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  1. John McCarthy, Approximate Concepts and Approxima Theories.
    Our discussion will be adequate if it has as much clea as the subject matter admits of, for precision is not be sought for alike in all discussions, any more than the products of the crafts.—Aristotle..
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  2. John McCarthy, Beyond Lisp.
    • Lisp programs are Lisp data—abstract syntax. Programming languages need functions for their abstract • English is important for its semantics—not its syntax • The largest piece of cake—Kleene µ operator • An elephant never forgets and is faithful. • Resolution considered harmful. • Special provers are just strategies—Davis-Putnam • Programs as logical formulas—Algol 48 and Algol..
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  3. John McCarthy, Concepts As Objects.
    “...it seems that hardly anybody proposes to use different variables for propositions and for truth-values, or different variables for individuals and individual concepts.” (Carnap 1956, p. 113).
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  4. John McCarthy, Concepts of Logical Ai.
    Logical AI involves representing knowledge of an agent’s world, its goals and the current situation by sentences in logic. The agent decides what to do by inferring that a certain action or course of action is appropriate to achieve the goals. We characterize briefly a large number of concepts that have arisen in research in logical AI. Reaching human-level AI requires programs that deal with the common sense informatic situation. This in turn requires extensions from the way logic has been (...)
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  5. John McCarthy, Creative Solutions to Problems.
    engineering—Achieve goals in the world—so study world 1. Write programs using non-logical representations. 2. represent facts about the world in logic and decide what to do by logical inference..
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  6. John McCarthy, Challenges to Machine Learning: Relations Between Reality and Appearance.
    Apology: My knowledge of of machine learning is no more recent than Tom Mitchell's book. Its chapters describe, except for inductive logic programming, programs aimed at classifying appearances.
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  7. John McCarthy, Human-Level Ai Is Harder Than It Seemed.
    • alpha-beta pruning characterizes human play, but it ticed by early chess programmers—Turing, Shannon, Ulam, and Bernstein. We humans are not very good ing the heuristics we ourselves use. Approximations to used by Samuel, Newell and Simon, McCarthy. Proved lent to minimax by Hart and Levine, independently Knuth gives details.
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  8. John McCarthy, Human-Type Common Sense Needs Extensions to Logic.
    John McCarthy, Stanford University Logical AI (artificial intelligence) is based on programs that represent facts about the world in languages of mathematical logic and decide what actions will achieve goals by logical reasoning. A lot has been accomplished with logic as is.
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  9. John McCarthy, Ideas On Electronic Commerce.
    • substantially overlaps XML and ICE • used Lisp data format, e.g. (PRICE $1.00 ) instead of $5.00 (...)
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  10. John McCarthy, John Searle's Chinese Room Argument.
    John Searle begins his (1990) ``Consciousness, Explanatory Inversion and Cognitive Science'' with
    ``Ten years ago in this journal I published an article (Searle, 1980a and 1980b) criticising what I call Strong
    AI, the view that for a system to have mental states it is sufficient for the system to implement the right sort of
    program with right inputs and outputs. Strong AI is rather easy to refute and the basic argument can be
    summarized in one sentence: {it a system, (...)
    The Chinese Room Argument can be refuted in one sentence. (shrink)
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  11. John McCarthy, Phenomenal Data Mining: From Observations to Phenomena.
    • Conventional data mining infers relations among e.g. the fraction of supermarket baskets with diapers also contain beer. • Phenomenal data mining concerns relations between data and the phenomena underlying the data, e.g. y married couples keeping old friends buy diapers and • Example: The sales receipts of a supermarket usually not identify the customers. Grouping baskets by customer is possible and useful but requires new techniques.
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  12. John McCarthy, Some Lisp History and Some Programming Language Ideas.
    • Lisp was intended to be compiled at first. However, a universal Lisp function eval in 1959 to show that neater language for computability theory than Turing Steve Russell pointed out that the universal function taken as an interpreter for pure Lisp, and hand-compiled..
