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  1. Johan van Benthem, A Brief History of Natural Logic.
    This paper is a brief history of natural logic at the interface of logic, linguistics, and nowadays also other disciplines. It merely summarizes some facts that deserve to be common knowledge.
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  2. Johan van Benthem, Cognition As Interaction.
    Many cognitive activities are irreducibly social, involving interaction between several different agents. We look at some examples of this in linguistic communication and games, and show how logical methods provide exact models for the relevant information flow and world change. Finally, we discuss possible connections in this arena between logico-computational approaches and experimental cognitive science.
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  3. Johan van Benthem, Decisions, Actions, and Games, a Logical Perspective.
    Over the past decades, logicians interested in rational agency and intelligent interaction studied major components of these phenomena, such as knowledge, belief, and preference. In recent years, standard ‘static’ logics describing information states of agents have been generalized to dynamic logics describing actions and events that produce information, revise beliefs, or change preferences, as explicit parts of the logical system. Van Ditmarsch, van der Hoek & Kooi 2007, Baltag, van Ditmarsch & Moss 2008, van Benthem, to appear A, are up-to-date (...)
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  4. Johan van Benthem, For Better or for Worse: Dynamic Logics of Preference.
    In the last few years, preference logic and in particular, the dynamic logic of preference change, has suddenly become a live topic in my Amsterdam and Stanford environments. At the request of the editors, this article explains how this interest came about, and what is happening. I mainly present a story around some recent dissertations and supporting papers, which are found in the references. There is no pretense at complete coverage of preference logic (for that, see Hanson 2001) or even (...)
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  5. Johan van Benthem, Games in Dynamic-Epistemic Logic.
    We discuss games of both perfect and imperfect information at two levels of structural detail: players’ local actions, and their global powers for determining outcomes of the game. We propose matching logical languages for both. In particular, at the ‘action level’, imperfect information games naturally model a combined ‘dynamic-epistemic language’ – and we find correspondences between special axioms and particular modes of playing games with their information dynamics. At the ‘outcome level’, we present suitable notions of game equivalence, plus some (...)
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  6. Johan van Benthem, Information in Natural Language.
    Natural languages are vehicles of information, arguably the most important, certainly the most ubiquitous that humans possess. Our everyday interactions with the world, with each other and with ourselves depend on them. And even where in the specialised contexts of science we use dedicated formalisms to convey information, their use is embedded in natural language. This omnipresence of natural language is due in large part to its flexibility, which is almost always a virtue, sometimes a vice. Natural languages are able (...)
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  7. Johan van Benthem, Inference, Promotion, and the Dynamics of Awareness.
    Classical epistemic logic describes implicit knowledge of agents about facts and knowledge of other agents, based on semantic information. The latter is produced by acts of observation or communication, that are described well by dynamic epistemic logics. What these logics do not describe, however, is how significant information is also produced by acts of inference – and key axioms of the system merely postulate “deductive closure”. In this paper, we take the view that all information is produced by acts, and (...)
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  8. Johan van Benthem, Logic Games: Not Just Tools, but Models of Interaction.
    This paper is based on tutorials on 'Logic and Games' at the 7th Asian Logic Conference in Hsi-Tou, Taiwan, 1999, and until 2002 in Siena, Stuttgart, Trento, Udine, and Utrecht. We present logic games as a topic per se, giving models for dynamic interaction between agents. First, we survey some basic logic games. Then we show how their common properties raise general issues of game structure and 'game logics'. Next, we review logic games in the light of general game logic. (...)
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  9. Johan van Benthem, Logic in Philosophy.
    1 Logic in philosophy The century that was Logic has played an important role in modern philosophy, especially, in alliances with philosophical schools such as the Vienna Circle, neopositivism, or formal language variants of analytical philosophy. The original impact was via the work of Frege, Russell, and other pioneers, backed up by the prestige of research into the foundations of mathematics, which was fast bringing to light those amazing insights that still impress us to-day. The Golden Age of the 1930s (...)
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  10. Johan van Benthem, Merging Observation and Access in Dynamic Logic.
    Rational agents base their actions on information from observation, inference, introspection, or other sources. But this information comes in different kinds, and it is usually handled by different logical mechanisms. We discuss how to integrate external ‘updating information’ and internal ‘elucidating information’ into one system of dynamic epistemic logic, by distinguishing two basic informational actions: ‘bare seeing’ versus ‘conscious realization’.
