Search results for 'Jens Erling Birch' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  40
    Jens Erling Birch (2011). Skills and Knowledge - Nothing but Memory? Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 5 (4):362 - 378.
    The aim of this article is to enquire into neuroscientific research on memory and relate it to topics of skill, knowledge and consciousness. The article outlines some contemporary theories on procedural and working memory, and discusses what contributions they give to sport science and philosophy of sport. It is argued that memory research gives important insights to the neuronal structures and events involved in knowledge and consciousness contributing to sport skills, but that these explanations are not exhaustive. The article argues (...)
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  2.  42
    Jens E. Birch (2009). A Phenomenal Case for Sport. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 3 (1):30-48.
    The article attempts to show some limitations to reductive accounts in science and philosophy of body-mind relations, experience and skill. Extensive literature has developed in analytic philosophy of mind recently due to new technology and theories in the neurosciences. In the sporting sciences, there are also attempts to reduce experiences and skills to biology, mechanics, chemistry and physiology. The article argues there are three fundamental problems for reductive accounts that lead to an explanatory gap between the reduction and the conscious (...)
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  3.  33
    Jens E. Birch (2010). The Inner Game of Sport: Is Everything in the Brain? Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 4 (3):284-305.
    The article deals with the following: Three brain imaging studies on athletes are evaluated. What do these neuroscientific studies tell us about the brain and mind of the athlete? Empirical investigations will need a neuro-theory of mind if they are to make the leap from neural activity to the mental. The article looks at such a theory, Gerald Edelman's?Neural Darwinism?. What are the implications of such a theory for sport science and philosophy of sport? The article appreciates some of the (...)
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  4. Francis Bacon, Thomas Birch & Robert Stephens (1765). The Works of Francis Bacon [Collected by R. Stephens and J. Locker, Publ. By T. Birch].
     
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  5. Charles Birch & John B. Cobb (1981). The Liberation of Life From the Cell to the Community /Charles Birch, John B. Cobb, Jr. --. --. Cambridge University Press,1981.
     
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  6.  16
    Jonathan Birch, Where Does Altruism Come From?
    Can altruism be reconciled with evolutionary theory? Philosopher of biology, Jonathan Birch, discusses “Hamilton’s Rule”.
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  7.  51
    Jonathan Birch (forthcoming). Hamilton's Two Conceptions of Social Fitness. Philosophy of Science.
    Hamilton introduced two conceptions of social fitness, which he called neighbour-modulated fitness and inclusive fitness. Although he regarded them as formally equivalent, a re-analysis of his own argument for their equivalence brings out two important assumptions on which it rests: weak additivity and actor's control. When weak additivity breaks down, neither fitness concept is appropriate in its original form. When actor's control breaks down, neighbour-modulated fitness may be appropriate, but inclusive fitness is not. Yet I argue that, despite its more (...)
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  8. Jonathan Birch (forthcoming). Natural Selection and the Maximization of Fitness. Biological Reviews.
    The notion that natural selection is a process of fitness maximization gets a bad press in population genetics, yet in other areas of biology the view that organisms behave as if attempting to maximize their fitness remains widespread. Here I critically appraise the prospects for reconciliation. I first distinguish four varieties of fitness maximization. I then examine two recent developments that may appear to vindicate at least one of these varieties. The first is the ‘new’ interpretation of Fisher's fundamental theorem (...)
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  9.  74
    Jonathan Birch & Samir Okasha (2015). Kin Selection and Its Critics. BioScience 65 (1):22-32.
    Hamilton’s theory of kin selection is the best-known framework for understanding the evolution of social behavior but has long been a source of controversy in evolutionary biology. A recent critique of the theory by Nowak, Tarnita, and Wilson sparked a new round of debate, which shows no signs of abating. In this overview, we highlight a number of conceptual issues that lie at the heart of the current debate. We begin by emphasizing that there are various alternative formulations of Hamilton’s (...)
