Search results for 'Joe Becker' (try it on Scholar)

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Profile: Joe Becker (University of Illinois, Chicago)
  1. Christopher Potts, Rajesh Bhatt, Joe Pater & Michael Becker, Harmonic Grammar with Linear Programming: From Linear Systems to Linguistic Typology.
    Harmonic Grammar (HG) is a model of linguistic constraint interaction in which well-formedness is calculated as the sum of weighted constraint violations. We show how linear programming algorithms can be used to determine whether there is a weighting for a set of constraints that fits a set of linguistic data. The associated software package OT-Help provides a practical tool for studying large and complex linguistic systems in the HG framework and comparing the results with those of OT. We describe the (...)
     
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  2. Joe Becker (2008). Conceptualizing Mind and Consciousness: Using Constructivist Ideas to Transcend the Physical Bind. Human Development 51 (3):165-189.
    Philosophers and scientists seeking to conceptualize consciousness, and subjective experience in particular, have focused on sensation and perception, and have emphasized binding – how a percept holds together. Building on a constructivist approach to conception centered on separistic-holistic complexes incorporating multiple levels of abstraction, the present approach reconceptualizes binding and opens a new path to theorizing the emergence of consciousness. It is proposed that all subjective experience involves multiple levels of abstraction, a central feature of conception. This modifies the prevalent (...)
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  3.  27
    Joe Becker (2004). Reconsidering the Role of Overcoming Perturbations in Cognitive Development: Constructivism and Consicousness. Human Development 47 (2):77-93.
    Constructivist theory must choose between the hypothesis that felt perturbation drives cognitive development (the priority of felt perturbation) and the hypothesis that the particular process that eventually produces new cognitive structures first produces felt perturbation (the continuity of process). There is ambivalence in Piagetian theory regarding this choice. The prevalent account of constructivist theory adopts the priority of felt perturbation. However, on occasion Piaget has explicitly rejected it, simultaneously endorsing the continuity of process. First, I explicate and support this latter (...)
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  4. Lawrence C. Becker (1971). A Note on Religious Experience Arguments: LAWRENCE C. BECKER. Religious Studies 7 (1):63-68.
    When philosophers speak of the inconclusiveness of arguments for the existence of God, they often do so as if they were talking about a matter of principle—as if it were in principle impossible to prove God's existence, that every proof was in principle inconclusive. Of course, rebutals of the cosmological, ontological, and teleological arguments are usually designed to show that these types of arguments are in principle inconclusive. But one supposes that religious experience arguments are not all in such difficulties. (...)
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  5. Carl Becker (1911). Becker, Carl. Diemoderne Weltanschauung. Kant-Studien 16 (1-3).
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  6. Carl Becker (1917). Becker, Carl. Religion in Vergangenheit Und Zukunft. Kant-Studien 21 (1-3).
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  7. Lawrence C. Becker (2014). On Justifying Moral Judgements. Routledge.
    Reissue of Becker's 1973 monograph, which argues the following: Much discussion of morality presupposes that moral judgments are always, at bottom, arbitrary. Moral scepticism, or at least moral relativism, has become common currency among the liberally educated. This remains the case even while political crises become intractable, and it is increasingly apparent that the scope of public policy formulated with no reference to moral justification is extremely limited. The thesis of _On Justifying Moral Judgments_ insists, on the contrary, that (...)
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  8.  10
    Peter Becker & William Clark (eds.) (2001). Little Tools of Knowledge: Historical Essays on Academic and Bureaucratic Practices. University of Michigan Press.
    This volume brings historians of science and social historians together to consider the role of "little tools"--such as tables, reports, questionnaires, dossiers, index cards--in establishing academic and bureaucratic claims to authority and objectivity. From at least the eighteenth century onward, our science and society have been planned, surveyed, examined, and judged according to particular techniques of collecting and storing knowledge. Recently, the seemingly self-evident nature of these mundane epistemic and administrative tools, as well as the prose in which they are (...)
