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Profile: Joachim Schummer (Universität Karlsruhe)
  1. Joachim Schummer, Identifying Ethical Issues of Nanotechnologies.
    in: Henk ten Have (ed.), Nanotechnology: Science, Ethics and Policy Issues, Paris (UNESCO Series in Ethics of Science and Technology), 2006 (forthcoming).
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  2. Maureen Christie & Joachim Schummer, HYLE Book Reviews. [REVIEW]
    It is like an irony of the history of science that philosophy of chemistry emerged at a time when disciplinary research became increasingly replaced with transdisciplinary problem-orientated research. From bio-medical research via materials science to nanotechnology, chemists and chemical approaches are strongly involved in these areas. If the boundaries of the philosophies of science were to be defined by the boundaries of classical disciplines, we would not only get into demarcation troubles but also miss some of the most fascinating recent (...)
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  3. Hartwig Heine & Joachim Schummer, Chemistry Managers Coping with Environmentalists' Criticism.
    Among the sciences, chemistry plays an eminent role in that it has its own traditional industry. The chemical industry is not only the main employer for graduated chemists. Since the public is more aware of industrial chemistry than of academic chemistry, the industry also represents the public image of the whole profession - and that is terribly bad due to environmental concerns.
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  4. Peter Lang & Joachim Schummer, Why Do Chemists Perform Experiments?
    Nowadays it is well known among historians of science that Francis Bacon, one of the modern defender of the experimental method, owed much of his thoughts to the chemical or alchemical tradition (cf. e.g., Gregory 1938, West 1961, Linden 1974, and Rees 1977). In fact, alchemy, particularly in the Arabic tradition, was always based on laboratory investigations by carefully examining the results of controlled manipulation of materials.1 It is also well known that Francis Bacon’s appeal to the experimental method was (...)
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  5. William R. Newman & Joachim Schummer, HYLE Book Review. [REVIEW]
    Referring to the Whig Party, the former political opponents of the Tories in Great Britain, British historian Herbert Butterfield once coined the term ‘Whiggish’ historiography for any account that looks at the past from the perspective of the present, as if the goal of the past were the achievement of the present. Thus, a ‘Whiggish’ history of science carefully ignores everything of the past that does not suit the idea of a steady growth of science towards the current state. Strangely (...)
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  6. Joachim Schummer, Cultural Diversity in Nanotechnology Ethics.
    Along with the rapid worldwide advance of nanotechnology, debates on associated ethical issues have spread from local to international levels. However, unlike science and engineer- ing issues, international perceptions of ethical issues are very diverse. This paper provides an analysis of how sociocultural factors such as language, cultural heritage, economics and politics can affect how people perceive ethical issues of nanotechnology. By attempting to clarify the significance of sociocultural issues in ethical considerations my aim is to support the ongoing international (...)
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  7. Joachim Schummer, From Nano-Convergence to NBIC-Convergence: “The Best Way to Predict the Future is to Create It”.
    This chapter combines rhetorical with conceptual analysis to argue that the concept of convergence of technologies is a teleological concept that does not describe or predict any recent past, present, or future development. Instead it always expresses or attributes political goals of how future technology should be developed. The concept was already fully developed as a flexible rhetorical tool by US science administrators to create nanotechnology (as nano-convergence), before it was broadened to invent the convergence of nano-, bio-, info-, and (...)
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  8. Joachim Schummer, HYLE Article.
    By comparing chemistry to art, chemists have recently made claims to the aesthetic value, even beauty, of some of their products. This paper takes these claims seriously and turns them into a systematic investigation of the aesthetics of chemical products. I distinguish three types of chemical products – materials, molecules, and molecular models – and use a wide variety of aesthetic theories suitable for an investigation of the corresponding sorts of objects. These include aesthetics of materials, idealistic aesthetics from Plato (...)
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  9. Joachim Schummer, Macmillan Encyclopedia of Chemistry.
