Search results for 'John H. Beatty' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Susan K. Mills & John H. Beatty (1979). The Propensity Interpretation of Fitness. Philosophy of Science 46 (2):263-286.score: 870.0
    The concept of "fitness" is a notion of central importance to evolutionary theory. Yet the interpretation of this concept and its role in explanations of evolutionary phenomena have remained obscure. We provide a propensity interpretation of fitness, which we argue captures the intended reference of this term as it is used by evolutionary theorists. Using the propensity interpretation of fitness, we provide a Hempelian reconstruction of explanations of evolutionary phenomena, and we show why charges of circularity which have been levelled (...)
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  2. Royce Carroll, Toh-Kyeong Ahn, John H. Aldrich, John Allman, James E. Alt, Julia Annas, Kenneth J. Arrow, Nicholas Bardsley, Jon Barwise & John Beatty (forthcoming). Capra, Frank 136 Carpenter, Malinda 308. Philosophy of the Social Sciences: Philosophical Theory and Scientific Practice.score: 870.0
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  3. Gregory J. Morgan (2010). Laws of Biological Design: A Reply to John Beatty. Biology and Philosophy 25 (3):379-389.score: 261.0
    In this paper, I argue against John Beatty’s position in his paper “The Evolutionary Contingency Thesis” by counterexample. Beatty argues that there are no distinctly biological laws because the outcomes of the evolutionary processes are contingent. I argue that the heart of the Caspar–Klug theory of virus structure—that spherical virus capsids consist of 60T subunits (where T = k 2 + hk + h 2 and h and k are integers)—is a distinctly biological law even if the (...)
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  4. John Beatty (2006). Masking Disagreement Among Experts. Episteme 3 (1-2):52-67.score: 240.0
    There are many reasons why scientific experts may mask disagreement and endorse a position publicly as “jointly accepted.” In this paper I consider the inner workings of a group of scientists charged with deciding not only a technically difficult issue, but also a matter of social and political importance: the maximum acceptable dose of radiation. I focus on how, in this real world situation, concerns with credibility, authority, and expertise shaped the process by which this group negotiated the competing virtues (...)
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  5. John Beatty & Eric Cyr Desjardins (2009). Natural Selection and History. Biology and Philosophy 24 (2):231-246.score: 240.0
    In “Spandrels,” Gould and Lewontin criticized what they took to be an all-too-common conviction, namely, that adaptation to current environments determines organic form. They stressed instead the importance of history . In this paper, we elaborate upon their concerns by appealing to other writings in which those issues are treated in greater detail. Gould and Lewontin’s combined emphasis on history was three-fold. First, evolution by natural selection does not start from scratch, but always refashions preexisting forms. Second, preexisting forms are (...)
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  6. John Beatty & Isabel Carrera (2012). When What Had to Happen Was Not Bound to Happen: History, Chance, Narrative, Evolution. Journal of the Philosophy of History 5 (3):471-495.score: 240.0
    Abstract What is it for history to matter? Stephen Gould argued that unpredictability is part of the answer. For example, the “fact“ that repeated replays of the history of life would end differently every time is a sign that history matters to the course of evolution. But there is a problem here: if a particular point in the past leaves open alternative possible futures, then in what sense does that point in the past matter with regard to which of the (...)
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  7. Alfred Moore & John Beatty (2010). Should We Aim for Consensus? Episteme 7 (3):198-214.score: 240.0
    There can be good reasons to doubt the authority of a group of scientists. But those reasons do not include lack of unanimity among them. Indeed, holding science to a unanimity or near-unanimity standard has a pernicious effect on scientific deliberation, and on the transparency that is so crucial to the authority of science in a democracy. What authorizes a conclusion is the quality of the deliberation that produced it, which is enhanced by the presence of a non-dismissible minority. Scientists (...)
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  8. John Beatty (1984). Chance and Natural Selection. Philosophy of Science 51 (2):183-211.score: 240.0
    Among the liveliest disputes in evolutionary biology today are disputes concerning the role of chance in evolution--more specifically, disputes concerning the relative evolutionary importance of natural selection vs. so-called "random drift". The following discussion is an attempt to sort out some of the broad issues involved in those disputes. In the first half of this paper, I try to explain the differences between evolution by natural selection and evolution by random drift. On some common construals of "natural selection", those two (...)
