Search results for 'Joan Poliner Shapiro' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Joan Poliner Shapiro (2001). Ethical Leadership and Decision Making in Education: Applying Theoretical Perspectives to Complex Dilemmas. L. Erlbaum Associates.score: 870.0
    The authors developed this textbook in response to an increasing interest in ethics, and a growing number of courses on this topic that are now being offered in educational leadership programs. It is designed to fill a gap in instructional materials for teaching the ethics component of the knowledge base that has been established for the profession. The text has several purposes: First, it demonstrates the application of different ethical paradigms (the ethics of justice, care, critique, and the profession) through (...)
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  2. Joan Shapiro (1993). Social Investing Roundtable. Business Ethics 7 (1):20-24.score: 240.0
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  3. Ann-Louise Shapiro (1997). How Real is the Reality in Documentary Film?Jill Godmilow, in Conversation with Ann-Louise Shapiro. History and Theory 36 (4):80–101.score: 180.0
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  4. Stewart Shapiro & Patrick Greenough (2005). Stewart Shapiro. Context, Conversation, and so-Called 'Higher-Order Vagueness'. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 79 (1):147–165.score: 180.0
    After a brief account of the problem of higher-order vagueness, and its seeming intractability, I explore what comes of the issue on a linguistic, contextualist account of vagueness. On the view in question, predicates like ‘borderline red’ and ‘determinately red’ are, or at least can be, vague, but they are different in kind from ‘red’. In particular, ‘borderline red’ and ‘determinately red’ are not colours. These predicates have linguistic components, and invoke notions like ‘competent user of the language’. On my (...)
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  5. Lawrence Shapiro & Kevin Ryan (2012). Krytyczna Historia Ucieleśniania Jako Paragydmatu Badawczego Nauk o Poznaniu:(Lawrence Shapiro, Embodied Cognitive)/Kevin Ryan. Avant 3 (1):386 - 389.score: 180.0
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  6. Thomas W. Polger & Lawrence Shapiro (2008). Understanding the Dimensions of Realization. Journal of Philosophy 105 (4):213-222.score: 60.0
    Carl Gillett has defended what he calls the “dimensioned” view of the realization relation, which he contrasts with the traditional “flat” view of realization (2003, 2007; see also Gillett 2002). Intuitively, the dimensioned approach characterizes realization in terms of composition whereas the flat approach views realization in terms of occupiers of functional roles. Elsewhere we have argued that the general view of realization and multiple realization that Gillett advances is not able to discharge the theoretical duties of those relations ( (...) 2004, unpublished manuscript; Polger 2004, 2007, forthcoming). Here we focus on an internal objection to Gillett’s account and then raise some broader reasons to reject it. (shrink)
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  7. Kevin Scharp & Stewart Shapiro (2012). On Richard's When Truth Gives Out. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 160 (3):455-463.score: 60.0
    On Richard’s When Truth Gives Out Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-9 DOI 10.1007/s11098-011-9796-0 Authors Kevin Scharp, Department of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 350 University Hall, 230 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210, USA Stewart Shapiro, Department of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 350 University Hall, 230 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210, USA Journal Philosophical Studies Online ISSN 1573-0883 Print ISSN 0031-8116.
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  8. Stewart Shapiro (1997). Philosophy of Mathematics: Structure and Ontology. Oxford University Press.score: 60.0
    Do numbers, sets, and so forth, exist? What do mathematical statements mean? Are they literally true or false, or do they lack truth values altogether? Addressing questions that have attracted lively debate in recent years, Stewart Shapiro contends that standard realist and antirealist accounts of mathematics are both problematic. As Benacerraf first noted, we are confronted with the following powerful dilemma. The desired continuity between mathematical and, say, scientific language suggests realism, but realism in this context suggests seemingly intractable (...)
