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Profile: Joachim Schummer (Universität Karlsruhe)
  1.  23
    Joachim Schummer, Cultural Diversity in Nanotechnology Ethics.
    Along with the rapid worldwide advance of nanotechnology, debates on associated ethical issues have spread from local to international levels. However, unlike science and engineer- ing issues, international perceptions of ethical issues are very diverse. This paper provides an analysis of how sociocultural factors such as language, cultural heritage, economics and politics can affect how people perceive ethical issues of nanotechnology. By attempting to clarify the significance of sociocultural issues in ethical considerations my aim is to support the ongoing international (...)
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  2. Cyrus Cm Mody, Davis Baird, Alfred Nordmann & Joachim Schummer (2004). Discovering the Nanoscale. In Baird D. (ed.), Discovering the Nanoscale. Ios
     
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  3.  5
    Joachim Schummer (2004). “Societal and Ethical Implications of Nanotechnology”. Techne 8 (2):56-87.
  4.  43
    Joachim Schummer (1998). The Chemical Core of Chemistry I: A Conceptual Approach. Hyle 4 (2):129 - 162.
    Given the rich diversity of research fields usually ascribed to chemistry in a broad sense, the present paper tries to dig our characteristic parts of chemistry that can be conceptually distinguished from interdisciplinary, applied, and specialized subfields of chemistry, and that may be called chemistry in a very narrow sense, or 'the chemical core of chemistry'. Unlike historical, ontological, and 'anti-reductive' approaches, I use a conceptual approach together with some methodological implications that allow to develop step by step a kind (...)
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  5.  24
    Joachim Schummer (2001). Ethics of Chemical Synthesis. Hyle 7 (2):103 - 124.
    Unlike other branches of science, the scientific products of synthetic chemistry are not only ideas but also new substances that change our material world, for the benefit or harm of living beings. This paper provides for the first time a systematical analysis of moral issues arising from chemical synthesis, based on concepts of responsibility and general morality. Topics include the questioning of moral neutrality of chemical synthesis as an end in itself, chemical weapons research, moral objections against improving material conditions (...)
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  6.  11
    Joachim Schummer (forthcoming). Impact of Nanotechnologieson Developing Countries. Nanoethics: The Ethical and Social Implications of Nanotechnology.
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  7.  26
    Joachim Schummer (2006). Gestalt Switch in Molecular Image Perception: The Aesthetic Origin of Molecular Nanotechnology in Supramolecular Chemistry. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 8 (1):53-72.
    According to ‘standard histories’ of nanotechnology, the colorful pictures of atoms produced by scanning probe microscopists since the 1980s essentially inspired visions of molecular nanotechnology. In this paper, I provide an entirely different account that, nonetheless, refers to aesthetic inspiration, First, I argue that the basic idea of molecular nanotechnology, i.e., producing molecular devices, has been the goal of supramolecular chemistry that emerged earlier, without being called nanotechnology. Secondly, I argue that in supramolecular chemistry the production of molecular devices was (...)
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  8.  24
    Joachim Schummer (2006). Gestalt Switch in Molecular Image Perception: The Aesthetic Origin of Molecular Nanotechnology in Supramolecular Chemistry. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 8 (1):53-72.
    According to ‘standard histories’ of nanotechnology, the colorful pictures of atoms produced by scanning probe microscopists since the 1980s essentially inspired visions of molecular nanotechnology. In this paper, I provide an entirely different account that, nonetheless, refers to aesthetic inspiration, First, I argue that the basic idea of molecular nanotechnology, i.e., producing molecular devices, has been the goal of supramolecular chemistry that emerged earlier, without being called nanotechnology. Secondly, I argue that in supramolecular chemistry the production of molecular devices was (...)
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  9.  32
    Joachim Schummer, Philosophy of Chemistry.
    Chemical ideas about the diversity of matter in terms of elements and compound substances and their transformations have been pivotal to any scientific or pre-scientific approach ever since. From ancient natural philosophy and alchemy to modern 19th-century chemistry, these ideas were made both the basis of philosophical systems and the target of critical reflection. After temporary interruption, when modern philosophy of science materialized as a discourse on mathematical physics, philosophy of chemistry emerged anew in the 1980s and is now a (...)
