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Jeremy Butterfield [88]Jeremy N. Butterfield [2]
  1.  194 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield (1992). Bell's Theorem: What It Takes. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 43 (1):41-83.
    I compare deterministic and stochastic hidden variable models of the Bell experiment, exphasising philosophical distinctions between the various ways of combining conditionals and probabilities. I make four main claims. (1) Under natural assumptions, locality as it occurs in these models is equivalent to causal independence, as analysed (in the spirit of Lewis) in terms of probabilities and conditionals. (2) Stochastic models are indeed more general than deterministic ones. (3) For factorizable stochastic models, relativity's lack of superluminal causation does not favour (...)
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  2.  181 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield (2011). Emergence, Reduction and Supervenience: A Varied Landscape. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 41 (6):920-959.
    This is one of two papers about emergence, reduction and supervenience. It expounds these notions and analyses the general relations between them. The companion paper analyses the situation in physics, especially limiting relations between physical theories.I shall take emergence as behaviour that is novel and robust relative to some comparison class. I shall take reduction as deduction using appropriate auxiliary definitions. And I shall take supervenience as a weakening of reduction, viz. to allow infinitely long definitions.The overall claim of this (...)
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  3.  157 DLs
    Adam Caulton & Jeremy Butterfield (2012). Symmetries and Paraparticles as a Motivation for Structuralism. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 63 (2):233-285.
    This article develops an analogy proposed by Stachel between general relativity (GR) and quantum mechanics (QM) as regards permutation invariance. Our main idea is to overcome Pooley's criticism of the analogy by appeal to paraparticles. In GR, the equations are (the solution space is) invariant under diffeomorphisms permuting spacetime points. Similarly, in QM the equations are invariant under particle permutations. Stachel argued that this feature—a theory's ‘not caring which point, or particle, is which’—supported a structuralist ontology. Pooley criticizes this analogy: (...)
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  4.  132 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield (1989). The Hole Truth. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 40 (1):1-28.
  5.  125 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield (1998). Quantum Curiosities of Psychophysics. In J. Cornwell (ed.), Consciousness and Human Identity. Oxford University Press
    I survey some of the connections between the metaphysics of the relation between mind and matter, and quantum theory’s measurement problem. After discussing the metaphysics, especially the correct formulation of physicalism, I argue that two state-reduction approaches to quantum theory’s measurement problem hold some surprises for philosophers’ discussions of physicalism. Though both approaches are compatible with physicalism, they involve a very different conception of the physical, and of how the physical underpins the mental, from what most philosophers expect. And one (...)
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  6.  114 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield, Quantum Chance and Non-Locality.
    This is an excellent book, by one of the philosophy of quantum theory's brightest stars. It combines a clear presentation of determinism, probability and non-locality in several current interpretations of quantum theory, with a good deal of detailed analysis, both reporting other people's and Dickson's own results, and developing his own ideas|which are often heterodox, but always well-defended and thought-provoking. The treatment is often concise, especially when reporting standard material or others' results. There are also frequent changes of gear; both (...)
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  7.  111 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield & John Earman, Introduction to the Philosophy of Physics: Volume 2 of the North-Holland Series, the Handbook of the Philosophy of Science.
    This is the editors' introduction to a new anthology of commissioned articles covering the various branches of philosophy of physics. We introduce the articles in terms of the three pillars of modern physics: relativity theory, quantum theory and thermal physics. We end by discussing the present state, and future prospects, of fundamental physics.
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  8.  108 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield & Chris Isham (1999). On the Emergence of Time in Quantum Gravity. In The Arguments of Time. Published for the British Academy by Oxford University Press 111--168.
