Search results for 'Jill Freedman' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Combs Gene & Freedman Jill (2002). Relationships, Not Boundaries. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 23 (3).score: 300.0
     
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  2. Gene Combs & Jill Freedman (2002). Relationships, Not Boundaries. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 23 (3):203-217.score: 240.0
    The authors find it more useful to payattention to relationships than to boundaries.By focusing attention on bounded, individualpsychological issues, the metaphor ofboundaries can distract helping professionalsfrom thinking about inequities of power. Itoversimplifies a complex issue, inviting us toignore discourses around gender, race, class,culture, and the like that support injustice,abuse, and exploitation. Making boundaries acentral metaphor for ethical practice can keepus from critically examining the effects ofdistance, withdrawal, and non-participation.The authors describe how it is possible toexamine the practical, moral, and ethicaleffects (...)
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  3. Karyn L. Freedman (2006). The Epistemological Significance of Psychic Trauma. Hypatia 21 (2):104-125.score: 60.0
    This essay explores the epistemological significance of the kinds of beliefs that grow out of traumatic experiences, such as the rape survivor's belief that she is never safe. On current theories of justification, beliefs like this one are generally dismissed due to either insufficient evidence or insufficient propositional content. Here, Freedman distinguishes two discrete sides of the aftermath of psychic trauma, the shattered self and the shattered worldview. This move enables us to see these beliefs as beliefs; in other (...)
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  4. David Freedman & Paul Humphreys (1999). Are There Algorithms That Discover Causal Structure? Synthese 121 (1-2):29-54.score: 60.0
    There have been many efforts to infer causation from association byusing statistical models. Algorithms for automating this processare a more recent innovation. In Humphreys and Freedman[(1996) British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 47, 113–123] we showed that one such approach, by Spirtes et al., was fatally flawed. Here we put our arguments in a broader context and reply to Korb and Wallace [(1997) British Journal for thePhilosophy of Science 48, 543–553] and to Spirtes et al.[(1997) British Journal for (...)
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  5. Carol Freedman (1997). The Morality of Huck Finn. Philosophy and Literature 21 (1):102-113.score: 30.0
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  6. Karyn L. Freedman (2006). Normative Naturalism and Epistemic Relativism. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 20 (3):309 – 322.score: 30.0
    In previous work, I defended Larry Laudan against the criticism that the axiological component of his normative naturalism lacks a naturalistic justification. I argued that this criticism depends on an equivocation over the term 'naturalism' and that it begs the question against what we are entitled to include in our concept of nature. In this paper, I generalize that argument and explore its implications for Laudan and other proponents of epistemic naturalism. Here, I argue that a commitment to naturalism in (...)
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  7. Karyn Freedman (1999). Laudan's Naturalistic Axiology. Philosophy of Science 66 (3):537.score: 30.0
    Doppelt (1986,1990), Siegel (1990), and Rosenberg (1996) argue that the pivotal feature of Laudan's normative naturalism, namely his axiology, lacks a naturalistic foundation. In this paper I show that this objection turns on a misunderstanding of Laudan's use of the term 'naturalism'. Specifically, I argue that there are two important senses of naturalism running through Laudan's work. Once these two strands are made explicit, the objection raised by Doppelt and others simply disappears.
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  8. Benjamin Freedman (1978). A Meta-Ethics for Professional Morality. Ethics 89 (1):1-19.score: 30.0
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  9. David Freedman (1995). Some Issues in the Foundation of Statistics. Foundations of Science 1 (1):19-39.score: 30.0
    After sketching the conflict between objectivists and subjectivists on the foundations of statistics, this paper discusses an issue facing statisticians of both schools, namely, model validation. Statistical models originate in the study of games of chance, and have been successfully applied in the physical and life sciences. However, there are basic problems in applying the models to social phenomena; some of the difficulties will be pointed out. Hooke's law will be contrasted with regression models for salary discrimination, the latter being (...)
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  10. Paul Humphreys & David Freedman (1996). The Grand Leap. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 47 (1):113-123.score: 30.0
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  11. Karyn L. Freedman (2009). Diversity and the Fate of Objectivity. Social Epistemology 23 (1):45-56.score: 30.0
    Helen Longino argues that the way to ensure scientific knowledge is objective is to have a diversity of scientific investigators. This is the best example of recent feminist arguments which hold that the real value of diversity is epistemic, and not political, but it only partly succeeds. In the end, Longino's objectivity amounts to intersubjective agreement about contextually based standards, and while her account gives us a good reason for wanting diversity in our scientific communities, this reason turns out to (...)