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  10.  30
    Joachim Schummer (2003). Aesthetics of Chemical Products: Materials, Molecules, and Molecular Models. Hyle 9 (1):73 - 104.
    By comparing chemistry to art, chemists have recently made claims to the aesthetic value, even beauty, of some of their products. This paper takes these claims seriously and turns them into a systematic investigation of the aesthetics of chemical products. I distinguish three types of chemical products - materials, molecules, and molecular models - and use a wide variety of aesthetic theories suitable for an investigation of the corresponding sorts of objects. These include aesthetics of materials, idealistic aesthetics from Plato (...)
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  11.  38
    Joachim Schummer (2001). Aristotle on Technology and Nature. Philosophia Naturalis 38 (1):105-120.
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  12.  17
    Joachim Schummer (1997). Challenging Standard Distinctions Between Science and Technology: The Case of Preparative Chemistry. Hyle 3 (1):81 - 94.
    Part I presents a quantitative-empirical outline of chemistry, esp. preparative chemistry, concerning its dominant role in today's science, its dynamics, and its methods and aims. Emphasis is laid on the poietical character of chemistry for which a methodological model is derived. Part II discusses standard distinction between science and technology, from Aristotle (whose theses are reconsidered in the light of modern sciences) to modern philosophy of technology. Against the background of results of Part I, it is argued that all these (...)
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  13.  32
    Joachim Schummer, The Philosophy of Chemistry.
    It would seem that philosophy of chemistry emerged only recently. Since the early 1990s philosophers and chemists began to meet in many different countries to discuss philosophical issues of chemistry – at first in isolated national groups but soon cultivating international exchange through regular meetings and the publications of two journals (Hyle and Foundations of Chemistry) devoted to the philosophy of chemistry. While the social formation is indeed a recent phenomenon that is still in progress, the philosophical topics have a (...)
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  14.  29
    Joachim Schummer, From Nano-Convergence to NBIC-Convergence: “The Best Way to Predict the Future is to Create It”.
    This chapter combines rhetorical with conceptual analysis to argue that the concept of convergence of technologies is a teleological concept that does not describe or predict any recent past, present, or future development. Instead it always expresses or attributes political goals of how future technology should be developed. The concept was already fully developed as a flexible rhetorical tool by US science administrators to create nanotechnology (as nano-convergence), before it was broadened to invent the convergence of nano-, bio-, info-, and (...)
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  15.  18
    Joachim Schummer (2004). Bibliography of Studies on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. In Baird D. (ed.), Discovering the Nanoscale. Ios 311--316.
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  16.  19
    Joachim Schummer, The Global Institutionalization of Nanotechnology Research: A Bibliometric Approach to the Assessment of Science Policy.
    Based on bibliometric methods, this paper describes the global institutionalization of nanotechnology research from the mid-1980s to 2006. Owing to an extremely strong dynamics, the institutionalization of nanotechnology is likely to surpass those of major disciplines in only a few years. A breakdown of the relative institutionalizations strengths by the main geographical regions, countries, research sectors, disciplines, and institutional types provides a very diverse picture over the time period because of different national science policies. The results allow a critical assessment (...)
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  17.  17
    Joachim Schummer & Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent, The Public Image of Chemistry.
    Of all the scientific disciplines chemistry seems to be particularly concerned about its public image. Indeed, popular associations with chemistry range from poisons, hazards, chemical warfare, and environmental pollution to alchemical pseudo-science, sorcery, and mad scientists. Despite repeated campaigns for convincing the public that chemistry would bring health, comfort, and welfare, chemists frequently meet with hostility in popular culture. As student enrollment numbers has been shrinking, chemistry departments have been closed in several countries. Also in humanist culture chemistry has a (...)
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  18.  36
    Joachim Schummer (1997). Towards a Philosophy of Chemistry. A Short Extract of This Paper Was First Read at the 10th International Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, Florence, August 19–25, 1995. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 28 (2):307-336.
