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John Cramer [98]John G. Cramer [44]
  1. John G. Cramer, News From CyberSpace: VR and Hypertext.
    I live in Seattle, the city which last Fall was host to two major international conferences of interest to science fiction readers: The Annual International IEEE Symposium on Virtual Reality (VRAIS- 93) and The 5th ACM Conference on Hypertext (Hypertext-93). I was able to attend both conferences, and I'll use this column to provide an overview of what I learned there.
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  2.  91
    John G. Cramer (1986). The Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. Reviews of Modern Physics 58 (3):647-687.
    Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics deals with these problems is reviewed. A new interpretation of the formalism of quantum mechanics, the transactional interpretation, is presented. The basic element of this interpretation is the transaction describing a quantum event as an exchange of advanced and retarded waves, as implied by the work of Wheeler and Feynman, Dirac, and others. The transactional interpretation is explicitly nonlocal and thereby consistent with recent tests of the Bell inequality, yet is relativistically invariant and fully causal. (...)
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  3. John G. Cramer, Quantum Nonlocality and the Possibility of Superluminal Effects.
    EPR experiments demonstrate that standard quantum mechanics exhibits the property of nonlocality , the enforcement of correlations between separated parts of an entangled quantum systems across spacelike separations. Nonlocality will be clarified using the transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics, and the possibility of superluminal effects (e.g., faster-than-light communication) from nonlocality and non-linear quantum mechanics will be examined.
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  4.  27
    John G. Cramer, The Plane of the Present and the New Transactional Paradigm of Time.
    The plane of the present is a concept that is useful for discussing the various paradigms of time. Here by ‘plane of the present’ we mean the temporal interface that represents the present instant and that forms the boundary between the past and the future. We use the geometrical term ‘plane’ to indicate an extended surface in the space-time continuum, as opposed to a ‘point’ on some time axis. This point/plane dichotomy is intended to raise issues of extension and simultaneity (...)
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  5. John Cramer, Before the Big Bang.
    This column is about a new alternative to standard Big Bang cosmology that reaches back in time to the era before the Big Bang in an effort to remove some of the arbitrary assumptions from the model. It's in part the work of Gabriele Veneziano, a theorist at CERN, and it is called pre-Big-Bang cosmology. We'll begin by reviewing the standard scenario of the origin of the universe.
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  6. John Cramer, Other Universes.
    Alternate View Column AV-02 Keywords: cosmology, bubble, universe, inflation Published in the September-1984 issue of Analog Science Fiction & Fact Magazine; This column was written and submitted 2/10/84 and is copyrighted ©1984, John G. Cramer. All rights reserved. No part may be reproduced in any form without the explicit permission of the author.
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  7.  64
    John G. Cramer, Other Universes II.
    My previous Alternate View column (ANALOG 9/84) described the widely accepted "inflationary scenario" of modern cosmology in which our Universe is just one among very many "bubble universes", all popping out of the general medium of the Big Bang like bubbles forming in a glass of beer. Somewhere perhaps there are many universes more or less like ours, some very similar to and others radically different from the universe we call "home".
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  8. John G. Cramer, Decryption and Quantum Computing: Seven Qubits and Counting.
    Alternate View Column AV-112 Keywords: quantum mechanics entangled states computer computing 7 qubits prime number factoring Schor algorithm NMR nuclear magnetic resonance fast parallel decryption coherence wave-function collapse many-worlds transactional interpretation Published in the June-2002 issue of Analog Science Fiction & Fact Magazine ; This column was written and submitted 12/19/2001 and is copyrighted ©2001 by John G. Cramer.
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  9.  78
    John G. Cramer, Quantum Time Travel.
    The territory of time travel has, from the days of H. G. Wells to the mid-1980's, been the exclusive province of writers of science fiction and fantasy. SF critics have even argued that time travel stories are so scientifically unlikely that they should be considered fantasy, not science fiction.
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  10. John Cramer, There's a Hole in Bottom of the Universe!
    It’s perhaps natural to think that our universe should be more or less the same in all directions, once we average out the lumpiness of stars, galaxies, galactic clusters, superclusters, etc. However, there’s a growing body of evidence suggesting that this presumption is not true. There is now a strong suspicion that our universe may contain a gaping “hole” located in the constellation Eridanus. This all started several years ago with the observation that there was a pronounced “Cold Spot” in (...)
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  11.  92
    John Cramer, The Twin Paradox Revisited.
