The debate concerning the proper way of understanding, and hence solving, the “is-ought problem” produced two mutually exclusive positions. One position claims that it is entirely impossible to deduce an imperative statement from a set of factual statements. The other position holds a contrary view to the effect that one can naturally derive an imperative statement from a set of factual statements under certain conditions. Although these two positions have opposing views concerning the problem, it should be evident that they (...) both accept that the “is-ought problem” is concerned with the deducibility of imperative statements from factual statements. Later I will argue that this should not be our concern when we try to make sense of the way we reason about morality. (shrink)
In this essay, I would like to look at two particular attempts of developing a preliminary question that paves the way for establishing a Filipino Philosophy: viz. Rolando Gripaldo’s Historian of Philosophy approach and Napoleon Mabaquiao’s Strict Discipline approach. The former envisages that the first question that needs to be considered in the discussion of Filipino Philosophy must be taken from the perspective of a scholar of the history of philosophy. The latter’s procedure is to take what academic philosophers deem (...) to be the characterization of their discipline. In effect, while the former’s question is a question of a historian of philosophy; the latter’s question is a question of a philosopher. As this essay progresses I will try to make a critical assessment of the two attempts by first showing the strengths and weaknesses of their respective attempts, and secondly by stressing that their attempts, whether successful or not, should already be taken as contributions to the effort of establishing a Filipino Philosophy. (shrink)
In this paper, I offer a reconstruction of Wittgenstein's view of the happy life by sketching out three interconnected themes in his early works. The first theme is the distinction between a science of ethics and the ethical. The second is the idea of the willing subject. And finally, the third is the possibility of the happy life.
Armado de espíritu crítico y una espléndida formación en el universo de la filosofía hermenéutica, en los desarrollos de la filosofía contemporánea, así como en pedagogía y sociología de la educación, Joaquín Esteban Ortega elabora en Memoria, hermenéutica y educación una reflexión equilibrada, imbuida, por una parte, de la vocación totalizadora de la filosofía como pensamiento sobre la actualidad, y por otra de la actualización del saber históricamente acaecido que toda reflexión filosófica implica: es justo, pues, atribuir inteligencia al interés (...) del lector de hoy día por las perspectivas multidisciplinarias. Ahora bien, cuando confrontamos esta tendencia actual a favor de la complejidad interdisciplinaria con la desmemoria, dogmatización o anquilosamiento y fundamentalización de tradiciones con las que, en ocasiones, se afronta la misión socializadora de la educación, entonces nos encontramos con que es de justicia acercar la filosofía a la educación. La motivación última del libro es mostrar la voluntad de divergencia, de diferencia, de la filosofía y de la educación y de qué modo: método y razón de ser de una y otra convergen en el paradigma hermenéutico. Mas vayamos por partes, ya que se requiere de una contextualización previa para comprender la razón de ser de esa conciliación entre estos dos saberes. (shrink)
Agustín Serrano de Haro edita y presenta en el volumen colectivo Cuerpo vivido una selección de textos memorables en torno a lo que en 1925 fue denominado programáticamente por Ortega y Gasset una “topografía de nuestra intimidad”. La reflexión fenomenológica acerca del intracuerpo fue un tema que ha preocupado y preocupa de manera notoria a los filósofos cuyos trabajos reúne este colectivo: Ortega y Gasset, José Gaos, Joaquín Xirau, Leopoldo-Eulogio Palacios y Agustín Serrano de Haro. Pese a ello, tal vez (...) no sea tan conocido de todos nosotros el hecho de que las investigaciones filosóficas acerca del cuerpo humano (siempre sentido por uno mismo y reconocido por otros de modo intransferible) resultaron ser contribuciones pioneras y anticipaciones preclaras del tema actual del cuerpo y la corporalidad. (shrink)
Single-unit data from the cortex of monkeys performing working-memory tasks support the main point of the target article. Those data, however, also indicate that the activation of long-term memory is essential to the processing of all cognitive functions. The activation of cortical long-term memory networks is a key neural mechanism in attention (working memory is a form thereof), perception, memory acquisition and retrieval, intelligence, and language.