    Ostwald (born September 2, 1853, Riga, Latvia, Russia; died April 4, 1932, at his private estate near Leipzig, Germany) almost single-handedly established physical chemistry as an acknowledged academic discipline. In 1909, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry for his work on catalysis, chemical equilibria, and reaction velocities. Ostwald was graduated in chemistry at the University of Dorpat (now Tartu, Estonia) and appointed professor of chemistry in Riga in 1881, before he moved from Russia to Germany on the chair (...)
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  10. Joachim Schummer, Matter Versus Form, and Beyond.
    There is the popular notion according to which the world is built up in a hierarchical order, such that combining entities from the lower level results in entities of the next higher level, and so on. It seems beyond doubt in this view that the entities at the lowest level are some subatomic particles, to be followed at the next levels by atoms, molecules, biological organs and organisms including humans, and eventually societies. Accordingly, a scientific discipline is assigned to each (...)
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  11. Joachim Schummer, Namenregister.
    Alain (siehe Chartier, E.A.) Angehrn, E. 10, 21 Annas, J. 21, 150 Antoni, K. 58, 67 Aristipp von Kyrene 175 Aristoteles 14, 18, 24, 113, 156f.
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  12. Joachim Schummer, Physical Chemistry: Neither Fish nor Fowl?
    The birth of a new discipline, called 'physical chemistry', is sometimes related to the names OSTWALD, ARRHENIUS and VAN'T HOFF and dated back to the year 1887, when OSTWALD founded the Zeitschrift für physikalische Chemie .[1] But as many historians have pointed out, the phrase 'physical chemistry' was widely used before that and the topics under investigation partially go back to Robert BOYLE's attempts to connect chemistry with concepts of mechanical philosophy.[2] The idea of a sudden birth of physical (...)
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  13. Joachim Schummer, The Creation of Life in Cultural Context: From Spontaneous Generation to Synthetic Biology.
    The artificial creation of life arises both strong fascination by scientists and strong concerns, if not abhorrence, by critics of science. What appears to be the crowning achievement of synthetic biology is at the same time considered a major evil. That conflict, which perhaps epitomizes many of the cultural conflicts about science in Western societies, calls for a deeper analysis. Standard ethical analyses, which would try to relate such conflicts to a difference in fundamental values, are difficult to apply here, (...)
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  14. Joachim Schummer, The Global Institutionalization of Nanotechnology Research: A Bibliometric Approach to the Assessment of Science Policy.
    Based on bibliometric methods, this paper describes the global institutionalization of nanotechnology research from the mid-1980s to 2006. Owing to an extremely strong dynamics, the institutionalization of nanotechnology is likely to surpass those of major disciplines in only a few years. A breakdown of the relative institutionalizations strengths by the main geographical regions, countries, research sectors, disciplines, and institutional types provides a very diverse picture over the time period because of different national science policies. The results allow a critical assessment (...)
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  15. Joachim Schummer, The Philosophy of Chemistry.
    It would seem that philosophy of chemistry emerged only recently. Since the early 1990s philosophers and chemists began to meet in many different countries to discuss philosophical issues of chemistry – at first in isolated national groups but soon cultivating international exchange through regular meetings and the publications of two journals (Hyle and Foundations of Chemistry) devoted to the philosophy of chemistry. While the social formation is indeed a recent phenomenon that is still in progress, the philosophical topics have a (...)
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  16. Joachim Schummer & Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent, The Public Image of Chemistry.
    Of all the scientific disciplines chemistry seems to be particularly concerned about its public image. Indeed, popular associations with chemistry range from poisons, hazards, chemical warfare, and environmental pollution to alchemical pseudo-science, sorcery, and mad scientists. Despite repeated campaigns for convincing the public that chemistry would bring health, comfort, and welfare, chemists frequently meet with hostility in popular culture. As student enrollment numbers has been shrinking, chemistry departments have been closed in several countries. Also in humanist culture chemistry has a (...)
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  17. Joachim Schummer, Aesthetics and Visualization in Chemistry, Part.
    There is a particular irony that chemistry – the most visual, tactile, and pungent of sciences – is rarely associated with modern notions of aesthetics and science. Indeed, as any examination of aesthetics and modern science reveals, physics, rather than chemistry or biology, is considered the paradigm because of its extraordinary ability to comprehend and communicate through the symbolic language of mathematics. Echoing Heisenberg’s 1970 essay, "The Meaning of Beauty in the Exact Sciences", this perspective on physics takes the inherent (...)