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  9.  107 DLs
    Robert K. Clifton, Jeremy N. Butterfield & Michael L. G. Redhead (1990). Nonlocal Influences and Possible Worlds--A Stapp in the Wrong Direction. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 41 (1):5-58.
    give a proof of the existence of nonlocal influences acting on correlated spin-1/2 particles in the singlet state which does not require any particular interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM). (Except Stapp holds that the proof fails under a many-worlds interpretation of QM—a claim we analyse in 1.2.) Recently, in responding to Redhead's ([1987], pp. 90-6) criticism that the Stapp 1 proof fails under an indeterministic interpretation of QM, Stapp [1989] (henceforth Stapp 2), has revised the logical structure of his proof (...)
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  10.  100 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield & Chris Isham (2001). Spacetime and the Philosophical Challenge of Quantum Gravity. In Physics Meets Philosophy at the Panck Scale. Cambridge University Press
    We survey some philosophical aspects of the search for a quantum theory of gravity, emphasising how quantum gravity throws into doubt the treatment of spacetime common to the two `ingredient theories' (quantum theory and general relativity), as a 4-dimensional manifold equipped with a Lorentzian metric. After an introduction (Section 1), we briefly review the conceptual problems of the ingredient theories (Section 2) and introduce the enterprise of quantum gravity (Section 3). We then describe how three main research programmes in quantum (...)
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  11.  99 DLs
    Adam Caulton & Jeremy Butterfield (2012). On Kinds of Indiscernibility in Logic and Metaphysics. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 63 (1):27-84.
    Using the Hilbert–Bernays account as a spring-board, we first define four ways in which two objects can be discerned from one another, using the non-logical vocabulary of the language concerned. (These definitions are based on definitions made by Quine and Saunders.) Because of our use of the Hilbert-Bernays account, these definitions are in terms of the syntax of the language. But we also relate our definitions to the idea of permutations on the domain of quantification, and their being symmetries. These (...)
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  12.  91 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield, The Philosophy of Physics.
    This is an excellent book, by a very distinguished historian and philosopher of physics. Roberto Torretti is principally known to historians and philosophers of physics through his previous books, Philosophy of Geometry from Riemann to Poincaré (1978), Relativity and Geometry (1983), and Creative Understanding: Philosophical Reflections on Physics (1990). As the first two titles suggest, his forte is the history and philosophy of geometry and spacetime physics, especially from the nineteenth century onwards. These two books were recognized as masterly. Torretti (...)
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  13.  78 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield (1998). Seeing the Present. In Robin Le Poidevin (ed.), Mind. Oxford: Clarendon Press 161-176.
  14.  75 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield (2001). Some Worlds of Quantum Theory. In R. J. Russell, N. Murphy & C. J. Isham (eds.), Quantum Physics and Divine Action. Vatican Observatory Publications 111--140.
    Abstract: This paper assesses the Everettian approach to the measurement problem, especially the version of that approach advocated by Simon Saunders and David Wallace. I emphasise conceptual, indeed metaphysical, aspects rather than technical ones; but I include an introductory exposition of decoherence. In particular, I discuss whether---as these authors maintain---it is acceptable to have no precise definition of 'branch' (in the Everettian kind of sense). (A version of this paper will appear in a CTNS/Vatican Observatory volume on Quantum Theory and (...)
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  15.  75 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield (2001). Book Review:Quantum Chance and Non-Locality: Probablity and Non-Locality in the Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics W. Michael Dickson. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 68 (2):263-.
  16.  75 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield, Publications.
    Spacetime, International Research Library of Philosophy, Dartmouth Publishing, 1996 (with G.Belot & M.Hogarth). From Physics to Philosophy, C.U.P., 1999 (with C. Pagonis). The Arguments of Time, British Academy and O.U.P., 1999. Non-Locality and Modality, Kluwer Academic, 2002 (with T.Placek). Quantum Entanglements, Selected Papers of Rob Clifton, O.U.P., 2004 (with H.Halvorson).
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  17.  71 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield, On Hamilton-Jacobi Theory as a Classical Root of Quantum Theory.