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  11. Johan van Benthem, 'One is a Lonely Number': On the Logic of Communication.
    Logic is not just about single-agent notions like reasoning, or zero-agent notions like truth, but also about communication between two or more people. What we tell and ask each other can be just as 'logical' as what we infer in Olympic solitude. We show how such interactive phenomena can be studied systematically by merging epistemic and dynamic logic.
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  12. Johan van Benthem, Open Problems in Logic and Games.
    Dov Gabbay is a prolific logician just by himself. But beyond that, he is quite good at making other people investigate the many further things he cares about. As a result, King's College London has become a powerful attractor in our field worldwide. Thus, it is a great pleasure to be an organizer for one of its flagship events: the Augustus de Morgan Workshop of 2005. Benedikt Loewe and I proposed the topic of 'interactive logic' for this occasion, with an (...)
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  13. Johan van Benthem, Preference Logic, Conditionals and Solution Concepts in Games.
    Preference is a basic notion in human behaviour, underlying such varied phenomena as individual rationality in the philosophy of action and game theory, obligations in deontic logic (we should aim for the best of all possible worlds), or collective decisions in social choice theory. Also, in a more abstract sense, preference orderings are used in conditional logic or non-monotonic reasoning as a way of arranging worlds into more or less plausible ones. The field of preference logic (cf. Hansson [10]) studies (...)
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  14. Johan van Benthem, Patterns of Intelligent Interaction: Games, Action, and Social Software.
    Sitting in the office of a distinguished philosopher of language recently, I watched him lean back (somewhat precariously) in his chair, look at the ceiling, and sigh: “Johan, we both write all this stuff about information, context, and communication – but is not the only time you really feel that you are making progress, when you resolutely close your eyes, and shut out the world and the others?” I appreciated his point, and indeed, in most spheres of life on this (...)
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  15. Johan van Benthem, Rationalizations and Promises in Games.
    Understanding human behaviour involves "why"'s as well as "how"'s. Rational people have good reasons for acting, but it can be hard to find out what these were and how they worked. In this Note, we discuss a few ways in which actions, preferences, and expectations are intermingled. This mixture is especially clear with the well-known solution procedure for extensive games called 'Backward Induction'. In particular, we discuss three scenarios for analyzing behaviour in a game. One can rationalize given moves as (...)
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  16. Johan van Benthem, Rational Dynamics and Epistemic Logic in Games.
    Game-theoretic solution concepts describe sets of strategy profiles that are optimal for all players in some plausible sense. Such sets are often found by recursive algorithms like iterated removal of strictly dominated strategies in strategic games, or backward induction in extensive games. Standard logical analyses of solution sets use assumptions about players in fixed epistemic models for a given game, such as mutual knowledge of rationality. In this paper, we propose a different perspective, analyzing solution algorithms as processes of learning (...)
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  17. Johan van Benthem, Maricarmen Martinez, David Israel & John Perry, The Stories of Logic and Information.
    Information is a notion of wide use and great intuitive appeal, and hence, not surprisingly, different formal paradigms claim part of it, from Shannon channel theory to Kolmogorov complexity. Information is also a widely used term in logic, but a similar diversity repeats itself: there are several competing logical accounts of this notion, ranging from semantic to syntactic. In this chapter, we will discuss three major logical accounts of information.
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  18. Johan van Benthem & Eric Pacuit, Toward a Theory of Play: A Logical Perspective on Games and Interaction.
    The combination of logic and game theory provides a fine-grained perspective on information and interaction dynamics, a Theory of Play. In this paper we lay down the main components of such a theory, drawing on recent advances in the logical dynamics of actions, preferences, and information. We then show how this fine-grained perspective has already shed new light on the long-term dynamics of information exchange, as well as on the much-discussed question of extensive game rationality.
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  19. Johan van Benthem & Darko Sarenac, The Geometry of Knowledge.
    The most widely used attractive logical account of knowledge uses standard epistemic models, i.e., graphs whose edges are indistinguishability relations for agents. In this paper, we discuss more general topological models for a multi-agent epistemic language, whose main uses so far have been in reasoning about space. We show that this more geometrical perspective affords greater powers of distinction in the study of common knowledge, defining new collective agents, and merging information for groups of agents.