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  18. Joachim Schummer, Beiträge.
    Die folgende Bibliographie wurde erstellt auf Anregungen mehrerer Autoren aus der ehemaligen DDR auf der vom APC organisierten Diskussionsrunde „Perspektiven der Philosophie der Chemie“ im November 1995 in der Humboldt-Universität Berlin (s. Mitteilungsblatt 1 (1995)). Im Sinne einer „unzensierten“ Bestandsaufnahme soll sie einen Überblick über chemiephilosophische Aktivitäten der DDR für sowohl systematische Anknüpfungen als auch philosophiehistorische Forschungen bieten. Unter den ebenfalls zahlreich vorliegenden chemiehistorischen Arbeiten sind nur ausgewählte begriffs-, theorien- und disziplinenhistorische sowie philosophiehistorisch relevante Texte berücksichtigt. Ebenfalls aufgenommen sind einige (...)
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  19. Joachim Schummer, Über Das Streben Nach Lust.
    Aristoteles hat in seiner berühmten Abhandlung über die Lust eine Einteilung der Philosophenmeinungen bezüglich der Lust vorgenommen.2 Die einen, sagt er, halten die Lust für das höchste Gut; die anderen meinen, daß die Lust ganz und gar schlecht sei. Unter den Lustgegnern nennt Aristoteles wiederum zwei Gruppen. Die einen lehnen die Lust aus Überzeugung ab, die anderen nur aus pädagogischen Gründen. Manchen liegt das Thema so am Herzen, daß sie, wie Aristoteles bemerkt, aus pädagogischen Gründen wider bessere Einsicht argumentieren.
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  20. Joachim Schummer, Color Field Painting AlS ‚Reine Malerei'.
    Wer sich heute kunsttheoretisch mit der Farbfeldmalerei beschäftigt, wird kaum umhin kommen, sich mit dem Verhältnis zwischen Kunsttheorie und Kunstpraxis ganz allgemein auseinanderzusetzen. Denn mit der theoretischen Thematisierung der Farbfeldmalerei etabliert sich erst eine uns heute vertraute Form der Kunsttheorie als Kunstkritik in einem ganz spezifischen sozio-historischen Kontext.
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  21. Joachim Schummer, Chemistry Managers Coping with Environmentalists' Criticism.
    Among the sciences, chemistry plays an eminent role in that it has its own traditional industry. The chemical industry is not only the main employer for graduated chemists. Since the public is more aware of industrial chemistry than of academic chemistry, the industry also represents the public image of the whole profession - and that is terribly bad due to environmental concerns.
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  22. Joachim Schummer, Coping with the Growth of Chemical Knowledge.
    Chemistry is by far the most productive science concerning the number of publications. A closer look at chemical papers reveals that most papers deal with new substances. The rapid growth of chemical knowledge seriously challenges all institutions and individuals concerned with chemistry. Chemistry documentation following the principle of completeness is required to schematize chemical information, which in turn induces a schematization of chemical research. Chemistry education is forced to seek reasonable principles of selectivity, although nobody can have an overview any (...)
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  23. Joachim Schummer, Das Bild der Wissenschaft in Piktogrammen: Von der Bedeutung Des Scheinbar Unbedeutenden.
    Zu Beginn eines wissenschaftlichen Projekts – manchmal schon bei dessen Beantragung – sind Wissenschaftler mit der Frage konfrontiert, wie sie sich öffentlich sichtbar präsentieren. Ein griffiger Name (am besten ein eingängiges Akronym) und ein Logo müssen her, um Website, Visitenkarte, Briefkopf, Plakate und Poster zu zieren. Wer Peinlichkeiten vermeiden will, beauftragt gleich einen Werbedesigner für die visuelle Präsentation. Doch woher weiß der Designer, wie Wissenschaft visuell dargestellt wird? Weiß der Wissenschaftler das nicht viel besser? Der Wissenschaftler kennt all die Dinge (...)