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  9. John Beatty (2006). Replaying Life's Tape. Journal of Philosophy 103 (7):336-362.score: 240.0
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  10. John Beatty (1994). The Proximate/Ultimate Distinction in the Multiple Careers of Ernst Mayr. Biology and Philosophy 9 (3):333-356.score: 240.0
    Ernst Mayr''s distinction between ultimate and proximate causes is justly considered a major contribution to philosophy of biology. But how did Mayr come to this philosophical distinction, and what role did it play in his earlier scientific work? I address these issues by dividing Mayr''s work into three careers or phases: 1) Mayr the naturalist/researcher, 2) Mayr the representative of and spokesman for evolutionary biology and systematics, and more recently 3) Mayr the historian and philosopher of biology. If we want (...)
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  11. John Beatty (2006). Chance Variation: Darwin on Orchids. Philosophy of Science 73 (5):629-641.score: 240.0
    I am concerned here with the implications of what Darwin called “chance” or “accidental” variation. In particular, how, according to Darwin, does chance variation affect evolutionary outcomes? To address this question, I will focus on his 1866 book.
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  12. Robert Brandon & John Beatty (1984). The Propensity Interpretation of 'Fitness'--No Interpretation is No Substitute. Philosophy of Science 51 (2):342-347.score: 240.0
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  13. John Beatty (1990). Evolutionary Anti-Reductionism: Historical Reflections. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 5 (2):199-210.score: 240.0
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  14. John Beatty (1980). Optimal-Design Models and the Strategy of Model Building in Evolutionary Biology. Philosophy of Science 47 (4):532-561.score: 240.0
    The prevalence of optimality models in the literature of evolutionary biology is testimony to their popularity and importance. Evolutionary biologist R. C. Lewontin, whose criticisms of optimality models are considered here, reflects that "optimality arguments have become extremely popular in the last fifteen years, and at present represent the dominant mode of thought." Although optimality models have received little attention in the philosophical literature, these models are very interesting from a philosophical point of view. As will be argued, optimality models (...)
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  15. John Beatty (1980). What's Wrong with the Received View of Evolutionary Theory? PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1980:397 - 426.score: 240.0
    Much if not most recent literature in philosophy of biology concerns the extent to which biological theories conform to what is known as the "received" philosophical view of scientific theories, a descendant of the logical-empiricist view of theories. But the received view currently faces a competitor--a very different view of theories known as the "semantic" view. It is argued here that the semantic view is more sensitive to the nature and limitations of evolutionary theory than is the received view. In (...)
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  16. John Beatty (1997). Why Do Biologists Argue Like They Do? Philosophy of Science 64 (4):443.score: 240.0
    "Theoretical pluralism" obtains when there are good evidential reasons for accommodating multiple theories of the same domain. Issues of "relative significance" often arise in connection with the investigation of such domains. In this paper, I describe and give examples of theoretical pluralism and relative significance issues. Then I explain why theoretical pluralism so often obtains in biology--and why issues of relative significance arise--in terms of evolutionary contingencies and the paucity or lack of laws of biology. Finally, I turn from explanation (...)
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  17. Jane Maienschein, James P. Collins & John Beatty (1986). Preface. Journal of the History of Biology 19 (2):167-168.score: 240.0
  18. John Beatty, Masking Disagreement Among Scientific Experts.score: 240.0
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  19. John Beatty (1982). What's in a Word? Coming to Terms in the Darwinian Revolution. Journal of the History of Biology 15 (2):215 - 239.score: 240.0
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  20. James P. Collins, John Beatty & Jane Maienschein (1986). Introduction: Between Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 19 (2):169 - 180.score: 240.0
  21. John Beatty (1988). Book Review: The Wright Stuff. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 3 (2):275-283.score: 240.0
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  22. John Beatty (1987). Weighing the Risks: Stalemate in the Classical/Balance Controversy. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 20 (3):289 - 319.score: 240.0
    The classical/balance controversy continued along these lines throughout the first half of the sixties. Then, at about the same time that the classical position lost its leading advocate, the balance position received striking new support from Harry Harris, and independently from Dobzhansky's former student Lewontin, and Lewontin's research partner, Jack Hubby.80 These developments served more to reorient the controversy than to end it — and the resulting “neoclassical”/balance controversy is different enough to be grist for another mill.Social policy considerations no (...)