This is an existential-phenomenological reading of Max Weber’s “Class, Status, Party” that seeks a fuller understanding of meaning accomplishment in a stratified World. I appropriate stratification as a single meaning structure ontically defined by domination, intersubjectivity, and life-chances and ontologically determined by the power-to-be (Seinkönnen), There-being-with-others (Mitdasein), and potentiality (Möglichkeit). I then discuss the significance of these structures in finite transcendence (There-being, Dasein) and describe ways they factually unfold in World achievement. I conclude with logotherapeutic reflections concerning meaning accomplishment in (...) a stratified World and a summary of key questions facing existential-phenomenology in light of the likelihood that There-being must embrace, indeed, live, the inherent equality of Being (Gleichheit des Seins) among Daseins to accomplish its authenticity. (shrink)
In the wake of corporate ethical scandals that have harmed millions of employees and investors, there has been an increase in the number of works written in the last decade, which aim to answer one apparently simple question: what causes unethical behavior, and what can we do, if anything, to prevent similar transgressions in the future? The extensive research around this question is the best proof of its real complexity as the challenge of disentangling the background of ethical behavior has (...) obvious academic and practical interest. This study aims to take a further step toward that goal. Much research has noted the impact of multiple aspects of organizational contexts on individuals’ ethical behavior. However, studies that analyze the impact of organizational learning capability (OLC) on employees’ ethical behavior are few and far between. This was the first aim of this study. The second centered on gaining a deeper understanding of the relationship between OLC and ethical behavior by analyzing the mediating role of employability and organizational commitment. We tested our hypotheses through a structural equation methodology applied to a sample of 641 workers from 166 Spanish consultancy firms and found a positive, direct relationship between OLC and employability, OLC and organizational commitment, employability and organizational commitment, and organizational commitment and ethical behavior. (shrink)
One of the most influential ideas in recent discussions in political philosophy and philosophy of values has been Isaiah Berlin's value pluralism. Given that different ways of living embody different applications of values, it is really difficult to talk about objectivity in the domain of morals. But if we reject the existence of criteria that allow us to judge among different moral proposals, we are led to recognize the prejudiced character of our convictions: their ethnocentric character. In my opinion, this (...) weakens our commitment to those convictions, to the extent that we are not obliged to follow them. At the same time, if that incommensurability is at the root of any interpretation of values, we cannot choose between different ways of understanding pluralism and we cannot evaluate the pluralistic model itself. Saying that some sort of pluralism is good for us if, for us, some sort of pluralism is good, is only proposing an empty tautology. In the end I will argue that we can accept the existence of a sort of moral equilibrium that can allow us to talk of moral progress. (shrink)
International business enterprises face a number of ethical issues when conducting business in unfamiliar parts of the world, especially in places wherecorruption is deeply rooted. This is the situation in Latin America - a highly heterogeneous region characterized by cultural complexity, inconsistencies, andcontradictions at multiple levels of society, with implications for business ethics that are potentially as troubling to outsiders as they are opaque.We briefly indicate the relevant academic literature on this subject, noting that studies of business ethics in Latin (...) America are surprisingly sparse, fragmented, and uneven in comparison with the abundance of published research on business ethics and values in other world regions. Given the importance of Latin American markets, production capacity, raw materials, and economic growth, we identify this situation as a challenge and opportunity for business ethics researchers. Examination of these issues contributes new information and insight into the realities of doing business in emerging market countries and is critical on a theoretical as well as a practical level. (shrink)
This study analyzes the development of a culture of personal transformation in contemporary societies, showing its forms and orientations, and pointing to the factors that favor its development. This new culture unifies psychology and spirituality, emphasizes the transformational power of the experience of transcendence, and flourishes in an heterogeneous and loosely organized milieu driven by trends toward individualization and hybridization. The interpretative hypothesis is that this cultural development is a response to a societal change at the level of the individual: (...) the expansion of the self. The culture of personal transformation can be explained as a response to the existential turmoil that is inherent to the expansion of the self. (shrink)
When Richard Rorty passed away in June of 2007, we lost a philosopher who contributed to a major number of philosophical currents, a thinker who, with his writing, managed to be at a height of an epoch. This interview was conducted during the year 2005–2006, and it has not been published in English. I publish it now as a way of honoring one of the most interesting philosophers of recent years.