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  24. Joachim Schummer, Die Stoffliche Weltveränderung der Chemie: Philosophische Herausforderungen.
    Eine philosophische Auseinandersetzung mit der Chemie ist so neu,1 daß die meisten Philosophen gegenwärtig Schwierigkeiten haben dürften, überhaupt eine thematische Verbindung zwischen beiden Fächern herstellen zu können, was auf ähnliche Weise übrigens auch auf Chemiker zutrifft. Daß dies nicht immer so war, wird sofort einsichtig, wenn man bedenkt, daß die chemische Frage nach der substantiellen Verschiedenartigkeit von Stoffen und ihren gegenseitigen Umwandlungsmöglichkeiten bereits zu den Grundfragen aller antiken Naturphilosophen gehörte. Es dürfte insbesondere dem theoretischen Ungenügen des Konzepts stofflicher Qualitäten nach (...)
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  25. Joachim Schummer, Epistemology of Material Properties.
    This paper presents an epistemological approach to the investigation of material properties that is opposed both to phenomenalistic epistemology and recent linguistical and ontological accounts of matter/mass terms. Emphasis is laid on the inherent context dependence of material properties. It is shown that, if this is taken seriously, some deep epistemological problems arise, like unavoidable uncertainty, incompleteness, inductivity, nonderivableness. It is further argued that some widely held epistemological accounts, namely that of essentialism, constructivism, and pragmatism, all reveal some serious defects (...)
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  26. Joachim Schummer, Glück Und Ethik.
    Alle Menschen streben nach Glück. Es dürfte schwierig sein, einen Philosophen zu benennen, der diesen Satz jemals ernsthaft bestritten hat. Auf der Basis eines solchen, fast einzigartigen und mehr als zweitausend Jahre haltenden philosophischen Konsenses, so möchte man meinen, konnte eine konstruktive Philosophie des Glücks gedeihen, die sich in der Ausgestaltung der Begriffe des Glücks und des Strebens differenzierte; eine Philosophie, die Antworten gibt auf die Fragen, ob bzw. auf welche Weise wir das jeweils erstrebte Glück erreichen können, und die (...)
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  27. Joachim Schummer, Historical Roots of the “Mad Scientist”: Chemists in Nineteenth-Century Literature.
    This paper traces the historical roots of the “mad scientist,” a concept that has powerfully shaped the public image of science up to today, by investigating the representations of chemists in nineteenth-century Western literature. I argue that the creation of this literary figure was the strongest of four critical literary responses to the emergence of modern science in general and of chemistry in particular. The role of chemistry in this story is crucial because early nineteenth-century chemistry both exemplified modern experimental (...)
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  28. Joachim Schummer, Inherent Tensions of Chemistry.
    If you expect a nobel prize winner being a crank who can think of nothing but his subject, then read Roald Hoffmann's The Same and Not the Same and test your hypothesis. This book is about chemistry, to be sure - but in the broadest scope including sociology, psychology, ethics and philosophy of chemistry.
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  29. Joachim Schummer, Naturverhältnisse in der Modernen Wirkstoff-Forschung.
    Summary: Complementary to normative ethics of technology, the paper analyses the normative implications of human relations to nature on technology assessment by three different descriptive approaches. Historically, I determine the roots of normative relations to nature in alchemy. Historiographic-critically, I investigate how normative ideas of progress result from putting these relations to nature in a historical line. From the point of view of methodology of technology, I finally take the example of current drug research to show how different relations to (...)
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  30. Joachim Schummer, On the Novelty of Nanotechnology: A Philosophical Essay.
    Nanotechnology has from its very beginning been surrounded with an aura of novelty. For instance, on the 28 introductory pages of the report that prepared the US National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), Nanotechnology Research Directions (NSTC/IWGN 1999), we read 73 times the term “new”, 15 times “novel”, 7 times “innovation”, and 21 times “revolution”. The authors concede that one should distinguish between different nanotechnologies, because “Many existing technologies do already depend on nanoscale processes. Photography and catalysis are two examples of ‘old’ (...)