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  23. John Beatty (1984). Pluralism and Panselectionism. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1984:113 - 128.score: 240.0
    During the 1950s and 60s, evolutionary biologists began to attribute a greater and greater role to natural selection, and correspondingly less and less a role to alternative evolutionary agents. Empirical grounds cited in support of the change in attitude consisted primarily of selectionist reinterpretations of evolutionary changes originally attributed to other evolutionary agents. In order to distinguish the respects in which the increased emphasis on natural selection was justified and unjustified, two distinctions are relied on. These are, first, the distinction (...)
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  24. John Beatty (1993). Scientific Collaboration, Internationalism, and Diplomacy: The Case of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 26 (2):205 - 231.score: 240.0
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  25. John Beatty (1982). The Insights and Oversights of Molecular Genetics: The Place of the Evolutionary Perspective. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982:341 - 355.score: 240.0
    A general case about the insights and oversights of molecular genetics is argued for by considering two specific cases: the first concerns the bearing of molecular genetics on Mendelian genetics, and the second concerns the bearing of molecular genetics on the replicability of the genetic material. As in the first case, it is argued that Mendel's law of segregation cannot be explained wholly in terms of molecular genetics--the law demands evolutionary scrutiny as well. In the second case, it is argued (...)
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  26. John Beatty (1989). Book Review:A History of Embryology T. J. Horder, J. A. Witkowski, C. C. Wylie. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 56 (1):174-.score: 240.0
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  27. John Beatty (1988). Ecology and Evolutionary Biology in the War and Postwar Years: Questions and Comments. Journal of the History of Biology 21 (2):245 - 263.score: 240.0
    Of all the scientists discussed by Mitman, Keller, and Taylor, Odum stands out most as the technocrat, the social engineer. But less obvious candidates, like Allee, also fancied themselves in this capacity: “Our task as biologists and as citizens of a civilized country, is a practical engineering job.” Allee had in mind the establishment of an international cooperative order based on his biological principles. He apparently did not recognize the extent to which his principles were themselves an engineering feat: he (...)
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  28. John Beatty, Nicolas Rasmussen & Nils Roll-Hansen (2002). Untangling the McClintock Myths. Metascience 11 (3):280-298.score: 240.0
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  29. John Beatty (1983). Rationality: Putting the Issue to the Scientific Community. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (3):355.score: 240.0
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  30. John Beatty (1990). The Structure of Biological Science. Biology and Philosophy 5 (197).score: 240.0
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  31. John Beatty (1987). On Behalf of the Semantic View. Biology and Philosophy 2 (1):17-23.score: 240.0
    responses to Sloep and Van der Steen, Biol. Philos. 1987 (2)33.