    Alternate View Column AV-38 Keywords: special relativity, twin paradox, time dilation, starship, Einstein, Lorentz factor Published in the March-1990 issue of Analog Science Fiction & Fact Magazine; This column was written and submitted 8/20/89 and is copyrighted © 1989, John G. Cramer. All rights reserved. No part may be reproduced in any form without the explicit permission of the author.
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  12.  82
    John Cramer, A Farewell to Copenhagen?
    This column is about experimental tests of the various interpretations of quantum mechanics. The question at issue is whether we can perform experiments that can show whether there is an "observer-created reality" as suggested by the Copenhagen Interpretation, or a peacock’s tail of rapidly branching alternate universes, as suggested by the Many-Worlds Interpretation, or forward-backward in time handshakes, as suggested by the Transactional Interpretation? Until recently, I would have said that this was an impossible task, but a new experiment has (...)
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  13.  49
    John G. Cramer (1988). An Overview of the Transactional Interpretation. International Journal of Theoretical Physics 27 (227):1-5.
    The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics is summarized and various points concerning the transactional interpretation and its relation to the Copenhagen interpretation are considered. Questions concerning mapping the transactional interpretation onto the Copenhagen interpretation, of advanced waves as solutions to proper wave equations, of collapse and the quantum formalism, and of the relation of quantum mechanical interpretations to experimental tests and results are discussed.
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  14.  83
    John G. Cramer, Wormholes and Time Machines.
    Science fiction writers, to avoid undue delays in the story's plot line, need a way of beating the speed of light speed limit of the universe. Most readers of this magazine are familiar with the gimmicks that have been used for faster than light travel: warp drives, detours through hyperspace, matter to tachyon conversion, trans spatial jumps, and dives past the singularity of a rotating black hole. But perhaps the faster than light mechanism which has the best credentials in orthodox (...)
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  15.  78
    John G. Cramer, Two New Kinds of Wormholes.
    Wormholes are shortcuts through space time, constructs of general relativity (GR) that appear to offer a physics foundation for faster than light travel and even for travel back in time. They first appeared in the physics literature in 1935, when Albert Einstein and his colleague Nathan Rosen discovered that implicit in general relativity is a tunnel like structure in the topology of space time connecting two separated regions. Einstein and Rosen were actually trying to explain fundamental particles like electrons and (...)
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  16.  74
    John Cramer, Back in Time Through Other Dimensions.
    The physics behind the limerick is that within Einstein’s special theory of relativity there is a subtle connection between faster-than-light and backwards-in-time travel. If you could do one, then in principle you could also do the other. But relativity is carefully contrived to prevent superluminal and back-in-time travel and communication.
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  17.  52
    John G. Cramer, More About Wormholes - To the Stars in No Time.
    This column is a followup to a previous Alternate View column [Analog, June-'89] about "wormholes", faster-than-light travel, and time machines, which was based on a spectacular theoretical breakthrough in general relativity. It described how a sufficiently advanced civilization might construct a stable wormhole (a curved-space shortcut between one region of space and another) and use it both for faster-than-light travel and for time travel, with no laws of physics violated in the process except causality (the principle that a cause must (...)
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  18.  47
    John Cramer, Massive Neutrinos.
    This column is about recent evidence from the Super Kamiokande detector in Japan indicating that at least one of the three known neutrino flavors, the mu-neutrino, has a non-zero rest mass. To put this result in the proper context, I'll briefly review parts of the standard model of particle physics.
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  19.  61
    John Cramer, Artificial Gravity: Which Way is Up?
    My interest in the physics of space station gravity developed because last year Vonda McIntyre was writing a book with a space station setting, and she asked my advice. The book, Barbary, is about a teenager who leaves Earth to live in a space station with spin-generated gravity. I helped Vonda in a very minor way by identifying the physical effects that the heroine would experience in that environment. What's it like to ride an elevator in a space station? How (...)
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  20.  60
    John Cramer, Breaking the Standard Model.
    So far this has been a lonely and unrewarding quest. New experiments occasionally come along which point to a breakdown of the Standard Model, but up to now they have invariably been proved wrong by more careful analysis or subsequent experiments with better data. A case in point is the energetic jet data from the CDF experiment at FermiLab which suggested possible substructure of the quark. (See my AV column "Inside the Quark" in the September-1996 issue of Analog.) The CDF (...)
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  21.  57
    John Cramer, Einstein's Spooks and Bell's Theorem.
    Einstein's "spookiness" is now called nonlocality, the mysterious ability of Nature to enforce correlations between separated but entangled parts of a quantum system that are out of speed-of-light contact, to reach faster-than-light across vast spatial distances or even across time itself to ensure that the parts of a quantum system are made to match. This column is about nonlocality, and how, through Bell's theorem, the nonlocality implicit in nature has been demonstrated in the laboratory.