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  31. Joachim Schummer, Philosophie der Chemie: Rück- Und Ausblicke.
    Philosophie ist konkret und abstrakt. Sie ist konkret im Gespür für Probleme, die jeden – oder jeden in einem bestimmten Bereich – betreffen. Sie ist abstrakt in der kritischen Formulierung und Lösung von Problemen, indem sie von besonderen Bedingungen und Voreingenommenheiten abstrahiert. Philosophie erfordert Kreativität, Phantasie und die Bereitschaft zu Unkonventionellem in der Wahl der Problemzugangsweisen. Wie alle Wissenschaften ist sie als Methode lehr- und entwickelbar, sofern ein gewisses Talent vorhanden ist. Philosophie beginnt dort, wo Wissenschaftler nicht mehr weiter fragen. (...)
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  32. Joachim Schummer, Providing Metaphysical Sense and Orientation: Nature-Chemistry Relationships in the Popular Historiography of Chemistry.
    Historians of science, like all historians, know well that every account of the history of science is necessarily an interpretation of the history of science. It requires decisions on what is important and what not, it requires ordering, contextualizing, and interpreting the available material, and presenting the results in a final form that sounds plausible to readers. Because a majority of the readers of histories of science are scientists, the degree of plausibility and acceptability depends on what scientists expect from (...)
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  33. Joachim Schummer, Philosophy of Chemistry.
    Chemical ideas about the diversity of matter in terms of elements and compound substances and their transformations have been pivotal to any scientific or pre-scientific approach ever since. From ancient natural philosophy and alchemy to modern 19th-century chemistry, these ideas were made both the basis of philosophical systems and the target of critical reflection. After temporary interruption, when modern philosophy of science materialized as a discourse on mathematical physics, philosophy of chemistry emerged anew in the 1980s and is now a (...)
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  34. Joachim Schummer, Reading Nano: The Public Interest in Nanotechnology as Reflected in Purchase Patterns of Books.
    There is a rapidly growing public interest in nanotechnology such that people increasingly buy various books to inform themselves about nanotechnology. This paper tries to measure the public interest focus on nanotechnology and its relation to the public interest in other fields of knowledge by applying a new method. I combine formal network analysis of co-purchase book data with traditional content analysis. The method is successful in identifying the books that the public reads to be informed about nanotechnology, in distinguishing (...)
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  35. Joachim Schummer, Rezension Von.
    Man ist sie fast schon leid, die Rede vom „Chaos“, mit der wissenschaftspublizistisch versierte Forscher bemüht sind, sich ihren Anteil am hart umkämpften Markt der Forschungsmittel und -reputation zu sichern. Die inflationäre Verkündigung von „wissenschaftlichen Revolutionen“, „Paradigmenwechseln“ und „postmoderner Wissenschaft“ mag manchem Philosophen zwar insgeheim noch schmeicheln wegen der Gebrauchs- und Marktfähigkeit - und Autorität - philosophischer Termini. So recht zu glauben sind solche Botschaften jedoch selten. Aber welcher Philosoph wollte sich da ein sachgerechtes und kritisches Urteil erlauben, ob die (...)
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  36. Joachim Schummer, Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology.
    Since the publication of Part I of our joint special issue on Nanotech Challenges (see Techné 8.2 & Hyle 10.2), several international conferences have taken place that brought together scholars from the humanities and the social, natural, and engineering sciences to reflect on the challenges posed by nanotechnology. These included Nanotechnology in Science, Economy and Society , University of Marburg, 13-15 January 2005; Nano-Ethics, University of South Carolina, 2-6 March 2005; Nano Before There Was Nano , Chemical Heritage Foundation, Philadelphia, (...)
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  37. Joachim Schummer, Why Do Chemists Perform Experiments?
    Nowadays it is well known among historians of science that Francis Bacon, one of the modern defender of the experimental method, owed much of his thoughts to the chemical or alchemical tradition (cf. e.g., Gregory 1938, West 1961, Linden 1974, and Rees 1977). In fact, alchemy, particularly in the Arabic tradition, was always based on laboratory investigations by carefully examining the results of controlled manipulation of materials.1..
