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John Bell [46]John L. Bell [38]John F. Bell [5]John S. Bell [3]
  1. John Bell, Contribution to “Philosophy of Mathematics: 5 Questions”.
    V. Hendricks and H. Leitgeb, eds., Automatic Press, 2007.
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  2. John L. Bell, Basic Set Theory.
    to indicate that the object a is an element or member of the class A. We assume that every member of a class is an object. Lower-case letters a, b, c, x, y, z, … will always denote objects, and later, sets. Equality between classes is governed by the Axiom of Extensionality.
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  3. John L. Bell, Cohesiveness.
    ABSTRACT: It is characteristic of a continuum that it be “all of one piece”, in the sense of being inseparable into two (or more) disjoint nonempty parts. By taking “part” to mean open (or closed) subset of the space, one obtains the usual topological concept of connectedness . Thus a space S is defined to be connected if it cannot be partitioned into two disjoint nonempty open (or closed) subsets – or equivalently, given any partition of S into two open (...)
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  4. John L. Bell, Continuity and Infinitesimals.
    The usual meaning of the word continuous is “unbroken” or “uninterrupted”: thus a continuous entity —a continuum—has no “gaps.” We commonly suppose that space and time are continuous, and certain philosophers have maintained that all natural processes occur continuously: witness, for example, Leibniz's famous apothegm natura non facit saltus—“nature makes no jump.” In mathematics the word is used in the same general sense, but has had to be furnished with increasingly precise definitions. So, for instance, in the later 18th century (...)
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  5. John L. Bell, Constructive Context.
    One of the most familiar uses of the Russell paradox, or, at least, of the idea underlying it, is in proving Cantor's theorem that the cardinality of any set is strictly less than that of its power set. The other method of proving Cantor's theorem — employed by Cantor himself in showing that the set of real numbers is uncountable — is that of diagonalization. Typically, diagonalization arguments are used to show that function spaces are "large" in a suitable sense. (...)
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  6. John L. Bell, Comparing the Smooth and Dedekind Reals in Smooth Infinitesimal Analysis.
    Axioms for the continuum, or smooth real line R. These include the usual axioms for a commutative ring with unit expressed in terms of two operations + and i , and two distinguished elements 0 ≠ 1. In addition we stipulate that R is a local ring, i.e., the following axiom: ∃y x i y = 1 ∨ ∃y (1 – x) i y = 1. Axioms for the strict order relation < on R. These are: 1. a < b (...)
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  7. John L. Bell, Logical Reflections On the Kochen-Specker Theorem.
    IN THEIR WELL-KNOWN PAPER, Kochen and Specker (1967) introduce the concept of partial Boolean algebra (pBa) and show that certain (finitely generated) partial Boolean algebras arising in quantum theory fail to possess morphisms to any Boolean algebra (we call such pBa's intractable in the sequel). In this note we begin by discussing partial..
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  8. John L. Bell, M L.
    A weak form of intuitionistic set theory WST lacking the axiom of extensionality is introduced. While WST is too weak to support the derivation of the law of excluded middle from the axiom of choice, we show that beefing up WST with moderate extensionality principles or quotient sets enables the derivation to go through.
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  9. John L. Bell, Notes On Formal Logic.
    On the contrary, I find nothing in logistic but shackles. It does not help us at all in the direction of conciseness, far from it; and if it requires 27 equations to establish that 1 is a number, how many will it require to demonstrate a real theorem?
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  10. John L. Bell, Two Approaches to Modelling the Universe: Synthetic Differential Geometry and Frame-Valued Sets.
    I describe two approaches to modelling the universe, the one having its origin in topos theory and differential geometry, the other in set theory. The first is synthetic differential geometry. Traditionally, there have been two methods of deriving the theorems of geometry: the analytic and the synthetic. While the analytical method is based on the introduction of numerical coordinates, and so on the theory of real numbers, the idea behind the synthetic approach is to furnish the subject of geometry with (...)
