The Right has a long history of questioning the importance of race analysis. Recently, the conceptual and political status of race has come under increased scrutiny from the Left. Bracketing the language of ‘race’ has meant that the discourse of skin groups remains at the level of abstraction and does not speak to real groups as such. As a descriptor, race essentializes identity as if skin color were a reliable way to perceive one's self and group as well as others, (...) and questions the viability of a social struggle based on race. In other words, race is not real and discourses that insist on its objective status are ensnared in reification. The response—equally from the Left—has been to reassert the centrality and changing dynamics of race in education and society. They argue that we need to develop more, rather than less, complex discourses on race. Orientations that attempt to discredit race analysis are therefore unable to dismantle the racial system because they refuse its significance as an autonomous system of interpellations. In other words, race is real. This essay appraises the debate within the Left about the status of race, their projections about the future of race, and the kind of struggle they promote in order to realize a society freed from the chains of racism. (shrink)
Hermeneutics, or the science of interpretation,is well accepted in the humanities. In thefield of education, hermeneutics has played arelatively marginal role in research. It isthe task of this essay to introduce thegeneral methods and findings of Paul Ricoeur'shermeneutics. Specifically, the essayinterprets the usefulness of Ricoeur'sphilosophy in the study of domination. Theproblem of domination has been a target ofanalysis for critical pedagogy since itsinception. However, the role of interpretationas a constitutive part of ideology critique isrelatively understudied and it is here thatRicoeur's (...) ideas are instructive. Last, theessay radicalizes Ricoeur's insights in orderto realize their potential to disruptasymmetrical relations of power in education. To this extent, the author contributes to thebuilding of a critical brand of hermeneutics,or the interpretation of domination. (shrink)
The diversity of plant resources in the Brazilian semi-arid region is being compromised by practices related to agriculture, pastures, and forest harvesting, especially in areas containing Caatinga vegetation (xeric shrublands and thorn forests). The impact of these practices constitutes a series of complex factors involving local issues, creating a need for further scientific studies on the social-environmental dynamics of natural resource use. Through participatory methods, the present study analyzed people’s representations about local environmental change processes in the Brazilian semi-arid region, (...) taking into consideration local production systems, natural resources, and their importance. Environmental historical graphs were developed with nine local families to analyze landscape changes with regard to cultivated areas and pastures, and their relationship with the availability of native vegetation. Punctuation exercises were performed to observe the importance of each unit that supplied native and cultivated resources. The availability of native resources in the environment is subject to stability, as observed by a majority of the local families. The role of the production units (crops and pastures) was emphasized by most families in the study, especially because of the need for products for subsistence needs and income generation. The current decline of such practices is a consequence of an exodus of field workers and also relates to the conservation of native species that otherwise would have been deforested in favor of agricultural practices. (shrink)
En contra de la tradición universalista kantiana, mostraré que no toda mentira es inmoral. Con ello intento demostrar que la evaluación moral de la mentira no puede hacerse exclusivamente con criterios necesarios y universales, sino que se debe apelar a criterios contingentes que dependen de la situación particular en la que se encuentra el agente.
Embora a logica seja, de urn modo geraJ, concebida como um ramo da filosofia, suas aplic~oes via muito alem dos limites de qualquer disciplina isoladamente considerada (SALMON, 1993). Seu papel principal e fomecer meios para determinar a rel~o de consequencia que vige entre as premissas e a conclusao de urn dado argumento. Dentre as tecnicas utilizadas que possibihtarn garantir esta rel~o destaca-se a tecnica por redu ¢oao absurdo por ser amplamente aplicada nas cienciasdesde a antiguidade. Suaideiabasics residenofatodequeumapropo si~ nio pode (...) ser verdadeira se dela deduzimos uma contradi ~o. Pretende-se, entio, apresentar a estrutura logica de tal tee niea de demonstracao a partir de urn dado sistema formal da logica classica. (shrink)
Este artigo aborda a influência do republicanismo ciceroniano no pensamento de Nicolau Maquiavel e pretende demonstrar como este renova a tradição do pensamento político ocidental. Tendo como fio condutor a análise do regime misto e da virtude cívica como elemento comum aos dois autores, pretendemos estabelecer, ao final do texto, a inovação maquiaveliana do elogio dos conflitos frente à valorização da concórdia apregoada pelo republicanismo clássico.
The relation between seeing, knowledge, and language has concerned philosophers and artists throughout history. The current article examines the relation between word, image, and knowledge in some prominent Renaissance artworks. It is argued that the shift from revelatory truth in the word to evidence in “seeing the real” as Leonardo da Vinci (1452 -1519) argues in his writings, marks a moment in history in which the human being takes center stage as the interpreter of knowledge. In the search for (...) perfect proportionality and beautiful harmony, Renaissance artists, therefore, did not just create an aesthetic dimension yet were central in a process leading to a reevaluation and alternative modes of knowledge about the human being. (shrink)
Resenha do livro de Juan Adolfo Bonaccini, Maria de Paz Nunes Medeiros, Markus Figueira de Silva e Oscar Frederico Bauchwitz (Org.). Metafísica: história e problemas: atas do I Colóquio Internacional da Metafísica . Natal: EDUFRN, 2006, 332 páginas. [Coleçáo Metafísica n. 5].