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  9. Stewart Shapiro (2000). Thinking About Mathematics: The Philosophy of Mathematics. Oxford University Press.score: 60.0
    This unique book by Stewart Shapiro looks at a range of philosophical issues and positions concerning mathematics in four comprehensive sections. Part I describes questions and issues about mathematics that have motivated philosophers since the beginning of intellectual history. Part II is an historical survey, discussing the role of mathematics in the thought of such philosophers as Plato, Aristotle, Kant, and Mill. Part III covers the three major positions held throughout the twentieth century: the idea that mathematics is logic (...)
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  10. Lawrence A. Shapiro (2004). The Mind Incarnate. MIT Press.score: 60.0
    Shapiro tests these hypotheses against two rivals, the mental constraint thesis and the embodied mind thesis. Collecting evidence from a variety of sources (e.g., neuroscience, evolutionary theory, and embodied cognition) he concludes that the multiple realizability thesis, accepted by most philosophers as a virtual truism, is much less obvious than commonly assumed, and that there is even stronger reason to give up the separability thesis. In contrast to views of mind that tempt us to see the mind as simply (...)
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  11. Stewart Shapiro (2006/2008). Vagueness in Context. Oxford University Press.score: 60.0
    Stewart Shapiro's ambition in Vagueness in Context is to develop a comprehensive account of the meaning, function, and logic of vague terms in an idealized version of a natural language like English. It is a commonplace that the extensions of vague terms vary according to their context: a person can be tall with respect to male accountants and not tall (even short) with respect to professional basketball players. The key feature of Shapiro's account is that the extensions of (...)
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  12. Lawrence Shapiro (2008). Understand the Dimensions of Realization. Journal of Philosophy 105 (4):213-222.score: 60.0
    Carl Gillett has defended what he calls the “dimensioned” view of the realization relation, which he contrasts with the traditional “flat” view of realization (2003, 2007; see also Gillett 2002). Intuitively, the dimensioned approach characterizes realization in terms of composition whereas the flat approach views realization in terms of occupiers of functional roles. Elsewhere we have argued that the general view of realization and multiple realization that Gillett advances is not able to discharge the theoretical duties of those relations ( (...) 2004, unpublished manuscript; Polger 2004, 2007, forthcoming). Here we focus on an internal objection to Gillett’s account and then raise some broader reasons to reject it. (shrink)
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  13. Debbie Shapiro (2006). Your Body Speaks Your Mind: Decoding the Emotional, Psychological, and Spiritual Messages That Underlie Illness. Sounds True.score: 60.0
    In Your Body Speaks Your Mind, renowned teacher and best-selling author Deb Shapiro shows you how mastering the language of your symptoms can actually increase ...
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  14. David A. Shapiro (2002). Philosophy in the Schools Project. Questions: Philosophy for Young People 2:8-8.score: 60.0
    In the pursuit of a quality and well-rounded education with philosophy, Shapiro conducts an introductory lesson to students and teachers alike in order to develop deeper, more philosophical questions from their students. Academically, the article expands detail on tutoring in philosophy, analytical practices, and metaphysical activities.
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  15. Michael J. Shapiro (1999). Cinematic Political Thought: Narrating Race, Nation, and Gender. New York University Press.score: 60.0
    In Cinematic Political Thought , Michael J. Shapiro investigates aspects of contemporary politics and articulates a critical philosophical perspective with politically disposed treatments of contemporary cinema. Reading such films as Hoop Dreams, Lone Star, Father of the Bride II and To Live and Die in LA through the lens of Deleuze, Derrida, Foucault and Lyotard, Shapiro demonstrates what it can mean to think the political both in terms of cinema studies and in wider aesthetic and social contexts. Cinematic (...)
     
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  16. Harvey Shapiro (2012). Educational Theory and Jewish Studies in Conversation: From Volozhin to Buczacz. Lexington Books.score: 60.0
    Educational Theory and Jewish Studies in Conversation: From Volozhin to Buczacz, by Harvey Shapiro, PhD, brings together two different fields of study—modern Jewish studies and contemporary educational theory—to provide new theoretical ...