    The paper shows epistemological, methodological and ontological peculiarities of chemistry taken as a classificatory science of materials using experimental methods. Without succumbing to standard interpretations of physical science, chemical methods of experimental investigation, classification, reference, theorizing, prediction and production of new entities are developed one by one as first steps towards a philosophy of chemistry. Chemistry challenges traditional concepts of empirical object, empirical predicate, reference frame and theory, but also the distinction commonly drawn between natural science and technology. Due to (...)
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  19.  45
    Joachim Schummer (2004). Editorial: Substances Versus Reactions. Hyle 10 (1):3 - 4.
    Is chemistry primarily about things or about processes, about chemical substances or about chemical reactions? Is a chemical reaction defined by the change of certain substances, or are substances defined by their characteristic chemical reactions? What appears to be a play on words to the modern scientist, is actually one of the most fundamental ontological question since antiquity, prompted by the most radical change – the chemical change or the ‘coming-to-be and passing-away’ as Aristotle’s treatise on theoretical chemistry came to (...)
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  20.  20
    Joachim Schummer (1997). Towards a Philosophy of Chemistry. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 28 (2):307 - 336.
    The paper shows epistemological, methodological and ontological peculiarities of chemistry taken as a classificatory science of materials using experimental methods. Without succumbing to standard interpretations of physical science, chemical methods of experimental investigation, classification, reference, theorizing, prediction and production of new entities are developed one by one as first steps towards a philosophy of chemistry. Chemistry challenges traditional concepts of empirical object, empirical predicate, reference frame and theory, but also the distinction commonly drawn between natural science and technology. Due to (...)
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  21.  28
    Joachim Schummer (2008). Frankenstein und die literarische figur Des verrückten wissenschaftlers. In B. van Schlun & M. Neumann (eds.), Mythen Europas: Schlüsselfiguren der Imagination, Bd. 6. Pustet
    Die literarische Figur des verrückten Wissenschaftlers ist heute vor allem über Filme bekannt. Tatsächlich hat Hollywood diese Figur, die auf Englisch mad scientist genannt wird, seit seinen Gründungstagen mit zahlreichen Filmen zu einem eigenen Genre entwickelt: Ein älterer Mann mit zerzaustem Haar, Laborkittel und Brille arbeitet besessen und einsam in seinem Labor an einer großen Erfindung, mit der er die ganze Welt verändern will. Typischerweise ist dieser Wissenschaftler entweder gutwillig und naiv, nur naiv oder skrupellos. Ist er gutwillig und naiv, (...)
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  22.  24
    Joachim Schummer, Why Do Chemists Perform Experiments?
    Nowadays it is well known among historians of science that Francis Bacon, one of the modern defender of the experimental method, owed much of his thoughts to the chemical or alchemical tradition (cf. e.g., Gregory 1938, West 1961, Linden 1974, and Rees 1977). In fact, alchemy, particularly in the Arabic tradition, was always based on laboratory investigations by carefully examining the results of controlled manipulation of materials.1..
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  23.  23
    Joachim Schummer, Epistemology of Material Properties.
    This paper presents an epistemological approach to the investigation of material properties that is opposed both to phenomenalistic epistemology and recent linguistical and ontological accounts of matter/mass terms. Emphasis is laid on the inherent context dependence of material properties. It is shown that, if this is taken seriously, some deep epistemological problems arise, like unavoidable uncertainty, incompleteness, inductivity, nonderivableness. It is further argued that some widely held epistemological accounts, namely that of essentialism, constructivism, and pragmatism, all reveal some serious defects (...)
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  24.  33
    Joachim Schummer (2004). Interdisciplinary Issues in Nanoscale Research. In Baird D. (ed.), Discovering the Nanoscale. Ios 9--20.
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  25.  31
    Joachim Schummer (2003). The Notion of Nature in Chemistry. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 34 (4):705-736.
    If nature is by definition the object of the natural sciences, then the dichotomy 'natural' versus 'chemical', held by both chemists and nonchemists, suggests an idiosyncrasy of chemistry. The first part of the paper presents a selective historical analysis of the main notions of nature in chemistry, as developed in early Christian views of chemical crafts, alchemy, iatrochemistry, mechanical philosophy, organic chemistry, and contemporary drug research. I argue that the dichotomy as well as quasi-moral judgments of chemistry have been based (...)