Seen | Unseen is a deep, richly illustrated, and erudite analysis of the interconnections between science and the visual arts. Martin Kemp explores the responses of artists, scientists, and their instruments, to the world - ranging from early representations of perspective, to pinhole cameras, particle accelerators and the Hubble telescope. -/- From Leonardo, Durer, and the inventors of photography to contemporary sculptors, and from Galileo and Darwin to Stephen J. Gould, Kemp considers the way in which scientists and artists (...) have perceived the world and responded to its patterns, and sees common 'structural intuitions' reflected in their work. (shrink)
Nietzsche’s critique of the will to truth, and, more specifically, the metaphysical tradition, is inextricable from both his philosophy of language and his turn to physiology. Though the way in which Nietzsche conceived of the intertwinement of language, reason, and the body developed through the course of his philosophical maturation, it is nonetheless a recurrent motif spanning the breadth of his oeuvre. As the editors state in their introduction to Nietzsche on Instinct and Language (NIL), the volume aims at being (...) a “fresh look” at Nietzsche’s repeated attempts to bridge these domains (xv). Beyond this singular and broad explicit aim, however, the volume intimates a number of other more specific aspirations. .. (shrink)
O decorrer século XIV, o conflito entre o papa e o imperador se esvaiu. Entrementes, os novos estados criavam corpo e os antigos problemas adquiriam nova roupagem. Esse foi o ambiente em que viveu Wyclif. Seu pensamento político possui uma matriz religiosa e sua intenção maior foi a de compreender a Igreja como comunidade de redimidos. Nessa condição ela só é conhecida por Deus e só no juízo final os homens saberão quem pertenceu à verdadeira Igreja. Baseado em Egídio Romano, (...) mas lendo-o em outra clave, justifica a propriedade e o poder através do estado de graça. Em suas críticas à Igreja foi um dos antecessores da Reforma. PALAVRAS-CHAVE – Novos estados. Igreja dos redimidos. Propriedade. Poder. Reforma. ABSTRACT During the XIV century, the conflict between the pope and the emperor lost force. In the meanwhile, the new states took body and the ancient problems took on new clothes. That was the environment in which Wyclif lived. His political thought owns a religious source, and his major intention was to understand the Church as a community of the redeemed. In such a condition the Church is only known by God, and only in the final judgment men will know who belonged to the true Church. Based on Giles of Rom, but reading him from a different point of view, he justifies property and power through the state of grace. In his critics to the Church he was one of the antecessors of the Reform. KEY WORDS – New states. Church of the redeemed. Property. Power. Reform. (shrink)
Neste estudo, investiga-se a possibilidade de uma análise, por parte de Duns Scotus, do clássico problema de filosofia moral localizado na fraqueza da vontade. Argumentando de modo crítico para a identificação do tema na ética scotista, o autor acaba por expor, com isso, as premissas centrais de toda a metafísica da vontade e a ética da liberdade de Duns Scotus. PALAVRAS-CHAVE – Fraqueza da vontade. Vontade. Liberdade. Voluntarismo. Teoria da ação scotista. ABSTRACT In this study the hypothesis of finding in (...) Duns Scotus’s works a real analysis of the classical problem of moral philosophy located in the weakness of the will is deeply investigated. Arguing critically for the identification of that theme in the ethics of Scotus, the author outlines at the same time the central premises for Duns Scotus’s metaphysics of the will and ethics of freedom. KEY WORDS – Weakness of will. Will. Freedom. Voluntarism. Scotus’s theory of action. (shrink)
En este trabajo se estudia la sugerente posición de algunos pensadores que constituyen una excepción en la historia de la filosofía respecto de la interpretación del intelecto agente, el gran hallazgo aristotélico: Francisco Canals, Leonardo Polo y sus discípulos, pues lo emplazan a nivel de “ac tus essendi hominis ”.
In this pathbreaking study, Micaela di Leonardo reveals the face of power within the mask of cultural difference. From the 1893 World's Fair to Body Shop advertisements, di Leonardo focuses on the intimate and shifting relations between popular portrayals of exotic Others and the practice of anthropology. In so doing, she casts new light on gender, race, and the public sphere in America's past and present. "An impressive work of scholarship that is mordantly witty, passionately argued, and takes (...) no prisoners."--Lesley Gill, News Politics "[Micaela] di Leonardo eloquently argues for the importance of empirical, interdisciplinary social science in addressing the tragedy that is urban America at the end of the century."--Jonathan Spencer, Times Literary Supplement "In her quirky new contribution to the American culture brawl, feminist anthropologist Micaela di Leonardo explains how anthropologists, 'technicians of the sacred,' have distorted American popular debate and social life."--Rachel Mattson, Voice Literary Supplement "At the end of di Leonardo's analyses one is struck by her rare combination of rigor and passion. Simply, [she] is a marvelous iconoclast."--Matthew T. McGuire, Boston Book Review. (shrink)