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  10. Jonathan Birch (2014). Hamilton's Rule and Its Discontents. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 65 (2):381-411.
    In an incendiary 2010 Nature article, M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita, and E. O. Wilson present a savage critique of the best-known and most widely used framework for the study of social evolution, W. D. Hamilton’s theory of kin selection. More than a hundred biologists have since rallied to the theory’s defence, but Nowak et al. maintain that their arguments ‘stand unrefuted’. Here I consider the most contentious claim Nowak et al. defend: that Hamilton’s rule, the core explanatory principle (...)
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  11.  82
    Bruce C. Birch (forthcoming). Book Review: Glimpses of a Strange Land: Studies in Old Testament Ethics by Cyril S. Rodd T & T Clark, Edinburgh, 2001. 402 Pp $49.95 (Cloth) ISBN 0-567-08753-0.; Story as Torah: Reading the Old Testament Ethically by Gordon J. Wenham T & T Clark, Edinburgh, 2000. 180 Pp $44.95 (Cloth) ISBN 0-567-08767-0. [REVIEW] Interpretation 57 (2):199-202.
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  12. Maria Erling (forthcoming). Book Review: Christian Assembly: Marks of the Church in a Pluralistic Age. [REVIEW] Interpretation 59 (1):107-107.
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  13. Jonathan Birch (2014). Gene Mobility and the Concept of Relatedness. Biology and Philosophy 29 (4):445-476.
    Cooperation is rife in the microbial world, yet our best current theories of the evolution of cooperation were developed with multicellular animals in mind. Hamilton’s theory of inclusive fitness is an important case in point: applying the theory in a microbial setting is far from straightforward, as social evolution in microbes has a number of distinctive features that the theory was never intended to capture. In this article, I focus on the conceptual challenges posed by the project of extending Hamilton’s (...)
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  14. Jonathan Birch (2014). Propositional Content in Signalling Systems. Philosophical Studies 171 (3):493-512.
    Skyrms, building on the work of Dretske, has recently developed a novel information-theoretic account of propositional content in simple signalling systems. Information-theoretic accounts of content traditionally struggle to accommodate the possibility of misrepresentation, and I show that Skyrms’s account is no exception. I proceed to argue, however, that a modified version of Skyrms’s account can overcome this problem. On my proposed account, the propositional content of a signal is determined not by the information that it actually carries, but by the (...)
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  15. Jonathan Birch (2013). Samir Okasha and Ken Binmore (Eds) Evolution and Rationality: Decisions, Cooperation, and Strategic Behaviour. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (3):669-673.
    Evolution and Rationality marks the end of a three-year project, ‘Evolution, Cooperation, and Rationality’, directed at the University of Bristol by the book’s editors, Samir Okasha and Ken Binmore. The collection draws together the editors’ pick of the papers delivered at the conferences the project hosted, and covers a wide range of topics at the intersection of evolutionary theory and the social sciences. It is a splendid anthology: timely, interdisciplinary, thematically cohesive, and full of substantive and interesting disagreements between the (...)
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  16.  96
    Jonathan Birch (2013). On the 'Simulation Argument' and Selective Scepticism. Erkenntnis 78 (1):95-107.
    Nick Bostrom’s ‘Simulation Argument’ purports to show that, unless we are confident that advanced ‘posthuman’ civilizations are either extremely rare or extremely rarely interested in running simulations of their own ancestors, we should assign significant credence to the hypothesis that we are simulated. I argue that Bostrom does not succeed in grounding this constraint on credence. I first show that the Simulation Argument requires a curious form of selective scepticism, for it presupposes that we possess good evidence for claims about (...)
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  17. Charles Birch (1999). Why I Became a Panexperientialist. Australasian Association for Process Thought.
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  18.  71
    Jonathan Birch (2014). How Cooperation Became the Norm. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 29 (3):433-444.