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  26.  16
    Davis Baird & Joachim Schummer (2004). Editorial: Nanotech Challenges, Part 1. Hyle 10 (2):63 - 64.
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  27. Joachim Schummer, Identifying Ethical Issues of Nanotechnologies.
    in: Henk ten Have (ed.), Nanotechnology: Science, Ethics and Policy Issues, Paris (UNESCO Series in Ethics of Science and Technology), 2006 (forthcoming).
     
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  28.  32
    Joachim Schummer, The Creation of Life in Cultural Context: From Spontaneous Generation to Synthetic Biology.
    The artificial creation of life arises both strong fascination by scientists and strong concerns, if not abhorrence, by critics of science. What appears to be the crowning achievement of synthetic biology is at the same time considered a major evil. That conflict, which perhaps epitomizes many of the cultural conflicts about science in Western societies, calls for a deeper analysis. Standard ethical analyses, which would try to relate such conflicts to a difference in fundamental values, are difficult to apply here, (...)
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  29.  11
    Joachim Schummer (1996). Book Review: Mauskopf, S.H. (Ed.), "Chemical Sciences in the Modern World" (Philadelphia 1993). [REVIEW] Hyle 2 (1):13 - 14.
    It is like an irony of the history of scian excellent job of developing both the ence that philosophy of chemistry positive and negative aspects of this emerged at a time when disciplinary restory. In addition, the authors provide..
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  30.  36
    Joachim Schummer & Elena Pariotti (2008). Regulating Nanotechnologies: Risk Management Models and Nanomedicine. [REVIEW] NanoEthics 2 (1):39-42.
    Legal regulation has a substantial impact on the development of technologies. Depending on its scope, structure, and effectiveness, regulation can essentially shape the research, development, production, commercialization, and consumption of emerging technologies in various ways. The lack of regulation, or of corresponding enforcement, can lead to the infringement of rights, harm to workers, consumers, and the environment, and to the neglect of the public interest. On the other hand, too strict regulations, based on incomplete information or excessive caution, may equally (...)
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  31.  33
    Joachim Schummer, Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology.
    Since the publication of Part I of our joint special issue on Nanotech Challenges (see Techné 8.2 & Hyle 10.2), several international conferences have taken place that brought together scholars from the humanities and the social, natural, and engineering sciences to reflect on the challenges posed by nanotechnology. These included Nanotechnology in Science, Economy and Society , University of Marburg, 13-15 January 2005; Nano-Ethics, University of South Carolina, 2-6 March 2005; Nano Before There Was Nano , Chemical Heritage Foundation, Philadelphia, (...)
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  32.  6
    Joachim Schummer, Naturverhältnisse in der Modernen Wirkstoff-Forschung.
    Summary: Complementary to normative ethics of technology, the paper analyses the normative implications of human relations to nature on technology assessment by three different descriptive approaches. Historically, I determine the roots of normative relations to nature in alchemy. Historiographic-critically, I investigate how normative ideas of progress result from putting these relations to nature in a historical line. From the point of view of methodology of technology, I finally take the example of current drug research to show how different relations to (...)
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  33.  10
    Davis Baird & Joachim Schummer (2005). Editorial: Nanotech Challenges, Part 2. Hyle 11 (1):3 - 4.
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  34.  30
    Joachim Schummer, Coping with the Growth of Chemical Knowledge.
    Chemistry is by far the most productive science concerning the number of publications. A closer look at chemical papers reveals that most papers deal with new substances. The rapid growth of chemical knowledge seriously challenges all institutions and individuals concerned with chemistry. Chemistry documentation following the principle of completeness is required to schematize chemical information, which in turn induces a schematization of chemical research. Chemistry education is forced to seek reasonable principles of selectivity, although nobody can have an overview any (...)
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  35.  5
    Joachim Schummer (1996). Bibliographie chemiephilosophischer Literatur der DDR. Hyle 2:3-11.
