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  1. Scott Althaus, Mark Bevir, Jeffrey Friedman, Hélène Landemore, Rogers Smith & Susan Stokes (forthcoming). Roundtable on Political Epistemology. Critical Review:1-32.
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  2. Jeffrey Friedman (forthcoming). Causes of the Financial Crisis‗. Critical Review.
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  3. Jeffrey Friedman (2013). Freedom has No Intrinsic Value: Liberalism and Voluntarism. Critical Review 25 (1):38-85.
    Deontological (as opposed to consequentialist) liberals treat freedom of action as an end in itself, not a means to other ends. Yet logically, when one makes a deliberate choice, one treats freedom of action as if it were not an end in itself, for one uses this freedom as a means to the ends one hopes to achieve through one's action. The tension between deontology and the logic of choice is reflected in the paradoxical nature of the ?right to do (...)
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  4. Jeffrey Friedman (2013). Hayek's Two Epistemologies and the Paradoxes of His Thought. Critical Review 25 (3-4):277-304.
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  5. Jeffrey Friedman (2012). Beyond Cues and Political Elites: The Forgotten Zaller. Critical Review 24 (4):417-461.
    Zaller's Nature and Origins of Mass Opinion initially sets out an epistemic view of politics in which the ultimate determinants of political action are ideas about the society in which we act. These ideas are usually mediated to us by others, so Zaller begins the book by describing its topic as the influence of the media on public opinion, and he includes journalists among the ?political elites? who exert this influence (along with politicians, public officials, and experts). But the book (...)
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  6. Jeffrey Friedman (2012). Motivated Skepticism or Inevitable Conviction? Dogmatism and the Study of Politics. Critical Review 24 (2):131-155.
    Taber and Lodge's 2006 paper provides powerful evidence that one's prior beliefs shape one's reception of new evidence in a manner that can best be described as ?inadvertently dogmatic.? This is especially true for people who are well informed, which dovetails with findings going back to Converse (1964) showing political beliefs to be ideologically constrained (rigid) among the relatively well informed. What may explain the coincidence of dogmatism and knowledgeability is the very process of learning about politics, which must use (...)
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  7. Jeffrey Friedman (2012). System Effects and the Problem of Prediction. Critical Review 24 (3):291-312.
    Robert Jervis's System Effects (1997) shares a great deal with game theory, complex-systems theory, and systems theory in international relations, yet it transcends them all by taking account of the role of ideas in human behavior. The ideational element inserts unpredictability into Jervis's understanding of system effects. Each member of a ?system? of interrelated actors interprets her situation to require certain actions based on the effects these will cause among other members of the system, but these other actors' responses to (...)
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  8. Anthony J. Evans & Jeffrey Friedman (2011). “Search” Vs. “Browse”: A Theory of Error Grounded in Radical (Not Rational) Ignorance. Critical Review 23 (1-2):73-104.
    Economists tend to view ignorance as ?rational,? neglecting the possibility that ignorance is unintentional. This oversight is reflected in economists? model of ?information search,? which can be fruitfully contrasted with ?information browsing.? Information searches are designed to discover unknown knowns, whose value is calculable ex ante, such that this value justifies the cost of the search. In this model of human information acquisition, there is no primal or ?radical? ignorance that might prevent people from knowing which information to look for, (...)
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  9. Jeffrey Friedman & Shterna Friedman (2011). Capitalism and the Jewish Intellectuals. Critical Review 23 (1-2):169-194.
    In Capitalism and the Jews, Jerry Z. Muller attempts to resolve Milton Friedman's paradox: Why is it that Jewish intellectuals have been so hostile to capitalism even though capitalism has so greatly benefited the Jews? In one chapter Muller answers, in effect, that Jewish intellectuals have not been anticapitalist. Elsewhere, however, Muller implicitly explains the leftist tendencies of most intellectuals?Jewish and gentile?by unspooling the anticapitalist thread in the main lines of Western thought, culminating in Marx but by no means ending (...)
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  10. Jeffrey Friedman (2009). A Crisis of Politics, Not Economics: Complexity, Ignorance, and Policy Failure. Critical Review 21 (2-3):127-183.