    Most of the contributions to Cooperation and Its Evolution grapple with the distinctive challenges presented by the project of explaining human sociality. Many of these puzzles have a ‘chicken and egg’ character: our virtually unparalleled capacity for large-scale cooperation is the product of psychological, behavioural, and demographic changes in our recent evolutionary history, and these changes are linked by complex patterns of reciprocal dependence. There is much we do not yet understand about the timing of these changes, and about the (...)
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  19.  10
    S. Birch (2004). Understanding Children's and Adults' Limitations in Mental State Reasoning. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (6):255-260.
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  20.  74
    Jonathan Birch (2012). The Negative View of Natural Selection. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 43 (2):569-573.
    An influential argument due to Elliott Sober, subsequently strengthened by Denis Walsh and Joel Pust, moves from plausible premises to the bold conclusion that natural selection cannot explain the traits of individual organisms. If the argument were sound, the explanatory scope of selection would depend, surprisingly, on metaphysical considerations concerning origin essentialism. I show that the Sober-Walsh-Pust argument rests on a flawed counterfactual criterion for explanatory relevance. I further show that a more defensible criterion for explanatory relevance recently proposed by (...)
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  21.  29
    Jonathan Birch (2014). Has Grafen Formalized Darwin? Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):175-180.
    One key aim of Grafen’s Formal Darwinism project is to formalize ‘modern biology’s understanding and updating of Darwin’s central argument’. In this commentary, I consider whether Grafen has succeeded in this aim.
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  22. Thomas H. Birch (1990). The Incarceration of Wildness: Wilderness Areas as Prisons. Environmental Ethics 12 (1):3-26.
    Even with the very best intentions , Western culture’s approach to wilderness and wildness, the otherness of nature, tends to be one of imperialistic domination and appropriation. Nevertheless, in spite of Western culture’s attempt to gain total control over nature by imprisoning wildness in wilderness areas, which are meant to be merely controlled “simulations” of wildness, a real wildness, a real otherness, can still be found in wilderness reserves . This wildness can serve as the literal ground for the subversion (...)
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  23.  55
    Thomas H. Birch (1993). Moral Considerability and Universal Consideration. Environmental Ethics 15 (4):313-332.
    One of the central, abiding, and unresolved questions in environmental ethics has focused on the criterion for moral considerability or practical respect. In this essay, I call that question itself into question and argue that the search for this criterion should be abandoned because (1) it presupposes the ethical legitimacy of the Western project of planetary domination, (2) the philosophical methods that are andshould be used to address the question properly involve giving consideration in a root sense to everything, (3) (...)
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  24.  53
    Jonathan Birch & James A. R. Marshall (2014). Queller's Separation Condition Explained and Defended. American Naturalist 184 (4):531-540.
    The theories of inclusive fitness and multilevel selection provide alternative perspectives on social evolution. The question of whether these perspectives are of equal generality remains a divisive issue. In an analysis based on the Price equation, Queller argued (by means of a principle he called the separation condition) that the two approaches are subject to the same limitations, arising from their fundamentally quantitative-genetical character. Recently, van Veelen et al. have challenged Queller’s results, using this as the basis for a broader (...)
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  25. Anthony Birch (2007). Waismann's Critique of Wittgenstein. Analysis and Metaphysics 6 (2007):263-272.
    Friedrich Waismann, a little-known mathematician and onetime student of Wittgenstein's, provides answers to problems that vexed Wittgenstein in his attempt to explicate the foundations of mathematics through an analysis of its practice. Waismann argues in favor of mathematical intuition and the reality of infinity with a Wittgensteinian twist. Waismann's arguments lead toward an approach to the foundation of mathematics that takes into consideration the language and practice of experts.
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  26.  15
    Jennifer S. Savage, Jennifer Orlet Fisher & Leann L. Birch (2007). Parental Influence on Eating Behavior: Conception to Adolescence. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 35 (1):22-34.