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  20. Johan van Benthem, Hans van Ditmarsch & Jan van Eijck, Logica in Actie.
    Meer informatie over de uitgaven van Sdu Uitgevers en Academic Service kunt u verkrijgen bij: Sdu Klantenservice Postbus 20014 2500 EA Den Haag tel.: (070) 378 98 80 www.sdu.nl/service..
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  21. Johan van Benthem, Jan van Eijck & Vera Stebletsova, Modal Logic, Transition Systems and Processes.
    Transition systems can be viewed either as process diagrams or as Kripke structures. The rst perspective is that of process theory, the second that of modal logic. This paper shows how various formalisms of modal logic can be brought to bear on processes. Notions of bisimulation can not only be motivated by operations on transition systems, but they can also be suggested by investigations of modal formalisms. To show that the equational view of processes from process algebra is closely related (...)
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  22. Johan van Benthem, Common Knowledge in Update Logics.
    Current dynamic epistemic logics often become cumbersome and opaque when common knowledge is added for groups of agents. Still, postconditions regarding common knowledge express the essence of what communication achieves. We present some methods that yield so-called reduction axioms for common knowledge. We investigate the expressive power of public announcement logic with relativized common knowledge, and present reduction axioms that give a detailed account of the dynamics of common knowledge in some major communication types.
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  23. Helen Hodges, Wilfrid Hodges & Johan van Benthem (forthcoming). Logic and Psychology', Guest Issue Of. Topoi.
     
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  24. Johan van Benthem (forthcoming). Epistemic Logic and Epistemology. The State of Their Affairs', to Appear in V. Hendricks, Ed., Special Issue Of. Philosophical Studies.
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  25. Johan van Benthem (forthcoming). Logic, Language & Information: The Makings of a New Science? Journal of Logic, Language, and Information.
     
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  26. Johan Van Benthem (forthcoming). Modelling the Kinematics of Meaning. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society.
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  27. Dag Westerståhl & Johan van Benthem (forthcoming). Directions in Generalized Quantifier Theory. Studia Logica.
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  28. Johan van Benthem (2014). Logic in Games. The Mit Press.
    A comprehensive examination of the interfaces of logic, computer science, and game theory, drawing on twenty years of research on logic and games.
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  29. Johan van Benthem (2014). Modeling Reasoning in a Social Setting. Studia Logica 102 (2):235-265.
    In this survey and position paper, we discuss some issues in logical modeling of interactive behavior. We draw together a number of lines in current logics for social action, emphasizing uses of ‘small models’ rather than complex spaces.
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  30. Johan van Benthem (2014). Natural Language and Logic of Agency. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 23 (3):367-382.
    This light piece reflects on analogies between two often disjoint streams of research: the logical semantics and pragmatics of natural language and dynamic logics of general information-driven agency. The two areas show significant overlap in themes and tools, and yet, the focus seems subtly different in each, defying a simple comparison. We discuss some unusual questions that emerge when the two are put side by side, without any pretense at covering the whole literature or at reaching definitive conclusions.
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  31. Johan van Benthem, David Fernández-Duque & Eric Pacuit (2014). Evidence and Plausibility in Neighborhood Structures. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 165 (1):106-133.
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  32. Johan van Benthem (2013). Bernard Bolzano's Wissenschaftslehre. Topoi 32 (2):301-303.
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  33. Johan van Benthem (2012). The Logic of Empirical Theories Revisited. Synthese 186 (3):775-792.
    Logic and philosophy of science share a long history, though contacts have gone through ups and downs. This paper is a brief survey of some major themes in logical studies of empirical theories, including links to computer science and current studies of rational agency. The survey has no new results: we just try to make some things into common knowledge.
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  34. Johan van Benthem (2012). The Nets of Reason. Argument and Computation 3 (2-3):83 - 86.
    Argument & Computation, Volume 3, Issue 2-3, Page 83-86, June–September 2012.
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  35. Johan van Benthem (2012). The Range of Modal Logic. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 9 (2-3):407-442.
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  36. Johan van Benthem, Nick Bezhanishvili & Ian Hodkinson (2012). Sahlqvist Correspondence for Modal Mu-Calculus. Studia Logica 100 (1):31-60.