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  22.  55
    John Cramer, Gravity Waves and LIGO.
    Curiously, in some ways gravity is also the strongest force in the universe. It always adds, never subtracts, and can build up until it overwhelms all other forces.. In normal stars gravity is balanced by heat energy from fusion reactions in the star's core. Eventually, however, the hydrogen and heavier elements fueling these reactions are used up, gravity takes over, and the star collapses in on itself. The result is a supernova explosion, which converts a sizable fraction of the star's (...)
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  23.  46
    John Cramer, EPR Communication: Signals From the Future?
    Last June I was an invited speaker at the symposium “Frontiers of Time: Reverse Causation—Experiment and Theory,” part of a meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) held on the beautiful campus of the University of San Diego. (Here, reverse causation means a violation of that most mysterious law of physics, the Principle of Causality, which requires that any cause must precede its effects in all reference frames.) I had originally intended to just talk about my (...)
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  24.  10
    John G. Cramer (1983). The Arrow of Electromagnetic Time and the Generalized Absorber Theory. Foundations of Physics 13 (9):887-902.
    The problem of the direction of electromagnetic time, i.e., the complete dominance of retarded electromagnetic radiation over advanced radiation in the universe, is considered in the context of a generalized form of the Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory in an open expanding universe with a singularity atT=0. It is shown that the application of a four-vector reflection boundary condition at the singularity leads to the observed dominance of retarded radiation; it also clarifies the role of advanced and retarded waves in the emission (...)
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  25.  41
    John Cramer, SN1987A - Supernova Astrophysics Grows Up.
    unlikely name of Sanduleak -69 o202 had exploded, becoming type II supernova SN1987A. The discovery was broadcast to a data-hungry world, and the astronomy/astrophysics community has been in an uproar ever since. Sanduleak -69 o202 before exploding had a mass 15-20 times greater than that of our sun and was located in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a sort of suburb of our galaxy some 160,000 light years distant. To the despair of residents of North America, SN1987A is visible only in (...)
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  26.  20
    John G. Cramer, Anti-Gravity and Anti-Mass.
    One of the great and persistent technological dreams of science fiction has been the invention which would nullify or reverse the force of gravity. H. G. Wells in The First Men in the Moon did it in 1901 with Cavorite, a substance which shields objects behind it from gravitational lines of force. James Blish in the Cities in Flight series used the Spindizzy, a device which converts rotation and magnetism into gravity fields and forces. And, of course, "floaters", "null-g speeders" (...)
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  27.  23
    John Cramer, The Quantum Handshake.
    Alternate View Column AV-16 Keywords: quantum, paradoxes,transactional, Copenhagen, interpretation Published in the November-1986 issue of Analog Science Fiction & Fact Magazine; This column was written and submitted 4/4/86 and is copyrighted © 1986, John G. Cramer. All rights reserved. No part may be reproduced in any form without the explicit permission of the author.
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  28.  20
    John Cramer, The CERN LHC: A Black Hole Factory?
    The Large Hadronic Collider (LHC), which is to be the world’s highest energy particle accelerator, is currently being constructed at the CERN laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland. The machine was designed to be high enough in energy to produce a completely new type of particle, the Higgs boson, which is considered to be the missing puzzle-piece in the Standard Model of particle interactions. According to current theoretical thinking, it is the Higgs particle that gives mass to all the other particles, quarks, (...)
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  29.  19
    John G. Cramer, FTL Photons.
    Albert Einstein taught us that c, the speed of light in vacuum, is nature's ultimate speed limit, the highest speed at which matter, energy, and information can travel through space-time. In several AV columns I've discussed ways for getting around this annoying natural law, the law that SF writers and fans most wish to violate. Two AV columns discussed the possibility of getting around the lightspeed limit by popping through a trans-spatial wormhole shortcut. See [ Analog-6-89, "Wormholes and Time Machines"] (...)
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  30.  19
    John G. Cramer, arXiv:Quant-Ph/0508102v1 14 Aug 2005.
    The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics is applied to the “interaction-free” measurement scenario of Elitzur and Vaidman and to the Quantum Zeno Effect version of the measurement scenario by Kwiat, et al. It is shown that the non-classical information provided by the measurement scheme is supplied by the probing of the intervening object by incomplete offer and confirmation waves that do not form complete transactions or lead to real interactions.
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  31.  20
    John Cramer, The Micro-Warp Drive.