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  11. John L. Bell, The Development of Categorical Logic.
    5.5. Every topos is linguistic: the equivalence theorem.
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  12. John L. Bell, The Incredible Shrinking Manifold.
    Traditionally, there have been two methods of deriving the theorems of geometry: the analytic and the synthetic. While the analytical method is based on the introduction of numerical coordinates, and so on the theory of real numbers, the idea behind the synthetic approach is to furnish the subject of geometry with a purely geometric foundation in which the theorems are then deduced by purely logical means from an initial body of postulates. The most familiar examples of the synthetic geometry are (...)
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  13. John L. Bell, Types, Sets and Categories.
    This essay is an attempt to sketch the evolution of type theory from its beginnings early in the last century to the present day. Central to the development of the type concept has been its close relationship with set theory to begin with and later its even more intimate relationship with category theory. Since it is effectively impossible to describe these relationships (especially in regard to the latter) with any pretensions to completeness within the space of a comparatively short article, (...)
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  14. John Bell, An Invitation to Smooth Infinitesimal Analysis.
    where f ′ (x) is the derivative of f(x) and A is a quantity whose value depends on both x and δx. Now if it were possible to take δx so small (but not demonstrably identical with 0) that (δx)2 = 0 then (1) would assume the simple form..
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  15. John Bell, A Representation Theory for Modalized Distributive Lattices.
    By a lattice we shall always mean a distributive lattice which is bounded, i.e. has both a bottom element 0 and a top element 1. Lattice homomorphisms will always be assumed to preserve 0 and 1.
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  16. John Bell, Basic Model Theory.
    A structure is a triple A = (A, {Ri: i ∈ I}, {ej: j ∈ J}), where A, the domain or universe of A, is a nonempty set, {Ri: i ∈ I} is an indexed family of relations on A and {ej: j ∈ J}) is an indexed set of elements —the designated elements of A. For each i ∈ I there is then a natural number λ(i) —the degree of Ri —such that Ri is a λ(i)-place relation on A, (...)
     
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  17. John Bell, Chapter.
    Despite the great success of Weierstrass, Dedekind and Cantor in constructing the continuum from arithmetical materials, a number of thinkers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries remained opposed, in varying degrees, to the idea of explicating the continuum concept entirely in discrete terms. These include the mathematicians du Bois-Reymond, Veronese, Poincaré, Brouwer and Weyl, and the philosophers Brentano..
     
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  18. John Bell, Choice Principles in Intuitionistic Set Theory.
    subsets X of A for which ∃x (x ∈ A). The set of functions from A to B is denoted by BA.
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  19. John Bell, Causal Sets and Frame-Valued Set Theory.
    In spacetime physics any set C of events—a causal set—is taken to be partially ordered by the relation ≤ of possible causation: for p, q ∈ C, p ≤ q means that q is in p’s future light cone. In her groundbreaking paper The internal description of a causal set: What the universe looks like from the inside, Fotini Markopoulou proposes that the causal structure of spacetime itself be represented by “sets evolving over C” —that is, in essence, by the (...)
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  20. John Bell, Cover Schemes, Frame-Valued Sets and Their Potential Uses in Spacetime Physics.
    In the present paper the concept of a covering is presented and developed. The relationship between cover schemes, frames (complete Heyting algebras), Kripke models, and frame-valued set theory is discussed. Finally cover schemes and framevalued set theory are applied in the context of Markopoulou’s account of discrete spacetime as sets “evolving” over a causal set. We observe that Markopoulou’s proposal may be effectively realized by working within an appropriate frame-valued model of set theory. We go on to show that, within (...)
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  21. John Bell, Cosmological Theories and the Question of the Existence of a Creator.