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  9.  8
    Cordula Becker, Klaus Gramann, Hermann J. Müller & Mark A. Elliott (2009). Electrophysiological Correlates of Flicker-Induced Color Hallucinations. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (1):266-276.
    In a recent study, Becker and Elliott [Becker, C., & Elliott, M. A. . Flicker induced color and form: Interdependencies and relation to stimulation frequency and phase. Consciousness & Cognition, 15, 175–196] described the appearance of subjective experiences of color and form induced by stimulation with intermittent light. While there have been electroencephalographic studies of similar hallucinatory forms, brain activity accompanying the appearance of hallucinatory colors was never measured. Using a priming procedure where observers were required (...)
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  10.  20
    Werner Becker (1972). Dialektik als Ideologie: Hegel und Marx. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 3 (2):302-328.
    Dialektik ist eine Modevokabel geworden. In seinem Aufsatz geht Becker ihren philosophiegeschichtlichen Quellen nach. Er zeigt, daß die begrifflichen Konstruktionselemente der dialektischen Methode von Hegel und Marx dem Selbstbewußtseinstheorem der klassischen Transzendentalphilosophie entstammen. Die Wurzeln dieses Theorems reichen bis zu Descartes zurück. Die konsequenteste Ausbildung hat es jedoch erst in der Philosophie des deutschen Idealismus erhalten. B. macht klar, unter welchen Bedingungen es zu Marxens 'materialistischer Umstülpung' der dialektischen Methode kommen konnte. In einer Kurzanalyse der Warentheorie von Marx wird (...)
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  11.  8
    Lawrence C. Becker (1973). On Justifying Moral Judgments. New York,Humanities Press.
    Much discussion of morality presupposes that moral judgments are always, at bottom, arbitrary. Moral scepticism, or at least moral relativism, has become common currency among the liberally educated. This remains the case even while political crises become intractable, and it is increasingly apparent that the scope of public policy formulated with no reference to moral justification is extremely limited. The thesis of On Justifying Moral Judgments insists, on the contrary, that rigorous justifications are possible for moral judgments. Crucially, Becker (...)
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  12. Gary Becker, Nber Working Paper Series.
    © 2004 by Gary S. Becker, Kevin M. Murphy, and Michael Grossman. All rights reserved. Short sections of text, not to exceed two paragraphs, may be quoted without explicit permission provided that full credit, including © notice, is given to the source.
     
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  13.  3
    John E. Becker (1991). "The Vision Thing": Charles Taylor Against Inarticulacy. Ethics and International Affairs 5 (1):53–71.
    In response to Charles Taylor's book "Sources of the Self: The Making of the Modern Identity," Becker defends the Western view of ethical conceptions based on our unique identity, reasoning, and historical heritage.
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  14.  6
    Carl B. Becker (1993). Breaking the Circle: Death and the Afterlife in Buddhism. Southern Illinois University Press.
    In this much-needed examination of Buddhist views of death and the afterlife, Carl B. Becker bridges the gap between books on death in the West and books on Buddhism in the East.
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  15. Lawrence C. Becker (2013). Property Rights : Philosophic Foundations. Routledge.
    _Property Rights: Philosophic Foundations,_ first published in 1977, and reissued in 2013, comprehensively examines the general justifications for systems of private property rights, and discusses with great clarity the major arguments as to the rights and responsibilities of property ownership. In particular, the arguments that hold that there are natural rights derived from first occupancy, labour, utility, liberty and virtue are considered, as are the standard anti-property arguments based on disutility, virtue and inequality, and the belief that justice in distribution (...)
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  16. Lawrence C. Becker (2015). Property Rights : Philosophic Foundations. Routledge.
    _Property Rights: Philosophic Foundations,_ first published in 1977, comprehensively examines the general justifications for systems of private property rights, and discusses with great clarity the major arguments as to the rights and responsibilities of property ownership. In particular, the arguments that hold that there are natural rights derived from first occupancy, labour, utility, liberty and virtue are considered, as are the standard anti-property arguments based on disutility, virtue and inequality, and the belief that justice in distribution must take precedence over (...)
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  17. Lawrence C. Becker (2014). Property Rights : Philosophic Foundations. Routledge.