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  32. John Beatty (1986). The Synthesis and the Synthetic Theory. In William Bechtel (ed.), Integrating Scientific Disciplines. 125--135.score: 240.0
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  33. Ethel Tobach, Kiyoko Murofushi, John Beatty & Junichi Takahashi (1987). Changes in Social Behavior of Macaca Fuscata Yakui in Relation to Unfamiliar Objects. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 25 (2):106-108.score: 240.0
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  34. John Beatty, Robert Brandon, Elliott Sober & Sandra D. Mitchell (1997). Symposium: Are There Laws in Biology? Philosophy of Science 64 (4):S432 - S479.score: 240.0
     
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  35. John Beatty (1981). The Darwinian Revolution The Darwinian Revolution: Science Read in Tooth and Claw Michael Ruse. BioScience 31 (5):398-398.score: 240.0
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  36. John Beatty (2002). The Historicity of Nature? Everything That is Might Have Been Different. In R. E. Auxier & L. E. Hahn (eds.), The Philosophy of Marjorie Grene. La Salle, Illinois: Open Court. 397--411.score: 240.0
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  37. Rama S. Singh, Costas B. Krimbas, Diane B. Paul & John Beatty (2001). Book Notices-Thinking About Evolution. Historical, Philosophical and Political Perspectives. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 23 (2):327.score: 240.0
     
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  38. Russell Powell (2009). Contingency and Convergence in Macroevolution: A Reply to John Beatty. Journal of Philosophy 106 (7):390-403.score: 120.0
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  39. Ernst Mayr (1994). Response to John Beatty. Biology and Philosophy 9 (3):357-358.score: 120.0
  40. J. Franklin (1990). The Empire of Chance: How Probability Changed Science and Everyday Life Gerd Gigerenzer, Zeno Swijtink, Theodore Porter, Lorraine Daston, John Beatty and Lorenz Krüger, Ideas in Context Series (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1989), Xvii + 340 Pp., £30.00, $44.50. [REVIEW] History of European Ideas 12 (4):572-573.score: 120.0
  41. Masking Disagreement Among Experts (forthcoming). John Beatty. Episteme.score: 120.0
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  42. Vito Signorile (1990). Reviews : Gerd Gigerenzer, Zeno Swijtink, Theodore Porter, Lorraine Daston, John Beatty and Lorenz Kruger, The Empire of Chance: How Probability Changed Science and Everyday Life, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989, £30.00, Xvii + 340 Pp. [REVIEW] History of the Human Sciences 3 (2):279-286.score: 120.0
  43. Ernst Mary (1994). Response to John Beatty. Biology and Philosophy 9 (3):357-358.score: 120.0
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  44. Ernst Mayr (1994). Reply to John Beatty. Biology and Philosophy 9:357-358.score: 120.0
     
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  45. S. H. Mellone (1898). Book Review:History of Intellectual Development: On the Lines of Modern Evolution. John Beattie Crozier. [REVIEW] Ethics 8 (4):496-.score: 63.0
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  46. Timothy Shanahan (1989). Beatty on Chance and Natural Selection. Philosophy of Science 56 (3):484-489.score: 54.0
    In his (1984) John Beatty correctly identifies the issue of the role of chance in evolution as one of the liveliest disputes in evolutionary biology. He argues, on the basis of a carefully articulated example, that "Even on a proper construal of 'natural selection', it is difficult to distinguish between the 'improbable results of natural selection' and evolution by random drift". His other remarks indicate that he is thinking of conceptual as well as practical indistinguishability. In this discussion (...)
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  47. Aaron Garrett (2005). :The Library of Scottish Philosophy;Adam Smith: Selected Philosophical Writings;James Beattie: Selected Philosophical Writings;The Scottish Idealists: Selected Philosophical Writings;Art and Enlightenment: Scottish Aesthetics in the 18th Century;Scottish Philosophy: Selected Writings 1690–1960;John Macmurray: Selected Philosophical Writings. [REVIEW] Journal of Scottish Philosophy 3 (2):181-186.score: 40.0
  48. Aaron Garrett (2005). Review of : The Library of Scottish Philosophy_; Review of James Otteson: _Adam Smith: Selected Philosophical Writings_; Review of James Harris: _James Beattie: Selected Philosophical Writings_; Review of David Boucher: _The Scottish Idealists: Selected Philosophical Writings_; Review of Jonathan Friday: _Art and Enlightenment: Scottish Aesthetics in the 18th Century_; Review of Gordon Graham: _Scottish Philosophy: Selected Writings 1690–1960_; Review of Esther McIntosh: _John Macmurray: Selected Philosophical Writings. [REVIEW] Journal of Scottish Philosophy 3 (2):181-186.score: 40.0
  49. Henry Sturt (1899). Book Review:My Inner Life: Being a Chapter in Personal Evolution and Autobiography. John Beattie Crozier. [REVIEW] Ethics 10 (1):132-.score: 40.0
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