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John F. Horty [12]John Francis Horty [2]
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Profile: John Horty (University of Maryland, College Park)
  1. John F. Horty, Precedent, Deontic Logic, and Inheritance.
    The purpose of this paper is to e»tahlish some connections between precedent-based reasoning as it is studied in the field of Artificial Intelligence and Law, particularly in the work of Ashley, and two other fields: deontic logic and nonmonotonic logic. First, a deontic logic is described that allows lor sensible reasoning in the presence of conflicting norms. Second, a simplified version of Ashley's account of precedent-based reasoning is reformulated within the framework of this deontic logic. Finally, some ideas from the (...)
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  2. John F. Horty, Synthese.
    The purpose of this paper is to explore a new deontic operator for representing what an agent ought to do; the operator is cast against the background of a modal treatment of action developed by Nuel Belnap and Michael Perlo , which itself relies on Arthur Prior's indeterministic tense logic. The analysis developed here of what an agent ought to do is based on a dominance ordering adapted from the decision theoretic study of choice under uncertainty to the present (...)
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  3. Richmond H. Thomason & John F. Horty, A Clash of Intuitions: The Current State of Nonmonotonic Multiple Inheritance Systems.
    Early attempts at combining multiple inheritance with nonmonotonic reasoning were based on straightforward extensions of tree-structured inheritance systems, and were theoretically unsound. In The Mathcmat~'cs of Inheritance Systcrns, or TMOIS, Touretzky described two problems these systems cannot handle: reasoning in the presence of true but redundant assertions, and coping with ambiguity. TMOIS provided a definition and analysis of a theoretically sound multiple inheritance system, accom-.
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  4. John F. Horty & Trevor J. M. Bench-Capon (2012). A Factor-Based Definition of Precedential Constraint. Artificial Intelligence and Law 20 (2):181-214.
    This paper describes one way in which a precise reason model of precedent could be developed, based on the general idea that courts are constrained to reach a decision that is consistent with the assessment of the balance of reasons made in relevant earlier decisions. The account provided here has the additional advantage of showing how this reason model can be reconciled with the traditional idea that precedential constraint involves rules, as long as these rules are taken to be defeasible. (...)
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  5. John Francis Horty (2007). Frege on Definitions: A Case Study of Semantic Content. Oxford University Press.
    The book begins by focusing on the psychological constraints governing Frege's notion of sense, or meaning, and argues that, given these constraints, even the ...
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  6. John F. Horty (2006). Double Time Reference in the Evaluation of Action. In Henrik Lagerlund, Sten Lindström & Rysiek Sliwinski (eds.), Modality Matters: Twenty-Five Essays in Honour of Krister Segerberg. Uppsala Philosophical Studies 53. 53--205.
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  7. John F. Horty (2003). Reasoning with Moral Conflicts. Noûs 37 (4):557–605.
    Let us say that a normative conflict is a situation in which an agent ought to perform an action A, and also ought to perform an action B, but in which it is impossible for the agent to perform both A and B. Not all normative conflicts are moral conflicts, of course. It may be that the agent ought to perform the action A for reasons of personal generosity, but ought to perform the action B for reasons of prudence: perhaps (...)
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  8. John F. Horty (2001). Argument Construction and Reinstatement in Logics for Defeasible Reasoning. Artificial Intelligence and Law 9 (1):1-28.
    This paper points out some problems with two recent logical systems – one due to Prakken and Sartor, the other due to Kowalski and Toni – designedfor the representation of defeasible arguments in general, but with a specialemphasis on legal reasoning.
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  9. John Francis Horty (2001). Agency and Deontic Logic. Oxford University Press.
    John Horty effectively develops deontic logic (the logic of ethical concepts like obligation and permission) against the background of a formal theory of agency. He incorporates certain elements of decision theory to set out a new deontic account of what agents ought to do under various conditions over extended periods of time. Offering a conceptual rather than technical emphasis, Horty's framework allows a number of recent issues from moral theory to be set out clearly and discussed from a uniform point (...)
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  10. John F. Horty (1996). Agency and Obligation. Synthese 108 (2):269 - 307.
    The purpose of this paper is to explore a new deontic operator for representing what an agent ought to do; the operator is cast against the background of a modal treatment of action developed by Nuel Belnap and Michael Perloff, which itself relies on Arthur Prior's indeterministic tense logic. The analysis developed here of what an agent ought to do is based on a dominance ordering adapted from the decision theoretic study of choice under uncertainty to the present account of (...)
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  11. John F. Horty & Nuel Belnap (1995). The Deliberative Stit: A Study of Action, Omission, Ability, and Obligation. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophical Logic 24 (6):583 - 644.
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  12. John F. Horty (1994). Moral Dilemmas and Nonmonotonic Logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic 23 (1):35 - 65.
    From a philosophical standpoint, the work presented here is based on van Fraassen [26]. The bulk of that paper is organized around a series of arguments against the assumption, built into standard deontic logic, that moral dilemmas are impossible; and van Fraassen only briefly sketches his alternative approach. His paper ends with the conclusion that “the problem of possibly irresolvable moral conflict reveals serious flaws in the philosophical and semantic foundations of ‘orthodox’ deontic logic, but also suggests a rich set (...)
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  13. John F. Horty (1993). Frege on the Psychological Significance of Definitions. Philosophical Studies 72 (2-3):223 - 263.
  14. John F. Horty (1990). A Skeptical Theory of Mixed Inheritance. In J. Dunn & A. Gupta (eds.), Truth or Consequences. Kluwer. 267--281.
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