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  13. John McCarthy, The Ai of Philosophy.
    • Elaboration tolerance – One of the missionaries is Jesus Christ. English is still better than present AI formalisms but relies on human common sense.
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  14. John McCarthy, The Advice Taker Revisited.
    • [Common Sense Informatic Situation] In general a thinking human is in what we call the common sense informatic situation, as distinct from the bounded informatic situation. The known facts are necessarily incomplete. We live in a world of middle-sized object which can only be partly observed and in which the consequences of our actions can only partly be determined.
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  15. John McCarthy, The Logical Road to Human Level.
    Alan Turing was probably first—in 1947, but all the ea in AI took human level as the goal. AI as an industrial with limited goals came along in the 1970s. I doubt of this research aimed at short term payoff is on any human-level AI. Indeed the researchers don’t claim it.
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  16. John McCarthy, The Mutilated Checkerboard in Set Theory.
    An 8 by 8 checkerboard with two diagonally opposite squares removed cannot be covered by dominoes each of which covers two rectilinearly adjacent squares. present a set theory description of the proposition and an informal proof that the covering is impossible. While no present system that I know of will accept either formal description or the proof, I claim that both should be admitted in any heavy duty set theory.
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  17. John McCarthy, The Well-Designed Child.
    This article is inspired by recent psychological studies confirming that a child is not born a blank slate but has important innate capabilities. An important part of the ``learning'' required to deal with the three dimensional world of objects, processes, and other beings was done by evolution. Each child need not do this learning itself.
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  18. John McCarthy, The Web--Early Visions, Present Reality, Grander Future.
    Licklider--1960--Man-Computer Symbiosis Roberts--1970--ARPAnet Internet Engelbart--1962-1968--Mouse, linked documents Kay--1970--Dynabook Berners-Lee--late 1980s and early 90s--World Wide Web Brin and Page--1996--Google--first adequate search engine other prophets--Nelson, etc. whom I neglect undeservedly from ignorance.
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  19. John McCarthy, Uses of Counterfactuals.
    engineering—The world presents problems to intelligence. Study information and action available in the world. 1. Write programs using non-logical representations. 2. Represent facts about the world in logic and decide what to do by logical inference.
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  20. John McCarthy, What Artificial Intelligence Needs From Symbolic Logic.
    Here are the topics. What is logical AI? The common sense informatic situation Relevant history of logic Problems with logical AI Nonmonotonic reasoning Domain dependent control of reasoning Concepts as objects Contexts as objects Partially defined objects Self-awareness Remarks and references LOGICAL AI Logical AI proposes computer systems that represent what they know about the world by sentences in a suitable mathematical logical language. It achieves goals by inferring that a certain strategy of action is appropriate to achieve the goal. (...)
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  21. John McCarthy, What Consciousness Does a Robot Need?
    Almost all of my papers are on the web page. This pap is http://www-formal.stanford.edu/consciousness.html APPROACHES TO ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE biological—Humans are intelligent; imitate humans observe and imitate at either the psychological or neurophysiological level..
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  22. John McCarthy, What Will Self-Aware Systems Be Aware Of?
    #tex2html_wrap_inline114# Easy aspects of state: battery level, memory available, etc. #tex2html_wrap_inline116# Ongoing activities: serving users, driving a car #tex2html_wrap_inline118# Knowledge and lack of knowledge #tex2html_wrap_inline120# purposes, intentions, hopes, fears, likes, dislikes #tex2html_wrap_inline122# Actions it is free to choose among relative to external constraints. That's where free will comes from.
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  23. John McCarthy, Actions and Other Events in Situation Calculus.
    internal events that happen spontaneously from external events (actions). It also treats processes, e.g. a buzzer, that do not settle down. The non-monotonic reasoning is circumscription done situation by situation.
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  24. John McCarthy, An Everywhere Continuous Nowhere Differentiable Function.