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  17. Scott J. Shapiro (2007). The "Hart-Dworkin" Debate : A Short Guide for the Perplexed. In Arthur Ripstein (ed.), Ronald Dworkin. Cambridge University Press. 22--49.score: 30.0
    For the past four decades, Anglo-American legal philosophy has been preoccupied – some might say obsessed – with something called the “Hart-Dworkin” debate. Since the appearance in 1967 of “The Model of Rules I,” Ronald Dworkin’s seminal critique of H.L.A. Hart’s theory of legal positivism, countless books and articles have been written either defending Hart against Dworkin’s objections or defending Dworkin against Hart’s defenders. My purpose in this essay is not to declare an ultimate victor; rather it is to identify (...)
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  18. Stewart Shapiro (2011). Epistemology of Mathematics: What Are the Questions? What Count as Answers? Philosophical Quarterly 61 (242):130-150.score: 30.0
    A paper in this journal by Fraser MacBride, ‘Can Ante Rem Structuralism Solve the Access Problem?’, raises important issues concerning the epistemological goals and burdens of contemporary philosophy of mathematics, and perhaps philosophy of science and other disciplines as well. I use a response to MacBride's paper as a framework for developing a broadly holistic framework for these issues, and I attempt to steer a middle course between reductive foundationalism and extreme naturalistic quietism. For this purpose the notion of entitlement (...)
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  19. Lawrence A. Shapiro & Elliott Sober (forthcoming). Epiphenomenalism - the Do's and the Don'ts. In G. Wolters & Peter K. Machamer (eds.), Studies in Causality: Historical and Contemporary. University of Pittsburgh Press.score: 30.0
    When philosophers defend epiphenomenalist doctrines, they often do so by way of a priori arguments. Here we suggest an empirical approach that is modeled on August Weismann.
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  20. Scott J. Shapiro (2009). Was Inclusive Legal Positivism Founded on a Mistake? Ratio Juris 22 (3):326-338.score: 30.0
    In this paper, I present a new argument against inclusive legal positivism. As I show, any theory which permits morality to be a condition on legality cannot account for a core feature of legal activity, namely, that it is an activity of social planning. If the aim of a legal institution is to guide the conduct of the community through plans, it would be self-defeating if the existence of these plans could only be determined through deliberation on the merits. I (...)
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  21. Stewart Shapiro (2009). We Hold These Truths to Be Self-Evident: But What Do We Mean by That? Review of Symbolic Logic 2 (1):175-207.score: 30.0
    At the beginning of Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik (§2) [1884], Frege observes that “it is in the nature of mathematics to prefer proof, where proof is possible”. This, of course, is true, but thinkers differ on why it is that mathematicians prefer proof. And what of propositions for which no proof is possible? What of axioms? This talk explores various notions of self-evidence, and the role they play in various foundational systems, notably those of Frege and Zermelo. I argue that (...)
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  22. Stuart C. Shapiro & William J. Rapaport (1991). Models and Minds. In Robert E. Cummins & John L. Pollock (eds.), Philosophy and AI. Cambridge: MIT Press. 215--259.score: 30.0
    Cognitive agents, whether human or computer, that engage in natural-language discourse and that have beliefs about the beliefs of other cognitive agents must be able to represent objects the way they believe them to be and the way they believe others believe them to be. They must be able to represent other cognitive agents both as objects of beliefs and as agents of beliefs. They must be able to represent their own beliefs, and they must be able to represent beliefs (...)
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  23. Lionel Stefan Shapiro (1994). 'Coordinative Definition' and Reichenbach's Semantic Framework: A Reassessment. Erkenntnis 41 (3):287 - 323.score: 30.0
    Reichenbach's Philosophy of Space and Time (1928) avoids most of the logical positivist pitfalls it is generally held to exemplify, notably both conventionalism and verificationism. To see why, we must appreciate that Reichenbach's interest lies in how mathematical structures can be used to describe reality, not in how words like 'distance' acquire meaning. Examination of his proposed "coordinative definition" of congruence shows that Reichenbach advocates a reductionist analysis of the relations figuring in physical geometry (contrary to common readings that attribute (...)