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  12. Carl Freedman (2002). A Note on Marxism and Fantasy. Historical Materialism 10 (4):261-271.score: 30.0
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  13. Russell Freedman (2002). Confucius: The Golden Rule. Arthur A. Levine Books.score: 30.0
    Born in China in 551 B.C., Confucius rose from poverty to the heights of his country's ruling class. But then he quit his high post for the life of an itinerant philosopher. "The Analects" collects his teachings on education and government, the definition of nobility, the equality of man, and the right way and purpose of living - ideas that eventually spread to the West and influenced the great thinkers of the Enlightenment. And five centuries before Christ, Confucius set forth (...)
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  14. Joseph S. Freedman (2001). "Professionalization" and "Confessionalization": The Place of Physics, Philosophy, and Arts Instruction At Central European Academic Institutions During the Reformation Era. Early Science and Medicine 6 (4):334-352.score: 30.0
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  15. Benjamin Freedman (1994). Multicenter Trials and Subject Eligibility: Should Local IRBs Play a Role? Irb 16 (1-2):1.score: 30.0
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  16. S. Freedman & E. Wigner (1973). On Bub's Misunderstanding of Bell's Locality Argument. Foundations of Physics 3 (4):457-458.score: 30.0
    Bub's criticism of Bell's locality postulate is discussed. The locality postulate is explained, and it is shown that Bub is in fact arguing against a class of theories which are subject to stronger restrictions than this postulate, and therefore his “refutation” of the latter is misleading.
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  17. Rona Abramovitch, Jonathan L. Freedman, Kate Henry & Michelle Van Brunschot (1995). Children's Capacity to Agree to Psychological Research: Knowledge of Risks and Benefits and Voluntariness. Ethics and Behavior 5 (1):25 – 48.score: 30.0
    A series of studies investigated the capacity of children between the ages of 7 and 12 to give free and informed consent to participation in psychological research. Children were reasonably accurate in describing the purpose of studies, but many did not understand the possible benefits or especially the possible risks of participating. In several studies children's consent was not affected by the knowledge that their parents had given their permission or by the parents saying that they would not be upset (...)
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  18. Joseph S. Freedman (1979). Kant on History and Religion. Journal of the History of Philosophy 17 (1):104-105.score: 30.0
  19. David A. Freedman & William Wang (1996). Language Polygenesis: A Probabilistic Model. Philosophical Explorations.score: 30.0
    Monogenesis of language is widely accepted, but the conventional argument seems to be mistaken; a simple probabilistic model shows that polygenesis is likely. Other prehistoric inventions are discussed, as are problems in tracing linguistic lineages. Language is a system of representations; within such a system, words can evoke complex and systematic responses. Along with its social functions, language is important to humans as a mental instrument. Indeed, the invention of language,that is the accumulation of symbols to represent emotions, objects, and (...)
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  20. Benjamin Freedman, Abraham Fuks & Charles Weijer, Demarcating Research and Treatment: A Systematic Approach for the Analysis of the Ethics of Clinical Research.score: 30.0
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  21. Karyn L. Freedman (2010). The Limits of Internalism: A Case Study. Dialogue 49 (01):73-89.score: 30.0
    Looking at specific populations of knowers reveals that the presumption of sameness within knowledge communities can lead to a number of epistemological oversights. A good example of this is found in the case of survivors of sexual violence. In this paper I argue that this case study offers a new perspective on the debate between the epistemic internalist and externalist by providing us with a fresh insight into the complicated psychological dimensions of belief formation and the implications that this has (...)
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  22. Marcia P. Freedman (1968). The Myth of the Aesthetic Predicate. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 27 (1):49-55.score: 30.0
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  23. Benjamin Freedman (1981). What Really Makes Professional Morality Different: Response to Martin. Ethics 91 (4):626-630.score: 30.0
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  24. Karyn L. Freedman (2006). Disquotationalism, Truth and Justification: The Pragmatist's Wrong Turn. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 36 (3):371-386.score: 30.0
    I argue that Cheryl Misak, in her Deflating Truth: Pragmatism vs. Minimalism, puts forth a pragmatist theory of truth that is deflationary in spirit but goes beyond the triviality of the equivalence schema. Furthermore, Misak's criticism of disquotationalism is systemic of a larger problem with her pragmatist theory of truth, namely her desire to explicate justification in terms of truth. She is right that people's assorteric practices involve defending their beliefs to one another, but she is wrong to think that (...)