    In a Vedic hymn, Reality or Being is proclaimed as having “arisen from Nothing”. By contrast, in Jaina cosmology time has no beginning; the universe, uncreated, has always existed.In Plato’s Timaeus the universe is conceived as not having existed eternally, but as having been created at some past time by a demiurge acting on pre-existing substance. We are all familiar with the arresting first line of Genesis.
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  22. John Bell, Dissenting Voices.
    Continuous entities are accordingly distinguished by the feature that—in principle at least— they can be divided indefinitely without altering their essential nature. So, for instance, the water in a bucket may be indefinitely halved and yet remain water. Aristotle nowhere to my knowledge defines discreteness as such but we may take the notion as signifying the opposite of continuity—that is, incapable of being indefinitely divided into parts. Thus discrete entities, typically, cannot be divided without effecting a change in their nature: (...)
     
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  23. John Bell, Hermann Weyl's Later Philosophical Views: His Divergence From Husserl.
    In what seems to have been his last paper, Insight and Reflection (1954), Hermann Weyl provides an illuminating sketch of his intellectual development, and describes the principal influences—scientific and philosophical—exerted on him in the course of his career as a mathematician. Of the latter the most important in the earlier stages was Husserl’s phenomenology. In Weyl’s work of 1918-22 we find much evidence of the great influence Husserl’s ideas had on Weyl’s philosophical outlook—one need merely glance through the pages of (...)
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  24. John Bell, Hermann Weyl: Mathematician-Philosopher.
    MATHEMATICS AND PHILOSOPHY ARE CLOSELY LINKED, and several great mathematicians who were at the same time great philosophers come to mind— Pythagoras, Descartes and Leibniz, for instance. One great mathematician of the modern era in whose thinking philosophy played a major role was Hermann Weyl (1885–1955), whose work encompassed analysis, number theory, topology, differential geometry, relativity theory, quantum mechanics, and mathematical logic. His many writings are informed by a vast erudition, an acute philosophical awareness, and even, on occasion, a certain (...)
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  25. John Bell, Infinitesimals and the Continuum.
    The opposed concepts of continuity and discreteness have figured prominently in the development of mathematics, and have also commanded the attention of philosophers. Continuous entities may be characterized by the fact that they can be divided indefinitely without altering their essential nature. So, for instance, the water in a bucket may be indefinitely halved and yet remain water. (For the purposes of illustration I ignore the atomic nature of matter which has been established by modern physics.) Discrete entities, on the (...)
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  26. John Bell, Infinitary Languages.
    We begin with the following quotation from Karp [1964]: My interest in infinitary logic dates back to a February day in 1956 when I remarked to my thesis supervisor, Professor Leon Henkin, that a particularly vexing problem would be so simple if only I could write a formula which would say x = 0 or x = 1 or x = 2 etc. To my surprise, he replied, "Well, go ahead." Traditionally, expressions in formal systems have been regarded as signifying (...)
     
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  27. John Bell, Lectures on the Foundations of Mathematics.
    THE CLOSE CONNECTION BETWEEN mathematics and philosophy has long been recognized by practitioners of both disciplines. The apparent timelessness of mathematical truth, the exactness and objective nature of its concepts, its applicability to the phenomena of the empirical world— explicating such facts presents philosophy with some of its subtlest problems. Let me begin by reminding you of some celebrated past attempts made by philosophers and mathematicians to explicate the nature of mathematics.
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  28. John Bell, Measurable Cardinals.
    Let κ be an infinite cardinal. A κ-complete nonprincipal ultrafilter, or, for short, a κ- ultrafilter on a set A is a (nonempty) family U of subsets of A satisfying (i) S ⊆ U & |S|1 < κ ⇒ ∩S ∈ U (κ-completeness) (ii) X ∈ U & X ⊆ Y ⊆ A ⇒ Y ∈ U, (iii) ∀X ⊆ A [X ∈ U or A – X ∈ U] (iv) {a} ∉ U for any a..
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  29. John Bell, Notes on Logic.
