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  1. Johanna Kujala, Anna Heikkinen & Hanna Lehtimäki (2012). Understanding the Nature of Stakeholder Relationships: An Empirical Examination of a Conflict Situation. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 109 (1):53-65.
    This article examines stakeholder relationships in a conflict situation. The focus of analysis is on how to understand stakeholder relationships as both ethical and strategic, and further, how the interests of different stakeholders become justified. To describe stakeholder relationships, we use media texts reporting on the case of a foreign investment project. The description shows how relationships evolve and how they constitute different episodes related to the conflict. We address the episodes by analysing stakeholder relationships and their salience. Furthermore, we (...)
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  2. Johanna Kujala, Anna-Maija Lämsä & Katriina Penttilä (2011). Managers' Moral Decision-Making Patterns Over Time: A Multidimensional Approach. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 100 (2):191 - 207.
    Taking multidimensional ethics scale approach, this article describes an empirical survey of top managers' moral decision-making patterns and their change from 1994 to 2004 during morally problematic situations in the Finnish context. The survey questionnaire consisted of four moral dilemmas and a multidimensional scale with six ethical dimensions: justice, deontology, relativism, utilitarianism, egoism and female ethics. The managers evaluated their decision-making in the problems using the multidimensional ethics scale. Altogether 880 questionnaires were analysed statistically. It is concluded that relying on (...)
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  3. Johanna Kujala (2010). Corporate Responsibility Perceptions in Change: Finnish Managers' Views on Stakeholder Issues From 1994 to 2004. Business Ethics 19 (1):14-34.
    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the changes in Finnish managers' corporate responsibility perceptions from 1994 to 2004. Following earlier research, the concept of corporate responsibility is operationalised using the stakeholder approach. Empirically, we ask how managers' views on stakeholder issues have changed during the 10-year research period, and how managers' stakeholder orientation compares with their economic orientation. The data were collected using a survey research instrument in the years 1994, 1999 and 2004. The research results show a (...)
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  4. Päivi Myllykangas, Johanna Kujala & Hanna Lehtimäki (2010). Analyzing the Essence of Stakeholder Relationships: What Do We Need in Addition to Power, Legitimacy, and Urgency? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 96 (S1):65-72.
    This article contributes to the body of stakeholder literature by providing an in-depth analysis of the dynamics of stakeholder relationships as a part of change in value creation. The article presents an argument that the stakeholder salience model as a tool for analyzing stakeholder relationships is not sufficient for understanding business value creation. In the recent stakeholder literature, understanding business value creation has become an important theme. Through an analysis of an empirical case, the article shows how the three stakeholder (...)
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  5. Johanna Kujala, Hanna Lehtimäki & Tiina Toikka (2008). From Communication To Dialogue. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 19:453-463.
    In this paper, we are interested in how a company can enhance stakeholder involvement in its information-sharing practices. We start by looking at the current information-sharing practices in a case where Europe’s second largest pulp producer Metsä-Botnia was caught in the middle of a heated debate between two countries when building a pulp mill in South America. We examine the content of the company’s press releases in terms of the degree of stakeholder involvement. On the basis of our analysis, we (...)
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  6. Johanna Kujala, Paula Merikari & Jenni Enroth (2007). Putting Corporate Responsibility Into Practice. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 18:192-196.
    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the gap between the strategic and operational levels of corporate responsibility. The strategic level of corporateresponsibility refers to the strategic plans concerning corporate responsibility which are examined by looking at the corporate responsibility documents. The operational level stands for the everyday actions of retailers which are analysed through interviews of nine retailers. The gap between the strategic plans and operational actions is described and analysed to understand why and how the gap exists (...)
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  7. Johanna Kujala & Tarja Pietiläinen (2007). Developing Moral Principles and Scenarios in the Light of Diversity: An Extension to the Multidimensional Ethics Scale. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 70 (2):141 - 150.
    The purpose of this article is to develop the multidimensional ethics scale and moral scenarios that allow or even support diversity in managers’ reactions when measuring their moral decision-making. This means that we expand the multidimensional ethics scale with a female ethics dimension and take a critical look at the previously used scenarios in the light of diversity. Furthermore, we develop two new scenarios in order to better attain diversity in managers’ moral decision-making. Diversity is primarily looked at from a (...)
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  8. Johanna Kujala & Juha Näsi (2006). Changes in Finnish Managers' Strategic Priorities. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 17:255-260.
    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the changes in managers’ moral attitudes, stakeholder orientation and economic interests from 1994 to 2004. Dataare presented concerning 8-10 stakeholder groups and 50-58 moral issues.
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  9. Hanna Lehtimäki, Johanna Kujala & Kathleen Rehbein (2006). Examining Strategy Documents on the Internet. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 17:261-266.
    Due to continual challenges in their external environment, corporations are facing an increased demand for public participation and stakeholder inclusion. As aresult, companies are seeking ways to improve communication with their stakeholders. The emergence of the Internet has provided new corporate channelsfor offering information to stakeholders. This paper suggests that the information contained in company web pages reflects strategic information about the company. In addition to offering information to the public, web pages signal which issues a company holds as strategically (...)
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  10. Juha Näsi, Salme Näsi, Johanna Kujala & Pasi Sajasalo (2006). Homecoming of Entrepreneurship. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 17:145-150.
    An entrepreneurial firm was sold to a MNC, and then back to the original entrepreneur. The process will be examined through the lenses of the integration-responsiveness framework, moral and stakeholder approaches, as well as theory of entrepreneurship.
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  11. Johanna Kujala (2004). Managers' Moral Perceptions: Change in Finland During the 1990s. Business Ethics 13 (2-3):143-165.
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  12. Johanna Kujala & Tarja Pietiläinen (2004). Female Managers' Ethical Decision-Making: A Multidimensional Approach. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 53 (1-2):153-163.
    The increasing number and influence of women in society brings up several issues related to values and ethics. Looking at business ethics from the gender perspective made us ponder if it would be fruitful to analyse the feminine and masculine dimensions of decision-making style. The article follows the research tradition using the multidimensional ethics scale, and it aims at developing the scale to better include female decision-making. We came to the conclusion that, as the multidimensional ethics scale used in measuring (...)
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  13. Johanna Kujala (2001). A Multidimensional Approach to Finnish Managers' Moral Decision-Making. Journal of Business Ethics 34 (3-4):231 - 254.
    This paper analyses managers'' moral decision-making, and studies the role of ethical theories in it by following the research tradition using the multidimensional ethics scale. The research question is: what kinds of ethical dimensions do Finnish business managers reveal when they are making moral decisions, and how have these dimensions changed in the 1990s? This question is answered by examining what kinds of factors emerge when the multidimensional ethics scale is used to analyse Finnish managers'' attitudes toward moral dilemmas. The (...)
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  14. Johanna Kujala (2001). Analysing Moral Issues in Stakeholder Relations. Business Ethics 10 (3):233–247.
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