    _Property Rights: Philosophic Foundations,_ first published in 1977, comprehensively examines the general justifications for systems of private property rights, and discusses with great clarity the major arguments as to the rights and responsibilities of property ownership. In particular, the arguments that hold that there are natural rights derived from first occupancy, labour, utility, liberty and virtue are considered, as are the standard anti-property arguments based on disutility, virtue and inequality, and the belief that justice in distribution must take precedence over (...)
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  18. Edward Becker (2014). The Themes of Quine's Philosophy: Meaning, Reference, and Knowledge. Cambridge University Press.
    Willard Van Orman Quine's work revolutionized the fields of epistemology, semantics and ontology. At the heart of his philosophy are several interconnected doctrines: his rejection of conventionalism and of the linguistic doctrine of logical and mathematical truth, his rejection of the analytic/synthetic distinction, his thesis of the indeterminacy of translation and his thesis of the inscrutability of reference. In this book Edward Becker sets out to interpret and explain these doctrines. He offers detailed analyses of the relevant texts, discusses (...)
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  19. Edward Becker (2012). The Themes of Quine's Philosophy: Meaning, Reference, and Knowledge. Cambridge University Press.
    Willard Van Orman Quine's work revolutionized the fields of epistemology, semantics and ontology. At the heart of his philosophy are several interconnected doctrines: his rejection of conventionalism and of the linguistic doctrine of logical and mathematical truth, his rejection of the analytic/synthetic distinction, his thesis of the indeterminacy of translation and his thesis of the inscrutability of reference. In this book Edward Becker sets out to interpret and explain these doctrines. He offers detailed analyses of the relevant texts, discusses (...)
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  20.  69
    Ernest Becker (1973). The Denial of Death. New York,Free Press.
    Drawing from religion and the human sciences, particularly psychology after Freud, the author attempts to demonstrate that the fear of death is man's central ...
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  21. Kelly Becker (2007). Epistemology Modalized. Routledge.
    Introduction: externalism and modalism -- Externalism -- Modalism -- What should the theory do? -- What's missing? -- Process reliabilism -- Goldman's causal theory -- Goldman's discrimination requirement and relevant alternatives -- Process reliabilism and why it is not enough -- Implications for skepticism -- Sensitivity -- Nozick's subjunctive conditional theory of knowledge -- Methods : an important refinement -- Objections to nozicks theory -- Safety -- Motivating safety -- Weak and strong safety : luck and induction -- Is safety (...)
     
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  22.  39
    Lawrence C. Becker (1986). Reciprocity. Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    In one form or another, social norms governing reciprocal behavior between individuals exist in all human societies of record. Such norms are institutionalized in social, political, and legal practices; they are internalized as expectations and behavioral dispositions in individuals. But the content of those norms differs widely from society to society, individual to individual. This book gives a normative argument for a particular content for the norms of reciprocity – a particular account of the meaning of making a fitting and (...)
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  23. Lawrence C. Becker (1995). From the Editor. Ethics 105 (2).
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  24. Kelly Becker (2008). Epistemic Luck and the Generality Problem. Philosophical Studies 139 (3):353 - 366.
    Epistemic luck has been the focus of much discussion recently. Perhaps the most general knowledge-precluding type is veritic luck, where a belief is true but might easily have been false. Veritic luck has two sources, and so eliminating it requires two distinct conditions for a theory of knowledge. I argue that, when one sets out those conditions properly, a solution to the generality problem for reliabilism emerges.
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  25.  15
    Chieh-Peng Lin, Yuan-Hui Tsai, Sheng-Wuu Joe & Chou-Kang Chiu (2012). Modeling the Relationship Among Perceived Corporate Citizenship, Firms' Attractiveness, and Career Success Expectation. Journal of Business Ethics 105 (1):83-93.
    Drawing on propositions from the signaling theory and expectancy theory, this study hypothesizes that the perceived corporate citizenship of job seekers positively affects a firm’s attractiveness and career success expectation. This study’s proposed research hypotheses are empirically tested using a survey of graduating MBA students seeking a job. The empirical findings show that a firm’s corporate citizenship provides a competitive advantage in attracting job seekers and fostering optimistic career success expectation. Such findings substantially complement the growing literature arguing that corporate (...)
