In the first book-length study of American philosophy at the turn of the century, Daniel J. Wilson traces the formation of philosophy as an academic discipline. Wilson shows how the rise of the natural and physical sciences at the end of the nineteenth century precipitated a "crisis of confidence" among philosophers as to the role of their discipline. Deftly tracing the ways in which philosophers sought to incorporate scientific values and methods into their outlook and to redefine philosophy (...) itself, Wilson moves between close analysis of philosophical texts and consideration of professional careers of illustrative philosophers, such as Charles Sanders Peirce, John Dewey, and Josiah Royce. The author situates the emergence of professional philosophy in the context of the professionalization of American higher education and articulates, in the case of philosophy, the structures and values of a professional discipline. One of the most important consequences of this transformation was a new emphasis on communal theories of truth. Peirce, Dewey, and Royce all developed sophisticated and important theories of community as they were engaged in reshaping and redefining the limits of philosophy. This book will be of great importance for those interested in the history of philosophy, the rise of professions, and American intellectual and educational history, and to all those seeking to understand the contemporary revival of pragmatic thought and theories of community. (shrink)
Abstract The ability and willingness to bring one's attention and determination to bear on moral situations are of central importance in moral education. Various ways in which a person may succeed or fail in doing this are considered, in the light of Aristotle's ?practical syllogism?, and a rough classification is suggested. It is advocated (a) that a fuller classification be attempted, and (b) that teachers and parents share with young people their understanding of typical practical syllogisms.
Abstract Progress in moral education depends chiefly on the rejection of fantasy. The philosophical basis must be understood: it involves (a) a non?partisan approach, and (b) grasp of moral methodology??we are to show pupils how to get the right answers. Research and development require a linear structure, beginning with (and controlled by) conceptual enquiry, then involving psychology and social science, and finally issuing in practical development. Moral education periods are needed in the school timetable. Education in morality must be distinguished (...) from the avoidance of social disorder. The fragmentation of those concerned with moral education into different partisan groups is disastrous: it is not a political issue, but one to be forwarded by scholarship and common sense. (shrink)
: Catholic teaching has no moral difficulties with research on stem cells derived from adult stem cells or fetal cord blood. The ethical problem comes with embryonic stem cells since their genesis involves the destruction of a human embryo. However, there seems to be significant promise of health benefits from such research. Although Catholic teaching does not permit any destruction of human embryos, the question remains whether researchers in a Catholic institution, or any researchers opposed to destruction of human embryos, (...) could participate in research on cultured embryonic stem cells, or whether a Catholic institution could use any therapy that ultimately results from such research. This position paper examines how such research could be conducted legitimately in a Catholic institution by using an ethical analysis involving a narrative context, the nature of the moral act, and the principle of material cooperation, along with references to significant ethical assessments. It also offers tentative guidelines that could be used by a Catholic institution in implementing such research. (shrink)
Everyone loves something or somebody, and most people are concerned with loving another person like themselves, all equal. This book is based on the belief that getting clear about the concept and meaning of love between equals is essential for success in our practical lives. For how can we love properly unless we have a fairly clear idea of what love is? The book is written in ordinary language and for the ordinary person, without jargon or philosophical technicalities. It aims (...) to show that love between equals involves a single basic disposition, though that disposition expresses itself in various ways. Thus, after an introduction explaining the need for analysis and clarification, the author then deals in order with love as desire or need; with intrinsic friendship and sharing the self; with basic difficulties concerning power, dependence, altruism and paranoia; with sex and erotic love; and finally with the value in human life of love between equals. The work as a whole gives clear, coherent and practical guidance for all who wish to grasp what such love is really like. (shrink)
The naturalistic fallacy is mentionedfrequently by evolutionary psychologists as anerroneous way of thinking about the ethicalimplications of evolved behaviors. However,evolutionary psychologists are themselvesconfused about the naturalistic fallacy and useit inappropriately to forestall legitimateethical discussion. We briefly review what thenaturalistic fallacy is and why it is misusedby evolutionary psychologists. Then we attemptto show how the ethical implications of evolvedbehaviors can be discussed constructivelywithout impeding evolutionary psychologicalresearch. A key is to show how ethicalbehaviors, in addition to unethical behaviors,can evolve by natural selection.
Perry, in this lucid, deep, and entertaining book (based on his 1999 Jean Nicod lectures), supposes that type-identity physicalism is antecedently plausible, and that rejecting this thesis requires good reason (this is.