    The first years of life mark a time of rapid development and dietary change, as children transition from an exclusive milk diet to a modified adult diet. During these early years, children's learning about food and eating plays a central role in shaping subsequent food choices, diet quality, and weight status. Parents play a powerful role in children's eating behavior, providing both genes and environment for children. For example, they influence children's developing preferences and eating behaviors by making some foods (...)
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  27.  84
    Jonathan Birch (2012). Robust Processes and Teleological Language. European Journal for Philosophy of Science 3 (3):299-312.
    I consider some hitherto unexplored examples of teleological language in the sciences. In explicating these examples, I aim to show (a) that such language is not the sole preserve of the biological sciences, and (b) that not all such talk is reducible to the ascription of functions. In chemistry and biochemistry, scientists explaining molecular rearrangements and protein folding talk informally of molecules rearranging “in order to” maximize stability. Evolutionary biologists, meanwhile, often speak of traits evolving “in order to” optimize some (...)
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  28.  16
    Samuel C. M. Birch (2013). The Dead Donor Rule: A Defense. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (4):426-440.
    Miller, Truog, and Brock have recently argued that the “dead donor rule,” the requirement that donors be determined to be dead before vital organs are procured for transplantation, cannot withstand ethical scrutiny. In their view, the dead donor rule is inconsistent with existing life-saving practices of organ transplantation, lacks a cogent ethical rationale, and is not necessary for maintenance of public trust in organ transplantation. In this paper, the second of these claims will be evaluated. (The first and third are (...)
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  29.  48
    Jonathan Birch (2012). Collective Action in the Fraternal Transitions. Biology and Philosophy 27 (3):363-380.
    Inclusive fitness theory was not originally designed to explain the major transitions in evolution, but there is a growing consensus that it has the resources to do so. My aim in this paper is to highlight, in a constructive spirit, the puzzles and challenges that remain. I first consider the distinctive aspects of the cooperative interactions we see within the most complex social groups in nature: multicellular organisms and eusocial insect colonies. I then focus on one aspect in particular: the (...)
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  30.  67
    Jonathan Birch (2012). Social Revolution. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 27 (4):571-581.
    Andrew Bourke’s Principles of Social Evolution identifies three stages that characterize an evolutionary transition in individuality and deploys inclusive fitness theory to explain each stage. The third stage, social group transformation, has hitherto received relatively little attention from inclusive fitness theorists. In this review, I first discuss Bourke’s “virtual dominance” hypothesis for the evolution of the germ line. I then contrast Bourke’s inclusive fitness approach to the major transitions with the multi-level approach developed by Richard Michod, Samir Okasha and others. (...)
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  31.  7
    Charles Birch (1981). The Liberation of Life: From the Cell to the Community. Cambridge University Press.
    This book is about the liberation of the concept of life from the bondage fashioned by the interpreters of life ever since biology began, and about the liberation of the life of humans and non-humans alike from the bondage of social structures and behaviour, which now threatens the fullness of life's possibilities if not survival itself. It falls into a tradition of writings about human problems from a perspective informed by biology. It rejects the mechanistic model of life dominant in (...)
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  32.  24
    Andrea Croce Birch (1987). Space Time and Causality. Review of Metaphysics 40 (4):781-782.
  33.  25
    Kean Birch (2005). Beneficence, Determinism and Justice: An Engagement with the Argument for the Genetic Selection of Intelligence. Bioethics 19 (1):12–28.
    ABSTRACTIn 2001, Julian Savulescu wrote an article entitled ‘Procreative Beneficence: Why We Should Select the Best Children’, in which he argued for the genetic selection of intelligence in children. That article contributes to a debate on whether genetic research on intelligence should be undertaken at all and, if so, should intelligence selection be available to potential parents. As such, the question of intelligence selection relates to wider issues concerning the genetic determination of behavioural traits, i.e. alcoholism. This article is designed (...)