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  37. Johan van Benthem & Ştefan Minică (2012). Toward a Dynamic Logic of Questions. Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (4):633-669.
    Questions are triggers for explicit events of ‘issue management’. We give a complete logic in dynamic-epistemic style for events of raising, refining, and resolving an issue, all in the presence of information flow through observation or communication. We explore extensions of the framework to multi-agent scenarios and long-term temporal protocols. We sketch a comparison with some alternative accounts.
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  38. Johan van Benthem & Sonja Smets (2012). New Logical Perspectives on Physics. Synthese 186 (3):615-617.
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  39. Thomas Ågotnes, Johan van Benthem, Hans van Ditmarsch & Stefan Minica (2011). Question–Answer Games. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 21 (3-4):265-288.
    We propose strategic games wherein the strategies consist of players asking each other questions and answering those questions. We study simplifications of such games wherein two players simultaneously ask each other a question that the opponent is then obliged to answer. The motivation for our research is to model conversation including the dynamics of questions and answers, to provide new links between game theory and dynamic logics of information, and to exploit the dynamic/strategic structure that, we think, lies implicitly inside (...)
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  40. Johan van Benthem (2011). Logical Dynamics of Information and Interaction. Cambridge University Press.
    Machine generated contents note: Preface; 1. Logical dynamics, agency, and intelligent interaction; 2. Epistemic logic and semantic information; 3. Dynamic logic of public observation; 4. Multi-agent dynamic-epistemic logic; 5. Dynamics of inference and awareness; 6. Questions and issue management; 7. Soft information, correction, and belief change; 8. An encounter with probability; 9. Preference statics and dynamics; 10. Decisions, actions, and games; 11. Processes over time; 12. Epistemic group structure and collective agency; 13. Logical dynamics in philosophy; 14. Computation as conversation; (...)
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  41. Johan van Benthem (2011). Logic in a Social Setting. Episteme 8 (3):227-247.
    Taking Backward Induction as its running example, this paper explores avenues for a logic of information-driven social action. We use recent results on limit phenomena in knowledge updating and belief revision, procedural rationality, and a analyzing how games are played by different agents.
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  42. Johan van Benthem, Theo Kuipers & Henk Visser (2011). Introduction. Synthese 179 (2):203-206.
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  43. Johan van Benthem & Eric Pacuit (2011). Dynamic Logics of Evidence-Based Beliefs. Studia Logica 99 (1-3):61-92.
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  44. Johan Van Benthem, Logical Dynamics of Information and Evaluation.
    SOCREAL 2010: 2nd International Workshop on Philosophy and Ethics of Social Reality. Sapporo, Japan, 2010-03-27/28. Keynote Lecture 1. Joining Information and Evaluation: a dynamic logical perspective.
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  45. Johan van Benthem (2010). Modal Logic for Open Minds. Center for the Study of Language and Information.
     
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  46. Johan van Benthem & Eric Pacuit (2010). Temporal Logics of Agency. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 19 (4):389-393.
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  47. Johan Van Benthem & Alice Ter Meulen (eds.) (2010). Handbook of Logic and Language, 2nd Edition.
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  48. Johan van Benthem & Fernando R. Velázquez-Quesada (2010). The Dynamics of Awareness. Synthese 177 (1):5-27.
    Classical epistemic logic describes implicit knowledge of agents about facts and knowledge of other agents based on semantic information. The latter is produced by acts of observation or communication that are described well by dynamic epistemic logics. What these logics do not describe, however, is how significant information is also produced by acts of inference—and key axioms of the system merely postulate “deductive closure”. In this paper, we take the view that all information is produced by acts, and hence we (...)
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  49. Thomas Ågotnes, Johan van Benthem & Eric Pacuit (2009). Logic and Intelligent Interaction. Synthese 169 (2):219 - 221.
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  50. Arnon Avron, Oskar Becker, Johan van Benthem, Andreas Blass, Robert Brandom, L. E. J. Brouwer, Donald Davidson, Michael Dummett, Walter Felscher & Kit Fine (2009). Jagadeesan, Radha, 306 Japaridze, Giorgi, Xi. In Ondrej Majer, Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen & Tero Tulenheimo (eds.), Games: Unifying Logic, Language, and Philosophy. Springer Verlag. 377.
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