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  24. Larry Shapiro (2007). The Embodied Cognition Research Programme. Philosophy Compass 2 (2):338–346.score: 30.0
  25. Scott J. Shapiro, What is the Rule of Recognition (and Does It Exist)?score: 30.0
    One of the principal lessons of The Concept of Law is that legal systems are not only comprised of rules, but founded on them as well. As Hart painstakingly showed, we cannot account for the way in which we talk and think about the law - that is, as an institution which persists over time despite turnover of officials, imposes duties and confers powers, enjoys supremacy over other kinds of practices, resolves doubts and disagreements about what is to be done (...)
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  26. Lionel Shapiro (2011). Deflating Logical Consequence. Philosophical Quarterly 61 (243):320-342.score: 30.0
    Deflationists about truth seek to undermine debates about the nature of truth by arguing that the truth predicate is merely a device that allows us to express a certain kind of generality. I argue that a parallel approach is available in the case of logical consequence. Just as deflationism about truth offers an alternative to accounts of truth's nature in terms of correspondence or justification, deflationism about consequence promises an alternative to model-theoretic or proof-theoretic accounts of consequence's nature. I then (...)
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  27. Lawrence A. Shapiro (2010). Embodied Cognition. Routledge.score: 30.0
    Introduction: toward an understanding of embodied cognition -- Standard cognitive science -- Challenging standard cognitive science -- Conceptions of embodiment -- Embodied cognition: the conceptualization hypothesis -- Embodied cognition: the replacement hypothesis -- Embodied cognition: the constitution hypothesis -- Concluding thoughts.
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  28. Stewart Shapiro (2007). The Objectivity of Mathematics. Synthese 156 (2):337 - 381.score: 30.0
    The purpose of this paper is to apply Crispin Wright’s criteria and various axes of objectivity to mathematics. I test the criteria and the objectivity of mathematics against each other. Along the way, various issues concerning general logic and epistemology are encountered.
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  29. Stewart Shapiro (2010). So Truth is Safe From Paradox: Now What? [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 147 (3):445 - 455.score: 30.0
    The article is part of a symposium on Hartry Field’s “Saving truth from paradox”. The book is one of the most significant intellectual achievements of the past decades, but it is not clear what, exactly, it accomplishes. I explore some alternatives, relating the developed view to the intuitive, pre-theoretic notion of truth.
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  30. Jack Arnold & Stewart Shapiro (2007). Where in the (World Wide) Web of Belief is the Law of Non-Contradiction? Noûs 41 (2):276–297.score: 30.0
    It is sometimes said that there are two, competing versions of W. V. O. Quine’s unrelenting empiricism, perhaps divided according to temporal periods of his career. According to one, logic is exempt from, or lies outside the scope of, the attack on the analytic-synthetic distinction. This logic-friendly Quine holds that logical truths and, presumably, logical inferences are analytic in the traditional sense. Logical truths are knowable a priori, and, importantly, they are incorrigible, and so immune from revision. The other, radical (...)
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  31. Stewart Shapiro (1998). Proof and Truth: Through Thick and Thin. Journal of Philosophy 95 (10):493-521.score: 30.0
  32. Lawrence A. Shapiro (2000). Multiple Realizations. Journal of Philosophy 97 (12):635-654.score: 30.0
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  33. Lionel Shapiro (2004). Brandom on the Normativity of Meaning. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 68 (1):141-60.score: 30.0
    Brandom's "inferentialism"—his theory that contentfulness consists in being governed by inferential norms—proves dubiously compatible with his own deflationary approach to intentional objectivity. This is because a deflationist argument, adapted from the case of truth to that of correct inference, undermines the criterion of adequacy Brandom employs in motivating inferentialism. Once that constraint is abandoned, moreover, the very constitutive-explanatory availability of Brandom's inferential norms becomes suspect. Yet Brandom intertwines inferentialism with a separate explanatory project, one that in explaining the pragmatic significance (...)