    A recent breakthrough has moved the concept of a "warp drive" another step along its path from a fictional SF prop-idea to a well founded physics concept that might one day be realized. This improvement on the Alcubierre warp drive was devised by general relativity theorist Chris Van Den Broeck of the Catholic University of Leuven in Belgium. He has eliminated seemingly insurmountable problems with the Alcubierre warp-drive scheme. His improvement employs topological gymnastics to keep the interior of the warp (...)
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  32.  7
    John Cramer, Tunneling Through the Lightspeed Barrier.
    On of the earliest triumphs of quantum mechanics, when the theory was first formulated in the 1920s, was George Gamow's use of quantum tunneling to explain the phenomenon of alpha decay. It was well known then that certain heavy radioactive nuclei, including radium then widely used for glow-in-the-dark clock dials, would spontaneously and unpredictably spit out an energetic helium-4 nucleus (also called an alpha particle) and be transformed into a new lighter nucleus with two fewer nuclear charges. Alpha radioactivity is (...)
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  33.  15
    John G. Cramer, Antigravity II: A Fifth Force?
    Then, as soon as my column was safely submitted, hot new results on antigravity appeared. The lead article in the January 6, 1986 issue of Physical Review Letters had the unassuming title: "A Reanalysis of the Eötvös Experiment" by E. Fischbach, et al. Two days later the New York Times ran an article with the headline: "Hints of Fifth Force in Universe Challenge Galileo's Findings" describing the importance of Fischbach's work. Peculiar experimental results from terrestrial gravity measurements and from the (...)
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  34.  16
    John Cramer, The Krasnikov Tube: A Subway to the Stars.
    This page now has an access count of: Alcubierre Warp Drive (see the 11/96 issue of Analog). The Alcubierre Warp Drive is a distortion of space, a solution to the equations of general relativity that forms a sphere of flat space surrounded by a warped-space "bubble". At the front edge of the bubble, space is contracting (like a collapsing black..
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  35.  19
    John G. Cramer, Connecting Gravity with Electricity.
    Gravity is an extremely weak force . Consider two spheres that are close together, each with one kilogram of mass and one coulomb of electric charge, i.e., one unit each of charge and mass in Standard International Units. There will be electrical repulsion pushing them apart and gravitational attraction pulling them together, but which is bigger? It’s no contest: the electric force between these spheres is 1.35 x 1020times stronger than the gravitational force. But perhaps this difference is so large (...)
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  36.  13
    John G. Cramer, "Goldilocks" Gleise 581g: A Fairytale?
    In October-2010 the headlines of the science press were dominated by the announcement of the discovery of a “Goldilocks Planetâ€, Gleise 581g, which has a mass not too different from that of the Earth and has an orbit squarely in the middle of the habitable zone of its parent star. It was supposed to be not too hot, not too cold, but just right for the evolution of life. Steven Vogt of UC Santa Cruz, the lead author of the paper, (...)
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  37.  17
    John Cramer, The Quantum Physics of Teleportation.
    Alternate View Column AV-62 Keywords: quantum nonlocality entangled states recreation communication Published in the December-1993 issue of Analog Science Fiction & Fact Magazine ; This column was written and submitted 5/17/93 and is copyrighted ©1993 by John G. Cramer. All rights reserved. No part may be reproduced in any form without the explicit permission of the author.
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  38.  13
    John Cramer, Inside the Quark.
    CDF (the acronym stands for Collider Detector at Fermilab) is the experiment that in 1994 and 1995 suggested and then confirmed the discovery of the top quark, using 1.8 TeV collisions of protons with antiprotons at the Fermilab Tevatron. To assemble convincing evidence for the top quark, the CDF group collected data from a large number of proton-antiproton collisions during the 1992-93 running period. Then, with the top quark safely salted away, the CDF group has been examining their accumulated data (...)
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  39.  15
    John Cramer, The Quantum Eraser.
    Alternate View Column AV-90 Keywords: quantum mechanics nonlocality Wheeler delayed choice eraser interferometer retroactive action Published in the June-1998 issue of Analog Science Fiction & Fact Magazine ; This column was written and submitted 12/17/97 and is copyrighted ©1997 by John G. Cramer. All rights reserved. No part may be reproduced in any form without the explicit permission of the author.
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  40.  13
    John G. Cramer, The Tachyon Drive: Vex = Infinity with Eex =.
    Light speed, c = 3 × 108 meters per second, is the ultimate speed limit of the universe. The welltested physics orthodoxy of special relativity tells us that nothing can go faster than c. When any massive object with rest mass M (taken to be in energy units) has velocity v=c (or relativistic velocity ß = v/c = 1), the object's mass-energy becomes infinite. This is because the relativistic..