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  36.  27
    Joachim Schummer, Philosophie der Chemie: Rück- Und Ausblicke.
    Philosophie ist konkret und abstrakt. Sie ist konkret im Gespür für Probleme, die jeden – oder jeden in einem bestimmten Bereich – betreffen. Sie ist abstrakt in der kritischen Formulierung und Lösung von Problemen, indem sie von besonderen Bedingungen und Voreingenommenheiten abstrahiert. Philosophie erfordert Kreativität, Phantasie und die Bereitschaft zu Unkonventionellem in der Wahl der Problemzugangsweisen. Wie alle Wissenschaften ist sie als Methode lehr- und entwickelbar, sofern ein gewisses Talent vorhanden ist. Philosophie beginnt dort, wo Wissenschaftler nicht mehr weiter fragen. (...)
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  37.  25
    Joachim Schummer, Reading Nano: The Public Interest in Nanotechnology as Reflected in Purchase Patterns of Books.
    There is a rapidly growing public interest in nanotechnology such that people increasingly buy various books to inform themselves about nanotechnology. This paper tries to measure the public interest focus on nanotechnology and its relation to the public interest in other fields of knowledge by applying a new method. I combine formal network analysis of co-purchase book data with traditional content analysis. The method is successful in identifying the books that the public reads to be informed about nanotechnology, in distinguishing (...)
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  38.  13
    Joachim Schummer, Rezension Von.
    Man ist sie fast schon leid, die Rede vom „Chaos“, mit der wissenschaftspublizistisch versierte Forscher bemüht sind, sich ihren Anteil am hart umkämpften Markt der Forschungsmittel und -reputation zu sichern. Die inflationäre Verkündigung von „wissenschaftlichen Revolutionen“, „Paradigmenwechseln“ und „postmoderner Wissenschaft“ mag manchem Philosophen zwar insgeheim noch schmeicheln wegen der Gebrauchs- und Marktfähigkeit - und Autorität - philosophischer Termini. So recht zu glauben sind solche Botschaften jedoch selten. Aber welcher Philosoph wollte sich da ein sachgerechtes und kritisches Urteil erlauben, ob die (...)
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  39.  2
    Joachim Schummer (2004). Societal and Ethical Implications of Nanotechnology. Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 8 (2):56-87.
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  40.  18
    Peter Lang & Joachim Schummer, Why Do Chemists Perform Experiments?
    Nowadays it is well known among historians of science that Francis Bacon, one of the modern defender of the experimental method, owed much of his thoughts to the chemical or alchemical tradition (cf. e.g., Gregory 1938, West 1961, Linden 1974, and Rees 1977). In fact, alchemy, particularly in the Arabic tradition, was always based on laboratory investigations by carefully examining the results of controlled manipulation of materials.1 It is also well known that Francis Bacon’s appeal to the experimental method was (...)
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  41.  18
    Joachim Schummer, Matter Versus Form, and Beyond.
    There is the popular notion according to which the world is built up in a hierarchical order, such that combining entities from the lower level results in entities of the next higher level, and so on. It seems beyond doubt in this view that the entities at the lowest level are some subatomic particles, to be followed at the next levels by atoms, molecules, biological organs and organisms including humans, and eventually societies. Accordingly, a scientific discipline is assigned to each (...)
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  42.  19
    Joachim Schummer, Historical Roots of the “Mad Scientist”: Chemists in Nineteenth-Century Literature.
    This paper traces the historical roots of the “mad scientist,” a concept that has powerfully shaped the public image of science up to today, by investigating the representations of chemists in nineteenth-century Western literature. I argue that the creation of this literary figure was the strongest of four critical literary responses to the emergence of modern science in general and of chemistry in particular. The role of chemistry in this story is crucial because early nineteenth-century chemistry both exemplified modern experimental (...)
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  43.  22
    Joachim Schummer, Providing Metaphysical Sense and Orientation: Nature-Chemistry Relationships in the Popular Historiography of Chemistry.
    Historians of science, like all historians, know well that every account of the history of science is necessarily an interpretation of the history of science. It requires decisions on what is important and what not, it requires ordering, contextualizing, and interpreting the available material, and presenting the results in a final form that sounds plausible to readers. Because a majority of the readers of histories of science are scientists, the degree of plausibility and acceptability depends on what scientists expect from (...)