    This paper gives a technically elementary treatment of some aspects of <span class='Hi'>Hamilton</span>-Jacobi theory, especially in relation to the calculus of variations. The second half of the paper describes the application to geometric optics, the optico-mechanical analogy and the transition to quantum mechanics. Finally, I report recent work of Holland providing a Hamiltonian formulation of the pilot-wave theory.
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  18.  70 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield (1992). David Lewis Meets John Bell. Philosophy of Science 59 (1):26-43.
    The violation of the Bell inequality means that measurement-results in the two wings of the experiment cannot be screened off from one another, in the sense of Reichenbach. But does this mean that there is causation between the results? I argue that it does, according to Lewis's counterfactual analysis of causation and his associated views. The reason lies in his doctrine that chances evolve by conditionalization on intervening history. This doctrine collapses the distinction between the conditional probabilities that are used (...)
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  19.  68 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield & John Earman (eds.) (2007). Philosophy of Physics. Elsevier.
    The ambition of this volume is twofold: to provide a comprehensive overview of the field and to serve as an indispensable reference work for anyone who wants to work in it. For example, any philosopher who hopes to make a contribution to the topic of the classical-quantum correspondence will have to begin by consulting Klaas Landsman’s chapter. The organization of this volume, as well as the choice of topics, is based on the conviction that the important problems in the philosophy (...)
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  20.  65 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield, Some Aspects of Modality in Analytical Mechanics.
    This paper discusses some of the modal involvements of analytical mechanics. I first review the elementary aspects of the Lagrangian, Hamiltonian and Hamilton-Jacobi approaches. I then discuss two modal involvements; both are related to David Lewis' work on modality, especially on counterfactuals. The first is the way Hamilton-Jacobi theory uses ensembles, i.e. sets of possible initial conditions. The structure of this set of ensembles remains to be explored by philosophers. The second is the way the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian approaches' variational (...)
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  21.  64 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield, On Symmetry and Conserved Quantities in Classical Mechanics.
    This paper expounds the relations between continuous symmetries and conserved quantities, i.e. Noether's ``first theorem'', in both the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian frameworks for classical mechanics. This illustrates one of mechanics' grand themes: exploiting a symmetry so as to reduce the number of variables needed to treat a problem. I emphasise that, for both frameworks, the theorem is underpinned by the idea of cyclic coordinates; and that the Hamiltonian theorem is more powerful. The Lagrangian theorem's main ``ingredient'', apart from cyclic coordinates, (...)
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  22.  62 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield (ed.) (1999). The Arguments of Time. Published for the British Academy by Oxford University Press.
    These nine essays address fundamental questions about time in philosophy, physics, linguistics, and psychology. Are there facts about the future? Could we affect the past? In physics, general relativity and quantum theory give contradictory treatments of time. So in the current search for a theory of quantum gravity, which should give way: general relativity or quantum theory? In linguistics and psychology, how does our language represent time, and how do our minds keep track of it?
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  23.  62 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield (1996). Whither the Minds? British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 47 (2):200-20.
  24.  61 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield, Against Pointillisme: A Call to Arms.
    This paper forms part of a wider campaign: to deny pointillisme. That is the doctrine that a physical theory's fundamental quantities are defined at points of space or of spacetime, and represent intrinsic properties of such points or point-sized objects located there; so that properties of spatial or spatiotemporal regions and their material contents are determined by the point-by-point facts. Elsewhere, I argued against pointillisme about chrono-geometry, and about velocity in classical mechanics. In both cases, attention focussed on temporal extrinsicality: (...)
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  25.  55 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield, The Leibniz-Clarke Correspondence.
    As Newton realized, his absolute space was a ‘conspiracy of nature’ in the sense that his laws dictated that nobody could discover who, among all possible observers (in various states of motion relative to one another), was at rest in absolute space. So absolute space was an unverifiable element of his theory.
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  26.  55 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield, Between Laws and Models: Some Philosophical Morals of Lagrangian Mechanics.