    We are all familiar with the idea of a set, also called a class or collection. As examples, we may consider the set of all coins in one's pocket, the set of all human beings, the set of all planets in the solar system, etc. These are all concrete sets in the sense that the objects constituting them—their elements or members—are material things. In mathematics and logic we wish also to consider abstract sets whose members are not necessarily material things, (...)
     
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  30. John Bell, Oppositions and Paradoxes in Mathematics and Philosophy John L. Bell Abstract.
    In this paper a number of oppositions which have haunted mathematics and philosophy are described and analyzed. These include the Continuous and the Discrete, the One and the Many, the Finite and the Infinite, the Whole and the Part, and the Constant and the Variable.
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  31. John Bell, Remark Added 2004.
    Theorem 3.1. can be strengthened. Let S be a (well-termed) local set theory and (E, ≤) a partially ordered S-set. An element m of E is internally maximal if it satisfies S ∀x∈E [m ≤ x → m = x]. We can then prove the..
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  32. John Bell, Time and Causation in Gödel's Universe.
    In 1949 the great logician Kurt Gödel constructed the first mathematical models of the universe in which travel into the past is, in theory at least, possible. Within the framework of Einstein’s general theory of relativity Gödel produced cosmological solutions to Einstein’s field equations which contain closed time-like curves, that is, curves in spacetime which, despite being closed, still represent possible paths of bodies. An object moving along such a path would travel back into its own past, to the very (...)
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  33. John Bell, The Axiom of Choice in the Foundations of Mathematics.
    The principle of set theory known as the Axiom of Choice (AC) has been hailed as “probably the most interesting and, in spite of its late appearance, the most discussed axiom of mathematics, second only to Euclid’s axiom of parallels which was introduced more than two thousand years ago”1 It has been employed in countless mathematical papers, a number of monographs have been exclusively devoted to it, and it has long played a prominently role in discussions on the foundations of (...)
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  34. John Bell, The Continuum in Smooth Infinitesimal Analysis.
    The relation ≤ on R is defined by a ≤ b ⇔ ¬b < a. The open interval (a, b) and closed interval [a, b] are defined as usual, viz. (a, b) = {x: a < x < b} and [a, b] = {x: a ≤ x ≤ b}; similarly for half-open, half-closed, and unbounded intervals.
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  35. John Bell, The Philosophy of Mathematics.
    THE CLOSE CONNECTION BETWEEN mathematics and philosophy has long been recognized by practitioners of both disciplines. The apparent timelessness of mathematical truth, the exactness and objective nature of its concepts, its applicability to the phenomena of the empirical world—explicating such facts presents philosophy with some of its subtlest problems. We shall discuss some of the attempts made by philosophers and mathematicians to explain the nature of mathematics. We begin with a brief presentation of the views of four major classical philosophers: (...)
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  36. John L. Bell, Algorithmicity and Consciousness.
    Why should one believe that conscious awareness is solely the result of organizational complexity? What is the connection between consciousness and combinatorics: transformation of quantity into quality? The claim that the former is reducible to the other seems unconvincing—as unlike as chalk and cheese! In his book1 Penrose is at least attempting to compare like with like: the enigma of consciousness with the progress of physics.
     
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  37. John L. Bell, Notes on Toposes and Local Set Theories.
    This book is written for those who are in sympathy with its spirit. This spirit is different from the one which informs the vast stream of European and American civilization in which all of us stand. That spirit expresses itself in an onwards movement, in building ever larger and more complicated structures; the other in striving in clarity and perspicuity in no matter what structure. The first tries to grasp the world by way of its periphery—in its variety; the second (...)
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  38. John L. Bell (2014). Review of G. H. Moore, Zermelo's Axiom of Choice: Its Origins, Development, and Influence. [REVIEW] Philosophia Mathematica 22 (1):131-134.