This paper describes a novel diagramming technique that we have found useful for highlighting differences in the work values of countries located within a single cultural region, followed by a brief demonstration of its application to countries in two regions (Latin America and the Mediterranean) with regard to managing corruption. We also indicate a few of the various ways that this technique can be used, such as to identify similarities between countries that are not in the same cultural region, yet (...) have one or more important cultural characteristics in common which set them apart from others in their respective regions.The paper directs attention to the practical and theoretical significance of intra-regional cultural differences that may be taken for granted by insiders to the region, while being overlooked by others. We hope that the introduction of this diagramming technique will stimulate further conceptual and empirical exploration of the potential significance of intra-regional cultural differences for international business ethics, as a preliminary step towards development and delivery of organizational interventions to manage the ethical frictions generated by critical differences in beliefs, attitudes, norms and values internationally. (shrink)
Durante el año 2008, el Seminario de Sociedad y Cultura Contemporáneas de nuestra universidad quiso celebrar un ciclo de conferencias sobre la actualidad de lo trágico. Nuestra convicción era que la cultura contemporánea volvía a necesitar la voz y la energía del pensamiento de la tragedia, después de que estas hubieran sido interesadamente neutralizadas en los últimos tiempos. Para este proyecto, se contó con la presencia de toda una autoridad mundial en esta área, Sergio Givone, así como con reputados profesores (...) españoles como Luis Enrique de Santiago Guervós, Pilar López de Santamaría, Marco Parmeggiani o Celso Sánchez Capdequí; acompañados a su vez de jóvenes promesas del panorama nacional. El resultado de ese ciclo es este volumen, donde se recorre a ese respecto un trayecto tanto cronológico (que pasa por Schopenhauer, Dostoievski, Nietzsche, Unamuno, los futuristas) como temático (con asuntos tales que la libertad, el amor fati, el arte contemporáneo, la novedad y la educación). (shrink)
Las preguntas que animan el presente libro se ven atravesadas por el espíritu del tiempo de incertidumbre en el que nos encontramos, pero de manera especial por la incertidumbre misma, ajena a cualquier tiempo, encarnada en ese vínculo que ha establecido desde siempre la filosofía con la literatura. ¿Cuáles siguen siendo hoy día estas relaciones de la literatura con la filosofía? ¿De qué manera se gana o se pierde fuerza semántica con la desaparición de fronteras disciplinares precisas?Estas son algunas cuestiones (...) sobre las que reflexionan el elenco de poetas, escritores y filósofos que colaboran en el libro ofreciendo una incuestionable aportación crítica contra los distintos procesos culturales de secuestro de la palabra. (shrink)
Ballard et al.'s is a plausible and useful model. Leaving aside some unnecessary constraints, the model would probably be valid through a wider gamut of interactions between the self and the environment than the authors envision.
Over the last few years, in part due to the political impact of terrorist activities, the debate on the moral significance of torture as a useful means of obtaining information from enemy combatants has arisen with an urgency not seen in many years. Stressing the importance of exceptional cases, the defenders of torture attempt to justify its acceptance by and back its use in the judicial system of Western democracies. Yet what is at stake here are the basic moral principles—especially (...) that of human dignity-on which our political convictions rest. Admitting of exceptions would change the value of these principles: what once werefixed guidelines for acceptable action now become alterable according to specific political demands, thus making torture into a morally neutral act. The current defence of torture in the West may be a symptom of the progressive absolutization of the State. (shrink)
The purpose of this work is the interpretation of the most important aspect of Ibn Bayya (Avempace)'s philosophy, reading his Kitab al-nafs, the first commentary of the aristotelian work in Occident, De anima. This study of the houl is, for Avempace, the principal science because without his analysis of the one´s soul it is imposible know the rest of sciences and the world. This author, in all his works finds the ideal of the philosopher and of the wise man, above (...) all, in the progressive dematerialization, of his total life. This objective is obtained through the transcending of the three kinds of forms, namely: materials formas first spiritual level and finally, the second spiritual level. The culmination of this itinerary is to reach the second spiritual level, to be exact, the union with the Agent Intellect by means of an intellectualist mysticism or «amor Dei intellectualis». The basic materials of this philosophy are contained in this aristoteleian commentaary about the soul. KEY WORDS – The human end. Human faculties. Human forms. Human dematerialization. Itellectual mysticism. (shrink)