    I extract some philosophical morals from some aspects of Lagrangian mechanics. (A companion paper will present similar morals from Hamiltonian mechanics and Hamilton-Jacobi theory.) One main moral concerns methodology: Lagrangian mechanics provides a level of description of phenomena which has been largely ignored by philosophers, since it falls between their accustomed levels---``laws of nature'' and ``models''. Another main moral concerns ontology: the ontology of Lagrangian mechanics is both more subtle and more problematic than philosophers often realize. The treatment of Lagrangian (...)
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  27.  53 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield (2002). The End of Time? British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 53:289--330.
    I discuss Julian Barbour's Machian theories of dynamics, and his proposal that a Machian perspective enables one to solve the problem of time in quantum geometrodynamics (by saying that there is no time!). I concentrate on his recent book, The End of Time (1999). A shortened version will appear in The British Journal for Philosophy of Science}.
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  28.  51 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield (2006). Against Pointillisme About Mechanics. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 57 (4):709-753.
    This paper forms part of a wider campaign: to deny em pointillisme. That is the doctrine that a physical theory's fundamental quantities are defined at points of space or of spacetime, and represent intrinsic properties of such points or point-sized objects located there; so that properties of spatial or spatiotemporal regions and their material contents are determined by the point-by-point facts. More specifically, this paper argues against pointillisme about the concept of velocity in classical mechanics; especially against proposals by Tooley, (...)
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  29.  50 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield, On Symplectic Reduction in Classical Mechanics.
    This paper expounds the modern theory of symplectic reduction in finite-dimensional Hamiltonian mechanics. This theory generalizes the well-known connection between continuous symmetries and conserved quantities, i.e. Noether's theorem. It also illustrates one of mechanics' grand themes: exploiting a symmetry so as to reduce the number of variables needed to treat a problem. The exposition emphasises how the theory provides insights about the rotation group and the rigid body. The theory's device of quotienting a state space also casts light on philosophical (...)
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  30.  49 DLs
    Chris Isham & Jeremy Butterfield, A Topos Perspective on the Kochen-Specker Theorem: I. Quantum States as Generalised Valuations.
    Any attempt to construct a realist interpretation of quantum theory founders on the Kochen-Specker theorem, which asserts the impossibility of assigning values to quantum quantities in a way that preserves functional relations between them. We construct a new type of valuation which is defined on all operators, and which respects an appropriate version of the functional composition principle. The truth-values assigned to propositions are (i) contextual; and (ii) multi-valued, where the space of contexts and the multi-valued logic for each context (...)
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  31.  47 DLs
    Robert K. Clifton, Michael L. G. Redhead & Jeremy N. Butterfield (1991). Generalization of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger Algebraic Proof of Nonlocality. Foundations of Physics 21 (2):149-184.
    We further develop a recent new proof (by Greenberger, Horne, and Zeilinger—GHZ) that local deterministic hidden-variable theories are inconsistent with certain strict correlations predicted by quantum mechanics. First, we generalize GHZ's proof so that it applies to factorable stochastic theories, theories in which apparatus hidden variables are causally relevant to measurement results, and theories in which the hidden variables evolve indeterministically prior to the particle-apparatus interactions. Then we adopt a more general measure-theoretic approach which requires that GHZ's argument be modified (...)
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  32.  47 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield & Chris Isham, A Topos Perspective on the Kochen-Specker Theorem: II. Conceptual Aspects, and Classical Analogues.
    In a previous paper, we have proposed assigning as the value of a physical quantity in quantum theory, a certain kind of set (a sieve) of quantities that are functions of the given quantity. The motivation was in part physical---such a valuation illuminates the Kochen-Specker theorem; and in part mathematical---the valuation arises naturally in the topos theory of presheaves. This paper discusses the conceptual aspects of this proposal. We also undertake two other tasks. First, we explain how the proposed valuations (...)
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  33.  45 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield (2004). David Lewis Meets Hamilton and Jacobi. Philosophy of Science 71 (5):1095-1106.
