) various prisons, including the dreaded Bastille. It also maps, in moving and unforgettable detail, the political and religious hegemony that sought to destroy her reputation and erase her from history. Guyon kept the text private and it remained undiscovered for almost three centuries until an archival version was found and published in 1992 under the title Récits de Captivité (Prison Narratives). This translation is not only the first to appear in English, but opens with a comprehensive introduction that represents the most detailed examination of the Prison Narratives presently available in English or French. (shrink)
Je me propose une évaluation du travail effectué par Jeanne Hersch sur les droits de l�homme. A-t-elle tenté de «fonder» les droits, c�est-a-dire, de développer des argumentations contraignantes qui en établissent la validité ? Elle dérive les droits d�une conception normative de la nature humaine, s�appuyant sur la volonté, qui doit être libre, plutôt que sur la raison. Ses «fondements» ne sont pas des argumentations, mais des présupposés anthropologiques. Elle tente d�expliquer les échecs des droits de l�homme par une (...) analyse de leur tendance naturelle à se multiplier, se différencier, s�opposer l�un à l�autre. (shrink)