The concepts marked by "shame" and "guilt" are analysed briefly, and their merits and demerits as types of moral motivation reviewed. Both concepts appear as inexpellable from human life, although different cultures may weigh them differently and give them different contents. Each has certain advantages and disadvantages, but both may be paralysing rather than morally constructive. Various alternative motivations are considered, including fear and desire; and the conclusion is reached that the moral educator's prime task is to introduce children to (...) forms of life in which they may be pleasureably invested, and where their desire is disciplined by the demands of the form of life itself rather than by guilt or shame. (shrink)
Abstract Moral education has to be taken as ?education in morality?: that is, in a particular form of thought and life which has its own procedures of reason. We have to establish what these are, what equipment the morally educated person logically requires and, from that, how to assess such equipment and how to generate practical methods that enhance it. The main features of this are not difficult to understand: what stands in our way is certain kinds of psychological resistance (...) to the enterprise as a whole. (shrink)
Although the incidence and composition of HECs has been well characterized, little is known about how HECs assess their performance. In order to describe the incidence of HEC self-evaluation, the methods HECs use to evaluate their performance, and the characteristics of HECs that influence self-evaluation, we surveyed the readers ofHospital Ethics. 290 HECs in 45 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and three Canadian provinces, completed questionnaires. Of the 241 HECs included in the data analysis, 97.9% had performed (...) some self-evaluation. Responding committees largely made formative rather than summative evaluations and appeared to evaluate performance in light of their own objectives rather than basing assessments on specific structural, process, and outcome measures of quality. Responding committees used certain evaluation criteria more extensively than others — among these, the number of participants and staff knowledge of the service provided — with the choice of criteria differing with the function being evaluated. Eight characteristics of HECs influenced the probability of self-evaluation, including age, number of beds and meetings, the existence of a mission statement, and a budget. The presence of certain characteristics made HECs six times more likely to evaluate their performance than HECs without the characteristic. (shrink)
Abstract Two aspects or aims of morality are distinguished: (1) the need to avoid trouble and ensure appropriate behaviour, and (2) forms of life which involve sharing, and hence require certain basic dispositions as well as behaviour?patterns. It is argued that (1) may, in principle, be achieved by various external agencies, not only by internalised guilt, shame and a sense of duty. ?Will?power?, and the whole notion of moral struggle, may in one sense be otiose or replaceable. Besides (1) efficient (...) conditioning, we need (2) the understanding of various worthwhile forms of life and the cultivation of the dispositions required by them. Philosophers and other moralists need to describe these forms of life clearly and without prejudice, and moral educators need to transmit the understanding and practice of them to children. (shrink)
Abstract Current demands for ?moral consensus? raise the question of whether liberalism can offer such consensus. It is argued that, though liberalism is often taken to be too weak and unappealing to do this, nevertheless a proper understanding of its logic and psychological requirements permits a more optimistic view. In particular, we have to understand and reinforce the various types of human interaction which form the psychic basis of liberalism and enable the individual to avoid both authoritarianism and paranoia.
Abstract Two basic worries about moral education are considered. The first ?? whether there are or are not fundamental principles of reason and procedure which govern moral decision?making ?? is argued to be unnecessary, since there plainly are some such procedures. The second ?? how and in what direction pupils should be motivated to attend to such principles ?? is a more complex and difficult matter, which has to be tackled whatever one's particular philosophical views on morality. It is argued (...) that the proper object of motivation is primarily allegiance to certain principles of rationality and justice, natural sympathy or personal benevolence being regarded as desirable but too fragile. (shrink)
Abstract Arguments about whether stress should be laid on content or on method in moral education are shown to be misguided: both are inextricably interlocked since morality is a complete form of life, partly concerned with action and partly with feeling. Proper motivation for moral education must display this form in the daily lives of the pupils, who will come to be morally educated only in so far as they share the form with those who love them and whom they (...) love. Schools have to be structured into genuine communities in order to make this possible. In these respects morality is parallel to other forms of life and thought in the school curriculum. (shrink)
Abstract The concept of authority is primary and inescapable, and anterior to the opposition of particular values (such as law and order? versus freedom'). No human interaction is possible without authority. Problems about the legitimacy and scope of authority are discussed: particularly the legitimacy of compelling school attendance. Attention is drawn to the particular importance of authority in moral and political education.
Abstract Talk of ?stages of moral development? ?and ?moral reasoning? raises the question of what it is to understand and use a reason. This is chiefly a matter of knowing a rule and its application. The rules and concepts required for the basic form of moral reasoning can be taught without difficulty to quite young children, in so far indeed as they do not grasp them already. The kind of education required for getting children (or adults) to prefer to use (...) the rules and concepts is another matter. The ?stages? are not likely to be stages of cognitive reasoning, but backgrounds or regimes which encourage certain preferences for this or that type of reason. (shrink)
More companies are understanding the benefits of designing work to enhance, rather than minimise, the contributions of their employees within human-centred systems. To do this, they require their supportive subsystems (such as training, job, and team design, performance measurement and information) to provide people with the ability, motivation and opportunity to become increasingly involved. Opportunity for involvement will require different communication interfaces, providing data and background information both personally and at the work site or process. In the past few years, (...) the media available for visualisation and communication have become much more numerous and have much greater capabilities. This paper examines the information requirements of certain features of modern manufacturing enterprisesâlocal control, skills, knowledge and training, function allocation and team communications. It then assesses the utility of three broad types of information displayâPersonal Digital Assistants (PDAs), Multimedia/Closed-circuit Television (CCTV) and Virtual Environments (VEs)âfor shopfloor systems. (shrink)
What may be called 'the comprehensive ideal' is still powerful both in theory and practice. To put this ideal into a respectable shape requires attention to some basic logical/conceptual points, and awareness of the underlying feelings which inspire it. It is then possible to face questions about how to retain equality whilst catering for individual differences, how to establish a potent and fraternal community in schools and elsewhere, and how to give individuals a sense of worth whilst fully acknowledging criteria (...) of expertise - in virtue of which many people will never shine as performers or achievers. (shrink)
Abstract An extreme view of methods appropriate to moral education is criticized: roughly, the view that example is everything and instruction comparatively worthless. The assumptions behind this view are uncovered and demolished. As a better alternative, it is suggested that different pieces of equipment in the armoury of the morally?educated person require different methods.