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  34. Stewart Shapiro (1999). Do Not Claim Too Much: Second-Order Logic and First-Order Logic. Philosophia Mathematica 7 (1):42-64.score: 30.0
    The purpose of this article is to delimit what can and cannot be claimed on behalf of second-order logic. The starting point is some of the discussions surrounding my Foundations without Foundationalism: A Case for Secondorder Logic.
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  35. Lawrence Shapiro (2009). Making Sense of Mirror Neurons. Synthese 167 (3):439 - 456.score: 30.0
    The discovery of mirror neurons has been hailed as one of the most exciting developments in neuroscience in the past few decades. These neurons discharge in response to the observation of others’ actions. But how are we to understand the function of these neurons? In this paper I defend the idea that mirror neurons are best conceived as components of a sensory system that has the function to perceive action. In short, mirror neurons are part of a hitherto unrecognized “sixth (...)
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  36. Stewart Shapiro (2003). The Guru, the Logician, and the Deflationist: Truth and Logical Consequence. Noûs 37 (1):113–132.score: 30.0
    The purpose of this paper is to present a thought experiment and argument that spells trouble for “radical” deflationism concerning meaning and truth such as that advocated by the staunch nominalist Hartry Field. The thought experiment does not sit well with any view that limits a truth predicate to sentences understood by a given speaker or to sentences in (or translatable into) a given language, unless that language is universal. The scenario in question concerns sentences that are not understood but (...)
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  37. Stewart Shapiro (2008). Identity, Indiscernibility, and Ante Rem Structuralism: The Tale of I and –I. Philosophia Mathematica 16 (3):285-309.score: 30.0
    Some authors have claimed that ante rem structuralism has problems with structures that have indiscernible places. In response, I argue that there is no requirement that mathematical objects be individuated in a non-trivial way. Metaphysical principles and intuitions to the contrary do not stand up to ordinary mathematical practice, which presupposes an identity relation that, in a sense, cannot be defined. In complex analysis, the two square roots of –1 are indiscernible: anything true of one of them is true of (...)
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  38. Stewart Shapiro (2005). Categories, Structures, and the Frege-Hilbert Controversy: The Status of Meta-Mathematics. Philosophia Mathematica 13 (1):61-77.score: 30.0
    There is a parallel between the debate between Gottlob Frege and David Hilbert at the turn of the twentieth century and at least some aspects of the current controversy over whether category theory provides the proper framework for structuralism in the philosophy of mathematics. The main issue, I think, concerns the place and interpretation of meta-mathematics in an algebraic or structuralist approach to mathematics. Can meta-mathematics itself be understood in algebraic or structural terms? Or is it an exception to the (...)
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  39. Stewart Shapiro & Patrick Reeder (2009). A Scientific Enterprise?: A Critical Study of P. Maddy, Second Philosophy: A Naturalistic Method. [REVIEW] Philosophia Mathematica 17 (2):247-271.score: 30.0
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  40. Stewart Shapiro & Gabriel Uzquiano (2008). Frege Meets Zermelo: A Perspective on Ineffability and Reflection. Review of Symbolic Logic 1 (2):241-266.score: 30.0
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  41. John Corcoran & Stewart Shapiro (1978). What is Mathematical Logic? Philosophia 8 (1):79-94.score: 30.0
  42. Lisa Shapiro (2003). Descartes Passions of the Soul and the Union of Mind and Body. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 85 (3):211-248.score: 30.0
    I here address Descartes' account of human nature as a union of mind and body by appealing to The Passions of the Soul. I first show that Descartes takes us to be able to reform the naturally instituted associations between bodily and mental states. I go on to argue that Descartes offers a teleological explanation of body-mind associations (those instituted both by nature and by artifice). This explanation sheds light on the ontological status of the union. I suggest that it (...)