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  25. Karyn Freedman (1998). What's New on the Net. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 12 (2):193 – 195.score: 30.0
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  26. Benjamin Freedman (1999). Duty and Healing: Foundations of a Jewish Bioethic. Routledge.score: 30.0
    Duty and Healing positions ethical issues commonly encountered in clinical situations within Jewish law. The concept of duty is significant in exploring bioethical issues, and this book presents an authentic and non-parochial Jewish approach to bioethics, while it includes critiques of both current secular and Jewish literatures. Among the issues the book explores are the role of family in medical decision-making, the question of informed consent as a personal religious duty, and the responsibilities of caretakers. The exploration of contemporary ethical (...)
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  27. Joseph S. Freedman (1994). Classifications of Philosophy, the Sciences, and the Arts in Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century Europe. Modern Schoolman 72 (1):37-65.score: 30.0
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  28. Benjamin Freedman, Kathleen Cranley Glass & Charles Weijer (1996). Placebo Orthodoxy in Clinical Research II: Ethical, Legal, and Regulatory Myths. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 24 (3):252-259.score: 30.0
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  29. Benjamin Freedman (1983). The Eyes of Beholders: Roles and the Distribution of Scarce Medical Resources. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 4 (1).score: 30.0
    A common difficulty with the application of theories of justice to the allocation of medical resources is the assumption that one perspective is primary, whether that privileged perspective be that of the practitioner, on the one hand, or policy analyst on the other. By a discussion of three theories — those of Ramsey, Childress, and Joseph Fletcher — I attempt to show that these perspectives must be treated as related. As a result, values and ethics expressed in micro-allocation should be (...)
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  30. Paul Humphreys & David Freedman (1996). Review: The Grand Leap. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 47 (1):113 - 123.score: 30.0
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  31. Benjamin Freedman (1991). Violating Confidentiality to Warn of a Risk of HIV Infection: Ethical Work in Progress. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 12 (4).score: 30.0
    The old literature on whether medical confidentiality may be breached to warn a spouse of a risk of contracting syphilis from his/her partner — a deep and rich literature — has become relevant once again in the context of HIV infection and AIDS. This paper examines the reasoning and method employed in: the Catholic approach centered around the patient's (property) right to the secret; a (generic) model of justice, utilizing minimal principles of non-aggression and restitution; and an approach involving the (...)
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  32. Benjamin Freedman (1992). A Response to a Purported Ethical Difficulty with Randomized Clinical Trials Involving Cancer Patients. Journal of Clinical Ethics 3 (3):231.score: 30.0
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  33. Karyn L. Freedman (2005). Naturalized Epistemology, or What the Strong Programme Can't Explain. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 36 (1):135-148.score: 30.0
    In this paper I argue that the Strong Programme's aim to provide robust explanations of belief acquisition is limited by its commitment to the symmetry principle. For Bloor and Barnes, the symmetry principle is intended to drive home the fact that epistemic norms are socially constituted. My argument here is that even if our epistemic standards are fully naturalized-even relativized-they nevertheless can play a pivotal role in why individuals adopt the beliefs that they do. Indeed, sometimes the fact that a (...)
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  34. Charles Weijer, Benjamin Freedman, Stanley Shapiro, Abraham Fuks, Myriam Skrutkowska & Maria Sigurjonsdottir, Assessing the Interpretation of Criteria for Clinical Trial Eligibility: A Survey of Oncology Investigators.score: 30.0
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether eligibility criteria that exclude the elderly, persons with psychiatric disease, and persons with substance abuse problems from participation in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are subjective and hence a source of variability in enrolment decisions and investigator uncertainty. DESIGN: Survey questionnaire. PARTICIPANTS: Cancer investigators from the United States and Canada. INTERVENTIONS: Investigators were presented with clinical vignettes from 3 patient categories--eligible, ineligible and uncertain--for each of 5 eligibility criteria--3 subjective and 2 objective--and were asked whether they would (...)
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  35. Benjamin Freedman, Charles Weijer & Kathleen Cranley Glass (1996). Placebo Orthodoxy in Clinical Research I: Empirical and Methodological Myths. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 24 (3):243-251.score: 30.0
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  36. P. Humphreys & D. Freedman (1996). The Grand Leap. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 47 (1):113-123.score: 30.0
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  37. Priti Shah & Eric G. Freedman (2011). Bar and Line Graph Comprehension: An Interaction of Top‐Down and Bottom‐Up Processes. Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (3):560-578.score: 30.0
    This experiment investigated the effect of format (line vs. bar), viewers’ familiarity with variables, and viewers’ graphicacy (graphical literacy) skills on the comprehension of multivariate (three variable) data presented in graphs. Fifty-five undergraduates provided written descriptions of data for a set of 14 line or bar graphs, half of which depicted variables familiar to the population and half of which depicted variables unfamiliar to the population. Participants then took a test of graphicacy skills. As predicted, the format influenced viewers’ interpretations (...)