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  34.  75
    Jonathan Birch (2009). Irretrievably Confused? Innateness in Explanatory Context. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 40 (4):296-301.
    The hunt for a biologically respectable definition for the folk concept of innateness is still on. I defend Ariew’s Canalization account of innateness against the criticisms of Griffiths and Machery, but highlight the remaining flaws in this proposal. I develop a new analysis based on the notion of environmental induction. A trait is innate, I argue, iff it is not environmentally induced. I augment this definition with a novel analysis of environmental induction that draws on the contrastive nature of causal (...)
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  35.  11
    Thomas H. Birch (1990). Neil Evernden: The Natural Alien. Environmental Ethics 12 (3):283-287.
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  36.  35
    Jonathan Birch (2013). Explaining the Human Syndrome. [REVIEW] Metascience 22 (2):347-350.
  37. Jennifer S. Savage, Jennifer Orlet Fisher & Leann L. Birch (2007). Parental Influence on Eating Behavior: Conception to Adolescence. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 35 (1):22-34.
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  38.  13
    Peter Birch (1955). The Nihilism of John Dewey. Philosophical Studies 5:163-163.
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  39.  24
    Marianna Papadopoulou & Roy Birch (2009). 'Being in the World': The Event of Learning. Educational Philosophy and Theory 41 (3):270-286.
    This paper employs an eclectic mix of paradigms in order to discuss constituting characteristics of young children's learning experiences. Drawing upon a phenomenological perspective it examines learning as a form of 'Being' and as the result of learners' engagement with the world in their own, unique, intentional manners. The learners' intentions towards their world are expressed in everyday activity and participation. A social constructivist perspective is thus employed to present learning as situated in meaningful socio-cultural contexts of the everyday, lived (...)
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  40.  19
    Andrea Croce Birch (1988). The Cunning of Reason. Review of Metaphysics 42 (2):389-390.
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  41.  12
    Peter Birch (1959). Dictionary of Education. Philosophical Studies 9:272-272.
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  42.  13
    David Birch (1964). Incentive Value of Success and Instrumental Approach Behavior. Journal of Experimental Psychology 68 (2):131.
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  43.  11
    Charles Birch (1990). Process Thought. Process Studies 19 (4):219-229.
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  44.  24
    Andrea Croce Birch (1991). Physical Cosmology and Philosophy. Review of Metaphysics 44 (3):646-647.
  45.  9
    Mark Child, David D. Williams, A. Jane Birch & Robert M. Boody (1995). Autonomy or Heteronomy? Levinas's Challenge to Modernism and Postmodernism. Educational Theory 45 (2):167-189.
  46.  23
    Thomas H. Birch (1990). Neil Evernden: The Natural Alien. Environmental Ethics 12 (3):283-287.
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  47.  14
    Mary Birch, Deni Elliott & Mary A. Trankel (1999). Black and White and Shades of Gray: A Portrait of the Ethical Professor. Ethics and Behavior 9 (3):243 – 261.
  48. Charles Birch (1999). Biology and the Riddle of Life. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  49.  10
    Herbert G. Birch & Herbert S. Rabinowitz (1951). The Negative Effect of Previous Experience on Productive Thinking. Journal of Experimental Psychology 41 (2):121.
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  50.  10
    Kean Birch (2006). The Neoliberal Underpinnings of the Bioeconomy: The Ideological Discourses and Practices of Economic Competitiveness. Genomics, Society and Policy 2 (3):1-15.
    When we talk about ideology and new genetics we tend to think of concepts like geneticisation and genetic essentialism, which present genetics and biology in deterministic terms. However, the aim of this article is to consider how a particular economic ideology – neoliberalism – has affected the bioeconomy rather than assuming that it is the inherent qualities of biotechnology that determine market value. In order to do this, the paper focuses on the discourses and practices of economic competitiveness that pervade (...)
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