    ABSTRACT The financial crisis was caused by the complex, constantly growing web of regulations designed to constrain and redirect modern capitalism. This complexity made investors, bankers, and perhaps regulators themselves ignorant of regulations promulgated across decades and in different ?fields? of regulation. These regulations interacted with each other to foster the issuance and securitization of subprime mortgages; their rating as AA or AAA; and previously their concentration on the balance sheets (and off the balance sheets) of many commercial and investment (...)
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  11. Scott Althaus, David Barash, Jeffrey Friedman, George E. Marcus & Charles S. Taber (2008). Roundtable 4: Political Dogmatism. Critical Review 20 (4):481-498.
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  12. Scott Althaus, John Bullock, Jeffrey Friedman, Arthur Lupia & Paul Quirk (2008). Roundtable 2: Ignorance and Error. Critical Review 20 (4):445-461.
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  13. Scott Althaus, Bryan Caplan, Jeffrey Friedman, Ilya Somin & Nassim Nicholas Taleb (2008). Roundtable 1: Public Ignorance: Rational, Irrational, or Inevitable? Critical Review 20 (4):423-444.
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  14. Stephen Earl Bennett & Jeffrey Friedman (2008). The Irrelevance of Economic Theory to Understanding Economic Ignorance. Critical Review 20 (3):195-258.
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  15. Samuel DeCanio, Jeffrey Friedman, David R. Mayhew, Michael H. Murakami & Nick Weller (2008). Roundtable 3: Political Ignorance, Empirical Realities. Critical Review 20 (4):463-480.
  16. Jeffrey Friedman (2008). Preface. Critical Review 20 (4):415-415.
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  17. Jeffrey Friedman (2008). Closing Remarks. Critical Review 20 (4):527-533.
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  18. Jeffrey Friedman (2008). Introductory Remarks. Critical Review 20 (4):417-421.
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  19. Jeffrey Friedman (2008). Pluralism or Relativism? Critical Review 11 (4):469-479.
  20. Jeffrey Friedman, Tom Hoffman, Russell Muirhead, Mark Pennington & Ilya Somin (2008). Roundtable 5: Normative Implications. Critical Review 20 (4):499-525.
  21. Jeffrey Friedman (2007). A “Weapon in the Hands of the People”: The Rhetorical Presidency in Historical and Conceptual Context. Critical Review 19 (2-3):197-240.
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  22. Jeffrey Friedman (2007). Ignorance as a Starting Point: From Modest Epistemology to Realistic Political Theory. Critical Review 19 (1):1-22.
  23. Jeffrey Friedman (2007). Political Ignorance and Modern Democracy. Critical Review 19 (1).
     
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  24. Jeffrey Friedman (2006). Democratic Competence in Normative and Positive Theory: Neglected Implications of “the Nature of Belief Systems in Mass Publics”. Critical Review 18 (1-3):1-43.
    ?The Nature of Belief Systems? sets forth a Hobson's choice between rule by the politically ignorant masses and rule by the ideologically constrained?which is to say, the doctrinaire?elites. On the one hand, lacking comprehensive cognitive structures, such as ideological ?belief systems,? with which to understand politics, most people learn distressingly little about it. On the other hand, a spiral of conviction seems to make it difficult for the highly informed few to see any aspects of politics but those that confirm (...)
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  25. Jeffrey Friedman (2006). Symposium: Is Democratic Competence Possible. Critical Review 18:i - xliii.
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  26. Jeffrey Friedman (2006). Taking Ignorance Seriously: Rejoinder to Critics. Critical Review 18 (4):467-532.
    In ?Popper, Weber, and Hayek,? I claimed that the economic and political world governed by social democracy is too complex to offer hope for rational social?democratic policy making. I extrapolated this conclusion from the claim, made by Austrian?school economists in the 1920s and 30s, that central economic planning would face insurmountable ?knowledge problems.? Israel Kirzner's Reply indicates the need to keep the Austrians? cognitivist argument conceptually distinct from more familiar incentives arguments, which can tacitly reintroduce the assumption of omniscience against (...)
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  27. Jeffrey Friedman (2005). Popper, Weber, and Hayek: The Epistemology and Politics of Ignorance. Critical Review 17 (1-2):1-58.