    I commemorate David Lewis by discussing an aspect of modality within analytical mechanics, which is closely related to his work on counterfactuals. This concerns the way Hamilton‐Jacobi theory uses ensembles, i.e. sets of possible initial conditions. (A companion paper discusses other aspects of modality in analytical mechanics that are equally related to Lewis's work.).
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  34.  44 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield (1993). Interpretation and Identity in Quantum Theory. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 24 (3):443--76.
  35.  42 DLs
    George Svetlichny, Michael Redhead, Harvey Brown & Jeremy Butterfield (1988). Do the Bell Inequalities Require the Existence of Joint Probability Distributions? Philosophy of Science 55 (3):387-401.
    Fine has recently proved the surprising result that satisfaction of the Bell inequality in a Clauser-Horne experiment implies the existence of joint probabilities for pairs of noncommuting observables in the experiment. In this paper we show that if probabilities are interpreted in the von Mises-Church sense of relative frequencies on random sequences, a proof of the Bell inequality is nonetheless possible in which such joint probabilities are assumed not to exist. We also argue that Fine's theorem and related results do (...)
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  36.  42 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield (2005). On the Persistence of Particles. Foundations of Physics 35 (2):233-269.
    This paper is about the metaphysical debate whether objects persist over time by the selfsame object existing at different times (nowadays called “endurance” by metaphysicians), or by different temporal parts, or stages, existing at different times (called “perdurance”). I aim to illuminate the debate by using some elementary kinematics and real analysis: resources which metaphysicians have, surprisingly, not availed themselves of. There are two main results, which are of interest to both endurantists and perdurantists. (1) I describe a precise formal (...)
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  37.  40 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield (2007). Stochastic Einstein Locality Revisited. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 58 (4):805 - 867.
    I discuss various formulations of stochastic Einstein locality (SEL), which is a version of the idea of relativistic causality, that is, the idea that influences propagate at most as fast as light. SEL is similar to Reichenbach's Principle of the Common Cause (PCC), and Bell's Local Causality. My main aim is to discuss formulations of SEL for a fixed background spacetime. I previously argued that SEL is violated by the outcome dependence shown by Bell correlations, both in quantum mechanics and (...)
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  38.  39 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield (ed.) (1986). Language, Mind and Logic. Cambridge University Press.
    This is a collection of eleven original essays in analytical philosophy by British and American philosophers, centering on the connection between mind and language. Two themes predominate: how it is that thoughts and sentences can represent the world; and what having a thought - a belief, for instance - involves. Developing from these themes are the questions: what does having a belief require of the believer, and of the way he or she relates to the environment? In particular, does having (...)
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  39.  37 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield (2014). Reduction, Emergence, and Renormalization. Journal of Philosophy 111 (1):5-49.
    In previous work, I described several examples combining reduction and emergence: where reduction is understood a la Ernest Nagel, and emergence is understood as behaviour that is novel. Here, my aim is again to reconcile reduction and emergence, for a case which is apparently more problematic than those I treated before: renormalization. My main point is that renormalizability being a generic feature at accessible energies gives us a conceptually unified family of Nagelian reductions. That is worth saying since philosophers tend (...)
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  40.  32 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield (2006). The Rotating Discs Argument Defeated. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 57 (1):1-45.
    The rotating discs argument (RDA) against perdurantism has been mostly discussed by metaphysicians, though the argument of course appeals to ideas from classical mechanics, especially about rotation. In contrast, I assess the RDA from the perspective of the philosophy of physics. I argue for three main conclusions. The first conclusion is that the RDA can be formulated more strongly than is usually recognized: it is not necessary to imagine away the dynamical effects of rotation. The second is that in (...)
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  41.  31 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield (2007). Reconsidering Relativistic Causality. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 21 (3):295 – 328.