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  38. Sanford Freedman (1983). Character in a Coherent Fiction: On Putting King Lear Back Together Again. Philosophy and Literature 7 (2):196-212.score: 30.0
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  39. Benjamin Freedman, Charles Weijer & Eugene Bereza (1993). Case Notes and Charting of Bioethical Case Consultations. HEC Forum 5 (3):176-195.score: 30.0
    In summary, the usual elements of a typical health care ethics consultation note might reasonably accommodate the needs and expectations of relevant parties, and would therefore include: 1. identification of the relevant ethical issues, questions, or dilemmas; 2. reference to any relevant facts--medical, nursing, social, psychological, spiritual, legal, political, etc.; 3. a prioritized list of recommendations to improve coordinated care; 4. a clear and concise articulation of relevant arguments, wtih specific reference to the list of recommendations as well as to (...)
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  40. Benjamin Freedman & Charles Weijer, [Demarcating Research and Treatment Interventions: A Case Illustration]: Commentary.score: 30.0
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  41. Benjamin Freedman, Abraham Fuks & Charles Weijer (1993). In Loco Parentis: Minimal Risk as an Ethical Threshold for Research Upon Children. Hastings Center Report 23 (2):13-19.score: 30.0
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  42. Karyn L. Freedman (forthcoming). Testimony and Epistemic Risk: The Dependence Account. Social Epistemology:1-19.score: 30.0
    In this paper, I give an answer to the central epistemic question regarding the normative requirements for beliefs based on testimony. My suggestion here is that our best strategy for coming up with the conditions for justification is to look at cases where the adoption of the belief matters to the person considering it. This leads me to develop, in Part One of the paper, an interest-relative theory of justification, according to which our justification for a proposition p depends on (...)
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  43. Benjamin Freedman (1978). On the Rights of the Voiceless. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 3 (3):196-210.score: 30.0
  44. Leonard Freedman (2012). Wit as a Political Weapon: Satirists and Censors. Social Research: An International Quarterly 79 (1):87-112.score: 30.0
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  45. Monroe H. Freedman (1984). Lawyer‐Client Confidences Under the A.B.A. Model Rules: Ethical Rules Without Ethical Reason. Criminal Justice Ethics 3 (2):3-8.score: 30.0
    (1984). Lawyer‐client confidences under the A.B.A. model rules: Ethical rules without ethical reason. Criminal Justice Ethics: Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 3-8.
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  46. Charles Weijer, Benjamin Freedman, Abraham Fuks, James Robbins, Stanley Shapiro & Myriam Skrutkowska, What Difference Does It Make to Be Treated in a Clinical Trial? A Pilot Study.score: 30.0
    OBJECTIVE: Pilot study to characterize treatment differences between patients treated in clinical trials and those treated in a clinical setting. Previous studies have shown higher survival rates for participants in trials of cancer therapy. This difference is observed even after rates are adjusted for important covariates such as age and stage of disease. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Oncology outpatient department in a tertiary care hospital. PATIENTS: Ninety women 18 to 70 years of age with early-stage breast cancer who were (...)
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  47. Craig Freedman (1995). Animal Spirits in His Soup: A Look at the Methodology and Rhetoric of The General Theory. Journal of Economic Methodology 2 (1):79-104.score: 30.0
    Part of Keynes? 'struggle of escape from habitual modes of thought and expression' (Keynes 1960: viii) involves an implicit attempt to break with the methodology as well as the theory of the past. Unfortunately the rhetorical strategy Keynes adopted in The General Theoryblurred this attempt. As a result, it is only by examining both the methodology and rhetoric embedded in this work that it becomes possible to understand the book as a coherent whole. This paper demonstrates the validity of taking (...)
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  48. Benjamin Freedman (1981). The Entity-Restriction of Rights: Notes on a Fashion in Ethics. Metaphilosophy 12 (2):159–168.score: 30.0
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  49. Benjamin Freedman (2000). The Roles and Responsibilities of the Ethics Consultant: A Retrospective Analysis of Cases. University Publishing.score: 30.0
  50. William Freedman (1981). The Relevance of the Truth-Standard. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 39 (4):429-436.score: 30.0
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