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  44.  24
    Joachim Schummer (1999). Editorial: Models in Chemistry, Part 1. Hyle 5 (2):77 - 78.
    It is my pleasure to open this special issue with which we like to celebrate the fifth birthday of our journal. What was originally conceived as one special issue of HYLE that has rapidly grown to a considerable number of high quality papers for which we need at least two issues. We received a total of 19 paper submissions, some of which are still under review. The manuscripts cover nearly every aspect of models outlined in the Call for Paper (HYLE (...)
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  45.  22
    Joachim Schummer (2002). Jaap Van Brakel, Philosophy of Chemistry. Between the Manifest and the Scientific Image. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 33 (1):168-174.
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  46.  17
    Joachim Schummer, Über Das Streben Nach Lust.
    Aristoteles hat in seiner berühmten Abhandlung über die Lust eine Einteilung der Philosophenmeinungen bezüglich der Lust vorgenommen.2 Die einen, sagt er, halten die Lust für das höchste Gut; die anderen meinen, daß die Lust ganz und gar schlecht sei. Unter den Lustgegnern nennt Aristoteles wiederum zwei Gruppen. Die einen lehnen die Lust aus Überzeugung ab, die anderen nur aus pädagogischen Gründen. Manchen liegt das Thema so am Herzen, daß sie, wie Aristoteles bemerkt, aus pädagogischen Gründen wider bessere Einsicht argumentieren.
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  47.  19
    Joachim Schummer, On the Novelty of Nanotechnology: A Philosophical Essay.
    Nanotechnology has from its very beginning been surrounded with an aura of novelty. For instance, on the 28 introductory pages of the report that prepared the US National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), Nanotechnology Research Directions (NSTC/IWGN 1999), we read 73 times the term “new”, 15 times “novel”, 7 times “innovation”, and 21 times “revolution”. The authors concede that one should distinguish between different nanotechnologies, because “Many existing technologies do already depend on nanoscale processes. Photography and catalysis are two examples of ‘old’ (...)
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  48.  14
    Joachim Schummer, Zeitbewußtsein, Ökologie Und Ethik.
    ("Consciousness of Time, Ecology, and Ethics") The paper investigates the impact of global environmental issues on our consciousness of time and vice versa. In Part I, I first analyze in detail how various kinds of temporal structure, such as linear progress, circularity etc., are built and what makes us select one of them as being universal. Part II discusses types of confusion and distortion of our consciousness of time due to global environmental issues. Since our consciousness of time is fundamental (...)
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  49.  16
    Joachim Schummer, Die Stoffliche Weltveränderung der Chemie: Philosophische Herausforderungen.
    Eine philosophische Auseinandersetzung mit der Chemie ist so neu,1 daß die meisten Philosophen gegenwärtig Schwierigkeiten haben dürften, überhaupt eine thematische Verbindung zwischen beiden Fächern herstellen zu können, was auf ähnliche Weise übrigens auch auf Chemiker zutrifft. Daß dies nicht immer so war, wird sofort einsichtig, wenn man bedenkt, daß die chemische Frage nach der substantiellen Verschiedenartigkeit von Stoffen und ihren gegenseitigen Umwandlungsmöglichkeiten bereits zu den Grundfragen aller antiken Naturphilosophen gehörte. Es dürfte insbesondere dem theoretischen Ungenügen des Konzepts stofflicher Qualitäten nach (...)
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  50.  16
    Joachim Schummer (2000). Editorial: Models in Chemistry, Part 2: Molecular Models. Hyle 6 (1):3 - 4.
    As supposed in the last Editorial (HYLE, 5-1, p. 78), our special topic ‘Models in Chemistry’ has attracted new attention to the philosophy of chemistry. Only during the past couple of month, the number of visitors of the HYLE website has nearly doubled to some 1,600 per month. There is nothing comparable in the whole field of philosophy of science, as there is no other science having such a lot to catch up on philosophical work. At the same time, this (...)
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