    Abstract Karl Popper's methodology highlights our scientific ignorance: hence the need to institutionalize open?mindedness through controlled experiments that may falsify our fallible theories about the world. In his endorsement of ?piecemeal social engineering,? Popper assumes that the social?democratic state and its citizens are capable of detecting social problems, and of assessing the results of policies aimed at solving them, through a process of experimentation analogous to that of natural science. But we are not only scientifically but politically ignorant: ignorant of (...)
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  28. Jeffrey Friedman (2005). The Bias Issue. Critical Review 17 (3-4):221-236.
  29. Carlos Casanova, Jeffrey Friedman, Geoffrey Hill, Natan Press, George Prevelakis, Michael O. Rabin, Nathalie Richard, Joseph E. Steinmetz & Peter Wood (2004). Session VII. A New Paradigm for the Social Sciences? Introductory Remarks: Liah Greenfeld Moderator: Jonathan Eastwood Participants: Ali Banuazizi. Critical Review 16 (2-3).
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  30. Jeffrey Friedman (2004). Is Social Science Hopeless. Critical Review 16 (2-3):288-22.
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  31. Jeffrey Friedman (2004). Introduction: What Can Social Science Do? Critical Review 16 (2-3):143-145.
  32. Jeffrey Friedman (2003). Public Opinion: Bringing the Media Back In. Critical Review 15 (3-4):239-260.
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  33. Jeffrey Friedman (2000). After Democracy, Bureaucracy? Rejoinder to Ciepley. Critical Review 14 (1):113-137.
    Abstract In a certain sense, voluntary communities and market relationships are relatively less coercive than democracy and bureaucracy: they offer more positive freedom. In that respect, they are more like romantic relationships or friendships than are democracies and bureaucracies. This tends to make voluntary communities and markets not only more pleasant forms of interaction, but more effective ones?contrary to Weber's confidence in the superior rationality of bureaucratic control.
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  34. Jeffrey Friedman (2000). Globalization, Neither Evil nor Inevitable. Critical Review 14 (1):1-10.
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  35. Jeffrey Friedman (1998). Public Ignorance and Democratic Theory. Critical Review 12 (4):397-411.
  36. Jeffrey Friedman (1998). The Libertarian Straddle: Rejoinder to Palmer and Sciabarra. Critical Review 12 (3):359-388.
    Abstract Palmer's defense of libertarianism as consequentialist runs afoul of his own failure to provide any consequentialist reasons for libertarian conclusions, and of his own defense of nonconsequentialist arguments for the intrinsic value of capitalism?cum?negative freedom. As suck, Palmer's article exemplifies the parasitic codependency of consequentialist and nonconsequentialist reasoning in libertarian thought. Sciabarra's defense of Ayn Rand's libertarianism is even more problematic, because in addition to the usual defects of libertarianism, Rand adds a commitment to ethical egoism that contradicts both (...)
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  37. Jeffrey Friedman (1997). Hayek's Political Philosophy and His Economics. Critical Review 11 (1):1-10.
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  38. Jeffrey Friedman (1997). Nature and Culture. Critical Review 11 (2):165-167.
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  39. Jeffrey Friedman (1997). What's Wrong with Libertarianism. Critical Review 11 (3):407-467.
    Abstract Libertarian arguments about the empirical benefits of capitalism are, as yet, inadequate to convince anyone who lacks libertarian philosophical convictions. Yet ?philosophical? libertarianism founders on internal contradictions that render it unfit to make libertarians out of anyone who does not have strong consequentialist reasons for libertarian belief. The joint failure of these two approaches to libertarianism explains why they are both present in orthodox libertarianism?they hide each other's weaknesses, thereby perpetuating them. Libertarianism retains significant potential for illuminating the modern (...)
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  40. Jeffrey Friedman (1996). Introduction: Public Opinion and Democracy. Critical Review 10 (1):1-12.
  41. Jeffrey Friedman (1996). Nationalism in Theory and Reality. Critical Review 10 (2):155-167.
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  42. Jeffrey Friedman & Adam McCabe (1996). Preferences or Happiness? Tibor Scitovsky's Psychology of Human Needs. Critical Review 10 (4):471-480.