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  26.  14
    Kelly Becker & Tim Black (eds.) (2012). The Sensitivity Principle in Epistemology. Cambridge University Press.
    Provides new thinking on the compelling subject of 'sensitivity' - a principle typically characterized as a necessary condition for knowledge.
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  27.  29
    Helmut Becker & David J. Fritzsche (1987). Business Ethics: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Managers' Attitudes. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 6 (4):289 - 295.
    A comparison of attitudes among managers from France, Germany and the United States is made with respect to codes of ethics and ethical business philosophy. Findings are also compared with past studies by Baumhart and by Brenner and Molander where data are available. While the current data appear to be consistent with the past studies, there appear to be differences in attitudes among the managers from the three countries.
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  28. Lawrence C. Becker (2005). Reciprocity, Justice, and Disability. Ethics 116 (1):9-39.
  29. K. Shaikh & S. Becker (1985). Socioeconomic Status and Fertility in Rural Bangladesh. Journal of Biosocial Science 17 (1):81-89.
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  30.  6
    M. L. Woud, E. S. Becker & M. Rinck (2011). Implicit Evaluation Bias Induced by Approach and Avoidance. Cognition and Emotion 25 (7):1309-1310.
  31.  71
    Kelly Becker (2013). Why Reliabilism Does Not Permit Easy Knowledge. Synthese 190 (17):3751-3775.
    Reliabilism furnishes an account of basic knowledge that circumvents the problem of the given. However, reliabilism and other epistemological theories that countenance basic knowledge have been criticized for permitting all-too-easy higher-level knowledge. In this paper, I describe the problem of easy knowledge, look briefly at proposed solutions, and then develop my own. I argue that the easy knowledge problem, as it applies to reliabilism, hinges on a false and too crude understanding of ‘reliable’. With a more plausible conception of ‘reliable’, (...)
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  32.  45
    David J. Fritzsche & Helmut Becker (1983). Ethical Behavior of Marketing Managers. Journal of Business Ethics 2 (4):291 - 299.
    The ethical behavior of marketing managers was examined by analyzing their responses to a series of different types of ethical dilemmas presented in vignette form. The ethical dilemmas addressed dealt with the issues of (1) coercion and control, (2) conflict of interest, (3) the physical environment, (4) paternalism, and (5) personal integrity. Responses were analyzed to discover whether managers' behavior varied by type of issue faced or whether there is some continuity to ethical behavior which transcends the type of ethical (...)
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  33.  73
    Lawrence C. Becker (1996). Trust as Noncognitive Security About Motives. Ethics 107 (1):43-61.
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  34. Theodor W. Adorno & Hellmut Becker (1999). Education for Maturity and Responsibility. History of the Human Sciences 12 (3):21-34.
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  35.  13
    Lawrence C. Becker (1998). A New Stoicism. Princeton University Press.
    The question addressed by this book is what, if anything, stoic ethics would be like today if stoicism had had a continuous history to the present day as a plausible and coherent set of philosophical commitments and methods. The book answers that question by arguing that most of the ancient doctrines of Stoic ethics remain defensible today, at least when ancient Stoicism's cosmological commitments are replaced by modern scientific ones.
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  36.  65
    Lawrence C. Becker (1977). Property Rights: Philosophic Foundations. Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    This book begins with a distinction between a general, a specific, and a particular justification of property rights. Then after a brief review of Hohfeld's analysis of legal rights, and Honore's analysis of legal ownership, various standard general justifications are assessed: first occupancy; personality; Locke's labor theory of original acquisition; utilitarian property theory (value theory and economic versions); and accounts based on a strong principle of personal liberty.. This is followed by remarks on anti--property arguments. The book concludes with a (...)
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  37.  3
    Eni Becker & Mike Rinck (2004). Sensitivity and Response Bias in Fear of Spiders. Cognition and Emotion 18 (7):961-976.
