1.  40
    Danielle Matthews, Jessica Butcher, Elena Lieven & Michael Tomasello (2012). Two- and Four-Year-Olds Learn to Adapt Referring Expressions to Context: Effects of Distracters and Feedback on Referential Communication. Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (2):184-210.
    Children often refer to things ambiguously but learn not to from responding to clarification requests. We review and explore this learning process here. In Study 1, eighty-four 2- and 4-year-olds were tested for their ability to request stickers from either (a) a small array with one dissimilar distracter or (b) a large array containing similar distracters. When children made ambiguous requests, they received either general feedback or specific questions about which of two options they wanted. With training, children learned to (...)
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  2.  1
    Elena Hoicka & Jessica Butcher (2016). Parents Produce Explicit Cues That Help Toddlers Distinguish Joking and Pretending. Cognitive Science 40 (4):941-971.
    While separate pieces of research found parents offer toddlers cues to express that they are joking and pretending, and that toddlers and preschoolers understand intentions to joke and pretend, it is not yet clear whether parents and toddlers consider joking and pretending to be distinct concepts. This is important as distinguishing these two forms of non-literal acts could open a gateway to understanding the complexities of the non-literal world, as well as the complexities of intentions in general. Two studies found (...)
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    Elena Hoicka & Jessica Butcher (2015). Parents Produce Explicit Cues That Help Toddlers Distinguish Joking and Pretending. Cognitive Science 40 (1).
    While separate pieces of research found parents offer toddlers cues to express that they are joking and pretending, and that toddlers and preschoolers understand intentions to joke and pretend, it is not yet clear whether parents and toddlers consider joking and pretending to be distinct concepts. This is important as distinguishing these two forms of non-literal acts could open a gateway to understanding the complexities of the non-literal world, as well as the complexities of intentions in general. Two studies found (...)
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