  43. Jeffrey Friedman, Adam McCabe, Joy Rationalism, Freedom Amartya Sen, Juliet Schor, Ronald Inglehart, Taking Commensality Seriously, Albert O. Hirschman & Michael Benedikt (1996). Special Issue on Tibor Scitovsky's The Joyless Economy After Twenty Years. Critical Review 10 (4):471-481.
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  44. Jeffrey Friedman (1995). Economic Approaches to Politics. Critical Review 9 (1-2):1-24.
    The debate over Green and Shapiro's Pathologies of Rational Choice Theory sustains their contention that rational choice theory has not produced novel, empirically sustainable findings about politics?if one accepts their definition of empirically sustainable findings. Green and Shapiro show that rational choice research often resembles the empirically vacuous practices in which economists engage under the aegis of instrumentalism. Yet Green and Shapiro's insistence that theoretical constructs should produce accurate predictions may inadvertently lead to instrumentalism. Some of Green and Shapiro's critics (...)
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  45. Jeffrey Friedman (1994). Economic Consequentialism and Beyond. Critical Review 8 (4):493-502.
  46. Jeffrey Friedman (1994). On Libertarian Anti‐Intellectualism: Rejoinder to Shaw and Anderson & Leal. Critical Review 8 (3):483-492.
    Against my claim that free?market environmentalism (FME) cannot solve major environmental problems, my critics deny that such problems exist. Against my contention that FME depends on the democratic policymaking it decries, they retreat from FME to libertarian environmentalism (LE). Against my argument that LE is incoherent, they resort to anti?intellectualism. These responses stem from demonstrable precommitments to libertarian ideology, suggesting that the debate over FME and LE has profound implications, not only for their practitioners, but for all libertarians and many (...)
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  47. Jeffrey Friedman (1994). Truth and Liberation: Rejoinder to Brooks, Sassower and Agassi, and Harris. Critical Review 8 (1):137-157.
    My critics assume that the objectivity of moral truth is contingent on the discovery of some transcendent, nonhuman sanction for human values, but I contend that objective morality is a necessary feature of the situation faced by beings with freedom of choice, just as objective truth is a necessary feature of the situation faced by beings with the freedom to differ in their perceptions of the world around them. Both liberals and postmodernists ignore these necessary aspects of the human condition: (...)
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  48. Jeffrey Friedman (1994). The Politics of Communitarianism. Critical Review 8 (2):297-340.
    Taylor, Sandel, Walzer, and MacIntyre waver between granting the community authority over the individual and limiting this authority so severely that communitarianism becomes a dead letter. The reason for this vacillation can be found in the aspiration of each theorist to base liberal values?equality and liberty?on particularism. Communitarians compound liberal formalism by adding to the liberal goal, individual autonomy, the equally abstract aim of grounding autonomy in a communally shared identity. Far from returning political theory to substantive considerations of the (...)
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  49. Jeffrey Friedman (1993). Cultural Theory as Individualistic Ideology: Rejoinder to Ellis. Critical Review 7 (1):129-158.
    How can one examine the sources of people's beliefs, tastes, and preferences without falling into the self?refuting determinism that has so often characterized the most systematic theory of preferences, Marxism? Cultural Theory's attempt to do so posits five anthropologically derived, competing ?ways of life"? individualism, egalitarianism, hierarchism, fatalism, and withdrawal from social life?that are intended to apply to all forms of culture and, therefore, to provide a universal framework for explaining people's preferential biases. Richard Ellis's defense of Cultural Theory, however, (...)
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  50. Jeffrey Friedman (1992). After Libertarianism: Rejoinder to Narveson, McCloskey, Flew, and Machan. Critical Review 6 (1):113-152.
    Postlibertarianism means abandoning defenses of the intrinsic justice of laissez?faire capitalism, the better to investigate whether the systemic consequences of interfering with capitalism are severe enough to justify laissez?faire. Any sound case for laissez?faire is likely to build on postlibertarian research, for the conviction that laissez?faire is intrinsically just rests upon unsound philosophical assumptions. Conversely, these assumptions, if sound, would make empirical studies of capitalism by libertarian scholars superfluous. Moreover, postmodern approaches to ?libertarianism? perpetuate the same assumptions, in the guise (...)
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