  38. Lawrence C. Becker & Charlotte B. Becker (eds.) (2001). Encyclopedia of Ethics. Routledge.
    The editors, working with a team of 325 renowned authorities in the field of ethics, have revised, expanded, and updated this classic encyclopedia. Along with the addition of 150 new entries, all of the original articles have been newly peer-reviewed and revised, bibliographies have been updated throughout, and the overall design of the work has been enhanced for easier access to cross-references and other reference features. New entries include * Aristotelian Ethics * Avicenna * Bad Faith * Beneficence * Categorical (...)
     
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  39. Lawrence C. Becker (1974). Criminal Attempt and the Theory of the Law of Crimes. Philosophy and Public Affairs 3 (3):262-294.
  40.  28
    Raymond B. Becker, Todd R. Ferretti & Carol J. Madden-Lombardi (2013). Grammatical Aspect, Lexical Aspect, and Event Duration Constrain the Availability of Events in Narratives. Cognition 129 (2):212-220.
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  41. Howard Becker & Helmut Otto Dahlke (1942). Max Scheler's Sociology of Knowledge. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 2 (3):310-322.
  42. Lawrence C. Becker (1976). The Labor Theory of Property Acquisition. Journal of Philosophy 73 (18):653-664.
    This symposium paper for the APA analyzes Locke's labor theory of property acquisition as a formal argument – or set of alternative arguments – and shows how several of them are indeed sound, if appropriately limited by what amounts to a social welfare proviso. That proviso is, however, strong enough to limit the acquisition of private property in a significant way. The argument here anticipates fuller and more decisive ones in later work by the same author.
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  43. Kelly Becker (2009). Margins for Error and Sensitivity: What Nozick Might Have Said. [REVIEW] Acta Analytica 24 (1):17-31.
    Timothy Williamson has provided damaging counterexamples to Robert Nozick’s sensitivity principle. The examples are based on Williamson’s anti-luminosity arguments, and they show how knowledge requires a margin for error that appears to be incompatible with sensitivity. I explain how Nozick can rescue sensitivity from Williamson’s counterexamples by appeal to a specific conception of the methods by which an agent forms a belief. I also defend the proposed conception of methods against Williamson’s criticisms.
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  44. Gerhold K. Becker (1999). Introduction. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 9 (4):465-467.
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  45. Howard Becker (1981). Ad and the Supercompactness of ℵ. Journal of Symbolic Logic 46 (4):822 - 842.
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  46.  31
    Fernando Aguiar, Alice Becker & Luis Miller (2013). Whose Impartiality? An Experimental Study of Veiled Stakeholders, Involved Spectators and Detached Observers. Economics and Philosophy 29 (2):155-174.
    We present an experiment designed to investigate three different mechanisms to achieve impartiality in distributive justice. We consider a first-person procedure, inspired by the Rawlsian veil of ignorance,and two third-party procedures, an involved spectator and a detached observer. First-person veiled stakeholders and involved spectators are affected by an initially unfair distribution that, in the stakeholders’ case,is to be redressed. We find substantial differences in the redressing task.Detached observers propose significantly fairer redistributions than veiled takeholders or involved spectators. Risk preferences partly (...)
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  47. Carl B. Becker (1990). Buddhist Views of Suicide and Euthanasia. Philosophy East and West 40 (4):543-556.
  48.  32
    Kelly Becker (2006). Reliabilism and Safety. Metaphilosophy 37 (5):691-704.
    : Duncan Pritchard has recently highlighted the problem of veritic epistemic luck and claimed that a safety‐based account of knowledge succeeds in eliminating veritic luck where virtue‐based accounts and process reliabilism fail. He then claims that if one accepts a safety‐based account, there is no longer a motivation for retaining a commitment to reliabilism. In this article, I delineate several distinct safety principles, and I argue that those that eliminate veritic luck do so only if at least implicitly committed to (...)
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  49. Lawrence C. Becker (1975). The Neglect of Virtue. Ethics 85 (2):110-122.
  50. Ernest Becker (1975). Escape From Evil. Free Press.
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