    I discuss the idea of relativistic causality, i.e., the requirement that causal processes or signals can propagate only within the light-cone. After briefly locating this requirement in the philosophy of causation, my main aim is to draw philosophers' attention to the fact that it is subtle, indeed problematic, in relativistic quantum physics: there are scenarios in which it seems to fail. I set aside two such scenarios, which are familiar to philosophers of physics: the pilot-wave approach, and the Newton-Wigner representation. (...)
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  42.  30 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield (2012). Underdetermination in Cosmology: An Invitation. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 86 (1):1-18.
    I discuss how modern cosmology illustrates underdetermination of theoretical hypotheses by data, in ways that are different from most philosophical discussions. I confine the discussion to the history of the observable universe from about one second after the Big Bang, as described by the mainstream cosmological model: in effect, what cosmologists in the early 1970s dubbed the ‘standard model’, as elaborated since then. Or rather, the discussion is confined to a (very!) few aspects of that history. I emphasize that despite (...)
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  43.  29 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield (1984). Prior's Conception Of Time. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 84:193-209.
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  44.  27 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield, The State of Physics: `Halfway Through the Woods'.
    I rst celebrate the immense success of twentieth century physics, but then urge that the future may bring many surprises, even in the basic structures of physical theories.
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  45.  27 DLs
    John Hamilton, Chris Isham & Jeremy Butterfield, A Topos Perspective on the Kochen-Specker Theorem: III. Von Neumann Algebras as the Base Category.
    We extend the topos-theoretic treatment given in previous papers of assigning values to quantities in quantum theory, and of related issues such as the Kochen-Specker theorem. This extension has two main parts: the use of von Neumann algebras as a base category (Section 2); and the relation of our generalized valuations to (i) the assignment to quantities of intervals of real numbers, and (ii) the idea of a subobject of the coarse-graining presheaf (Section 3).
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  46.  26 DLs
    F. A. Muller & Jeremy Butterfield (1994). Is Algebraic Lorentz-Covariant Quantum Field Theory Stochastic Einstein Local? Philosophy of Science 61 (3):457-474.
    The general context of this paper is the locality problem in quantum theory. In a recent issue of this journal, Redei (1991) offered a proof of the proposition that algebraic Lorentz-covariant quantum field theory is past stochastic Einstein local. We show that Redei's proof is either spurious or circular, and that it contains two deductive fallacies. Furthermore, we prove that the mentioned theory meets the stronger condition of stochastic Haag locality.
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  47.  26 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield, Part B: A Brief History of Space.
    (I) Aristotle of Stagira (384-322 BC) 0) A closed geocentric spherical cosmology. (Adopted from the great mathematician, Eudoxus, c. 400 to 347 BC; via Calippus; but Aristotle unifies their separate schemes for different heavenly bodies). (Aristotle cites mathematicians as estimating radius of earth: in fact 200% of correct figure. Eratosthenes ca. 250 BC estimates radius of earth as 120% of correct).
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  48.  23 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield (2014). On Under-Determination in Cosmology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 46 (1):57-69.
    I discuss how modern cosmology illustrates under-determination of theoretical hypotheses by data, in ways that are different from most philosophical discussions. I emphasise cosmology's concern with what data could in principle be collected by a single observer ; and I give a broadly sceptical discussion of cosmology's appeal to the cosmological principle as a way of breaking the under-determination .I confine most of the discussion to the history of the observable universe from about one second after the Big Bang, as (...)
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  49.  23 DLs
    Jeremy Butterfield, On the Persistence of Homogeneous Matter.
    Some recent philosophical debate about persistence has focussed on an argument against perdurantism that discusses rotating perfectly homogeneous discs (the `rotating discs argument'; RDA). The argument has been mostly discussed by metaphysicians, though it appeals to ideas from classical mechanics, especially about rotation. In contrast, I assess the RDA from the perspective of the philosophy of physics. After introducing the argument and emphasizing the relevance of physics (Sections 1 to 3), I review some metaphysicians' replies to the argument, especially (...)
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