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  39. Carmen L. Vidal Rodeiro, Joanne L. Emery & John F. Bell (2012). Emotional Intelligence and Academic Attainment of British Secondary School Children: A Cross-Sectional Survey. Educational Studies 38 (5):521-539.
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  40. John L. Bell (2011). Set Theory: Boolean-Valued Models and Independence Proofs. OUP Oxford.
    This third edition, now available in paperback, is a follow up to the author's classic Boolean-Valued Models and Independence Proofs in Set Theory,. It provides an exposition of some of the most important results in set theory obtained in the 20th century: the independence of the continuum hypothesis and the axiom of choice. Aimed at graduate students and researchers in mathematics, mathematical logic, philosophy, and computer science, the third edition has been extensively updated with expanded introductory material, new chapters, and (...)
     
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  41. Carmen L. Vidal Rodeiro, Joanne L. Emery & John F. Bell (2011). Emotional Intelligence and Academic Attainment of British Secondary School Children: A Cross-Sectional Survey. Educational Studies 38 (5):521-539.
    Trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) covers a wide range of self-perceived skills and personality dispositions such as motivation, confidence, optimism, peer relations and coping with stress. In the last few years, there has been a growing awareness that social and emotional factors play an important part in students? academic success and it has been claimed that those with high scores on a trait EI measure perform better. This research investigated whether scores on a questionnaire measure of trait EI were related (...)
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  42. John L. Bell, Hermann Weyl. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  43. Molly Kao, Nicolas Fillion & John Bell (2010). J Ean -P Ierre M Arquis . From a Geometrical Point of View: A Study of the History and Philosophy of Category Theory. Philosophia Mathematica 18 (2):227-234.
    (No abstract is available for this citation).
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  44. John Bell (2008). Incompleteness in a General Setting (Vol 13, Pg 21, 2007). Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 14 (1):21 - 30.
    Full proofs of the Gödel incompleteness theorems are highly intricate affairs. Much of the intricacy lies in the details of setting up and checking the properties of a coding system representing the syntax of an object language (typically, that of arithmetic) within that same language. These details are seldom illuminating and tend to obscure the core of the argument. For this reason a number of efforts have been made to present the essentials of the proofs of Gödel’s theorems without getting (...)
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  45. John Bell (2008). The Axiom of Choice and the Law of Excluded Middle in Weak Set Theories. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 54 (2):194-201.
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  46. John L. Bell, Infinitary Logic. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Traditionally, expressions in formal systems have been regarded as signifying finite inscriptions which are—at least in principle—capable of actually being written out in primitive notation. However, the fact that (first-order) formulas may be identified with natural numbers (via "Gödel numbering") and hence with finite sets makes it no longer necessary to regard formulas as inscriptions, and suggests the possibility of fashioning "languages" some of whose formulas would be naturally identified as infinite sets . A "language" of this kind is called (...)
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  47. John L. Bell, The Axiom of Choice. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The principle of set theory known as the Axiom of Choice has been hailed as “probably the most interesting and, in spite of its late appearance, the most discussed axiom of mathematics, second only to Euclid's axiom of parallels which was introduced more than two thousand years ago” (Fraenkel, Bar-Hillel & Levy 1973, §II.4). The fulsomeness of this description might lead those unfamiliar with the axiom to expect it to be as startling as, say, the Principle of the Constancy of (...)
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  48. John L. Bell (2008). Corrigendum to “Incompleteness in a General Setting”. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 14 (1):122-122.
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  49. A. Kock & John L. Bell (2007). REVIEWS-Synthetic Differential Geometry. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 13 (2).
     
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  50. John L. Bell (2006). Paul Rusnock. Bolzano's Philosophy and the Emergence of Modern Mathematics. Studien Zur Österreichischen Philosophie [Studies in Austrian Philosophy], Vol. 30. Amsterdam & Atlanta: Editions Rodopi, 2000. Isbn 90-420-1501-2. Pp. 218. [REVIEW] Philosophia Mathematica 14 (3):362-364.
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