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  38. Joachim Schummer, Zeitbewußtsein, Ökologie Und Ethik.
    ("Consciousness of Time, Ecology, and Ethics") The paper investigates the impact of global environmental issues on our consciousness of time and vice versa. In Part I, I first analyze in detail how various kinds of temporal structure, such as linear progress, circularity etc., are built and what makes us select one of them as being universal. Part II discusses types of confusion and distortion of our consciousness of time due to global environmental issues. Since our consciousness of time is fundamental (...)
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  39. Joachim Schummer (forthcoming). Impact of Nanotechnologieson Developing Countries. Nanoethics: The Ethical and Social Implications of Nanotechnology.
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  40. Joachim Schummer (2009). The Popularization of Emerging Technologies Through Ethics: From Nanotechnology to Synthetic Biology. Spontaneous Generations: A Journal for the History and Philosophy of Science 2 (1):56.
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  41. Joachim Schummer (2008). Book Review for Nanoethics. [REVIEW] Nanoethics 2 (2):209-212.
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  42. Joachim Schummer (2008). Frankenstein und die literarische figur Des verrückten wissenschaftlers. In B. van Schlun & M. Neumann (eds.), Mythen Europas: Schlüsselfiguren der Imagination, Bd. 6. Pustet.
    Die literarische Figur des verrückten Wissenschaftlers ist heute vor allem über Filme bekannt. Tatsächlich hat Hollywood diese Figur, die auf Englisch mad scientist genannt wird, seit seinen Gründungstagen mit zahlreichen Filmen zu einem eigenen Genre entwickelt: Ein älterer Mann mit zerzaustem Haar, Laborkittel und Brille arbeitet besessen und einsam in seinem Labor an einer großen Erfindung, mit der er die ganze Welt verändern will. Typischerweise ist dieser Wissenschaftler entweder gutwillig und naiv, nur naiv oder skrupellos. Ist er gutwillig und naiv, (...)
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  43. Joachim Schummer & Elena Pariotti (2008). Regulating Nanotechnologies: Risk Management Models and Nanomedicine. [REVIEW] NanoEthics 2 (1):39-42.
    Legal regulation has a substantial impact on the development of technologies. Depending on its scope, structure, and effectiveness, regulation can essentially shape the research, development, production, commercialization, and consumption of emerging technologies in various ways. The lack of regulation, or of corresponding enforcement, can lead to the infringement of rights, harm to workers, consumers, and the environment, and to the neglect of the public interest. On the other hand, too strict regulations, based on incomplete information or excessive caution, may equally (...)
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  44. Joachim Schummer (2006). A Pearl Among Presentations on the Periodic Table. Metascience 15 (1):163-166.
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  45. Joachim Schummer (2006). Gestalt Switch in Molecular Image Perception: The Aesthetic Origin of Molecular Nanotechnology in Supramolecular Chemistry. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 8 (1):53-72.
    According to ‘standard histories’ of nanotechnology, the colorful pictures of atoms produced by scanning probe microscopists since the 1980s essentially inspired visions of molecular nanotechnology. In this paper, I provide an entirely different account that, nonetheless, refers to aesthetic inspiration, First, I argue that the basic idea of molecular nanotechnology, i.e., producing molecular devices, has been the goal of supramolecular chemistry that emerged earlier, without being called nanotechnology. Secondly, I argue that in supramolecular chemistry the production of molecular devices was (...)
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  46. Davis Baird & Joachim Schummer (2005). Editorial: Nanotech Challenges, Part 2. Hyle 11 (1):3 - 4.
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  47. Davis Baird & Joachim Schummer (2004). Editorial: Nanotech Challenges, Part 1. Hyle 10 (2):63 - 64.
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  48. Cyrus Cm Mody, Davis Baird, Alfred Nordmann & Joachim Schummer (2004). Discovering the Nanoscale. In Baird D. (ed.), Discovering the Nanoscale. Ios.
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  49. Joachim Schummer (2004). Bibliography of Studies on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. In Baird D. (ed.), Discovering the Nanoscale. Ios. 311--316.
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