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  41.  16
    John Cramer, The Other 40 Dimensions.
    Alternate View Column AV-06 Keywords: dimensions, Kaluza-Klein, compactified, string theory Published in the April-1985 issue of Analog Science Fiction & Fact Magazine; This column was written and submitted 10/1/84 and is copyrighted © 1984, John G. Cramer. All rights reserved. No part may be reproduced in any form without the explicit permission of the author.
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  42.  7
    John Cramer, The Next Big Accelerator.
    Alternate View Column AV-110 Keywords: linear electron positron collider e+e- high energy particle physics accelerator tunnel USA Japan Germany Published in the February-2002 issue of Analog Science Fiction & Fact Magazine ; This column was written and submitted 8/4/2001 and is copyrighted ©2001 by John G. Cramer. All rights reserved. No part may be reproduced in any form without the explicit permission of the author.
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  43.  1
    John Cramer, The Carbon Nanotube - Miracle Material.
    Alternate View Column AV-109 Keywords:carbon nanotube space orbital elevator high tensile strength conductor semiconductor hydrogen energy storage Published in the December-2001 issue of Analog Science Fiction & Fact Magazine ; This column was written and submitted 6/19/2001 and is copyrighted ©2001 by John G. Cramer. All rights reserved. No part may be reproduced in any form without the explicit permission of the author.
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  44.  16
    John G. Cramer, Radioactive Decay and the Earth Sun Distance.
    About 22 years ago, the physics world was briefly rocked by claims of evidence for a new “5 th force”, based on reanalysis of data from an early 20 th century experiment. Baron Roland von Eötvös, a Hungarian nobleman, had performed extensive measurements of the correlation between inertial mass and gravitational mass and published them in 1922. The lead article in the January 6, 1986 issue of Physical Review Letters had the unassuming title: "A Reanalysis of the Eötvös Experiment" by (...)
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  45.  3
    John Cramer, Beauty and the B-Factory.
    Yet normal particle interactions produce matter and antimatter in equal amounts. If matter and antimatter in the early universe had been in perfect balance, they would long since have been annihilated out of existence, leaving behind a universe of photons and a few electrons. We would not be here to study such a universe, since our very existence depends on the gross excess of matter over antimatter now present. Where did the matter come from? What happened in the early stages (...)
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  46.  15
    John Cramer, General Relativity Without Black Holes.
    This column is a milestone. It's the 100 th Alternate View column that I've written for Analog over a period of 16 years beginning in 1983. I was on a sabbatical in Berlin when Stan recruited me to write the column after Jerry Pournelle, my predecessor as AV columnist, decided to step down. The AV columns are a soapbox that was too attractive to pass up, and I've used them to promote an interst in science and to feed cutting-edge science (...)
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  47.  10
    John G. Cramer (1988). Velocity Reversal and the Arrows of Time. Foundations of Physics 18 (12):1205-1212.
    Agendanken experiment is proposed for distinguishing between two models accounting for the macroscopic arrow of time. The experiment involves the veloeity revesal of components of an isolated system, and the two models give contrasting predictions as to its behavior.
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  48.  8
    John Cramer, A Century of Physics.
    Alternate View Column AV-97 Keywords: super-lasers space molecules atom lasers 4-wave mixers direct CP violation matter-antimatter asymmetry K0 mesons Published in the October-1999 issue of Analog Science Fiction & Fact Magazine ; This column was written and submitted 03/28/99 and is copyrighted ©1999 by John G. Cramer. All rights reserved. No part may be reproduced in any form without the explicit permission of the author.
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  49.  11
    John Cramer, The Alcubierre Warp Drive.
    Alternate View Column AV-81 Keywords: Alcubierre Warp Drive FTL spacewarp solution Einstein's equations general relativity Published in the November-1996 issue of Analog Science Fiction & Fact Magazine ; This column was written and submitted 4/15/96 and is copyrighted ©1996 by John G. Cramer. All rights reserved. No part may be reproduced in any form without the explicit permission of the author.
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  50.  3
    John Cramer, DUMAND: Neutrinos From Beneath the Ocean.
    In this AV column we will have a look at the DUMAND project, a new $10 million detector funded by the US Department of Energy for the detection of ultra-high energy neutrinos. DUMAND stands for Deep Underwater Muon And Neutrino Detector. It is now under construction in Hawaii and will come into operation in 1993-94. It is to be placed almost 3 miles deep on a level stretch of Pacific Ocean bottom about 18 miles west of Keahole Point on the (...)
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