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  43. Paul Shapiro (2006). Moral Agency in Other Animals. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (4):357-373.score: 30.0
    Some philosophers have argued that moral agency is characteristic of humans alone and that its absence from other animals justifies granting higher moral status to humans. However, human beings do not have a monopoly on moral agency, which admits of varying degrees and does not require mastery of moral principles. The view that all and only humans possess moral agency indicates our underestimation of the mental lives of other animals. Since many other animals are moral agents (to varying degrees), they (...)
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  44. Lionel Shapiro (2012). Objective Being and “Ofness” in Descartes. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 84 (2):378-418.score: 30.0
    It is generally assumed that Descartes invokes “objective being in the intellect” in order to explain or describe an idea’s status as being “of something.” I argue that this assumption is mistaken. As emerges in his discussion of “materially false ideas” in the Fourth Replies, Descartes recognizes two senses of ‘idea of’. One, a theoretical sense, is itself introduced in terms of objective being. Hence Descartes can’t be introducing objective being to explain or describe “ofness” understood in this sense. Descartes (...)
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  45. Lionel Shapiro (1999). Toward 'Perfect Collections of Properties': Locke on the Constitution of Substantial Sorts. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 29 (4):551-593.score: 30.0
    Locke's claims about the "inadequacy" of substance-ideas can only be understood once it is recognized that the "sort" represented by such an idea is not wholly determined by the idea's descriptive content. The key to his compromise between classificatory conventionalism and essentialism is his injunction to "perfect" the abstract ideas that serve as "nominal essences." This injunction promotes the pursuit of collections of perceptible qualities that approach ever closer to singling out things that possess some shared explanatory-level constitution. It is (...)
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  46. Stewart Shapiro (1994). Mathematics and Philosophy of Mathematics. Philosophia Mathematica 2 (2):148-160.score: 30.0
    The purpose of this note is to examine the relationship between the practice of mathematics and the philosophy of mathematics, ontology in particular. One conclusion is that the enterprises are (or should be) closely related, with neither one dominating the other. One cannot 'read off' the correct way to do mathematics from the true ontology, for example, nor can one ‘read off’ the true ontology from mathematics as practiced.
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  47. Stewart Shapiro (1983). Mathematics and Reality. Philosophy of Science 50 (4):523-548.score: 30.0
    The subject of this paper is the philosophical problem of accounting for the relationship between mathematics and non-mathematical reality. The first section, devoted to the importance of the problem, suggests that many of the reasons for engaging in philosophy at all make an account of the relationship between mathematics and reality a priority, not only in philosophy of mathematics and philosophy of science, but also in general epistemology/metaphysics. This is followed by a (rather brief) survey of the major, traditional philosophies (...)
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  48. Lawrence Shapiro & Shannon Spaulding (2009). Review of Andy Clark, Supersizing the Mind: Embodiment, Action, and Cognitive Extension. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2009 (6).score: 30.0
    Andy Clark's Supersizing the Mind begins as a manifesto in which the components of an embodied theory of mind are carefully moved into place, proceeds to a defense of these components from recent critical attacks, and ends with words of caution to those who would seek to extract too much from the embodied perspective. Readers unfamiliar with Clark's earlier works are likely to find the result dazzling -- an exciting, novel, and coherent conception of the mind that dares one to (...)
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  49. Lionel Shapiro (2010). Review of Robert Brandom, Between Saying and Doing. [REVIEW] Australasian Journal of Philosophy 88 (2):367-71.score: 30.0
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  50. Scott Shapiro, What is the Internal Point of View?score: 30.0
    Though the “internal point of view” is perhaps H.L.A. Hart’s greatestcontribution to legal theory, this concept is also often and easily misunderstood. This is unfortunate, not only because these misreadings distort Hart’s theory, but, more importantly, because they prevent us from appreciating the infirmities of sanction-centered theories of law and the compelling reasons why they ought to be rejected. In this paper, I try to address some of these confusions. What, exactly, is the internal point of view? What role (or (...)
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