    My 1953 proof that the function is everywhere continuous and nowhere differentiable is just 13 lines. I've added some remarks to the note in the American Mathematical Monthly.
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  25. John McCarthy, An Example for Natural Language Understanding and the Ai Problems It Raises.
    An Example for Natural Language Understanding and the AI Problems it Raises I think this 1976 memorandum is of 1996 interest. The problems it raises haven't been solved or even substantially reformulated.
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  26. John McCarthy, A Tough Nut for Proof Procedures.
    Here's the article which was a 1964 Stanford AI Memo. After the original memo, several people offered different proofs of the theorem including Shmuel Winograd, Marvin Minsky and Dimitri Stefanyuk - none published, to my knowledge. Winograd claimed that his proof was non-creative, because it didn't use an extraneous idea like the colors of the squares. This set off a contest to see who could produce the most non-creative proof. Minsky's idea was to start with the diagonal next to an (...)
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  27. John McCarthy, Essays.
    Here are some essays written at various times. What does it mean to be rational? American History for Valley Girls The Chief Seattle Theme Park Here's a Manifesto of the Newtonian Brotherhood of Truly Christian Scientists . I regret to say that it has turned out to be necessary to explicitly characterize it as humor. I didn't mind that some careless readers accused me of being a bigot, but I had to put in a disclaimer when some readers emailed me (...)
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  28. John McCarthy, Events of Two Centuries.
    The most important scientific events of the 20th century were the theory of relativity, quantum mechanics and the discovery of the genetic code. The most important engineering events were nuclear energy, which insures adequate energy for a billion years, the computer, micro-electronics, the green revolution, and the beginnings of genetic engineering. The general development of technology permits worldwide high standards of living.
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  29. John McCarthy, From Here to Human-Level Intelligence.
    This article is the basis of an invited talk at KR-96 in 1996 November. It has been modified from the version that appeared in the preprints of that meeting. There is an html version , a .dvi version , .pdf version and a .ps version. Up to: Main McCarthy page Up to: Send comments to mccarthy@stanford.edu. I sometimes make changes suggested in them. - John McCarthy..
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  30. John McCarthy, Formalization of Strips in Situation Calculus.
    This is a 1985 note aimed at regarding STRIPS as a proof strategy for an interactive theorem prover using a situation calculus formalism. It doesn't quite get there.
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  31. John McCarthy, Networks Considered Harmful - for Electronic Mail.
    Electronic mail (email), using ARPANET and other networks has been in use for almost 20 years. The widespread use of telefax is more recent. However, unless email is freed from dependence on the networks, I predict it will be supplanted by telefax for most uses in spite of its many advantages over telefax. These advantages include the fact that information is transmitted more cheaply as character streams than as images. Multiple addressees are readily accommodated. Moreover, messages transmitted as character streams (...)
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  32. John McCarthy, Overcoming Unexpected Obstacles.
    A plan is made to fly from Glasgow to Moscow and is shown by circumscription to lead to the traveller arriving in Moscow. Then a fact about an unexpected obstacle---the traveller losing his ticket---is added without changing any of the previous facts, and the original plan can no longer be shown to work if it must take into account the new fact. However, an altered plan that includes buying a replacement ticket can now be shown to work. The formalism used (...)
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  33. John McCarthy, The Home Information Terminal---A 1970 View.
    This article was published in {\em Man and Computer. Proc. int. Conf., Bordeaux 1970, pp. 48-57 (Karger, Basel 1972)}. It is interesting to compare its 1970 proposals with the current situation, 30 years later. I have decorated it with footnotes commenting on the 1970 situation and making comparisons. Some of the improvements advocated in the paper are still yet to come. I claim quite a few prophet points for it.
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  34. John McCarthy, The Robot and the Baby.
    This is the first science fiction story I have put up for the public to look at. While it was written just as a story, it partly illustrates my opinions about what household robots should be like. In my article Making Robots Conscious of their Mental States , I argued that robots should not be programmed to have..
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  35. John McCarthy, Universality: Or Why There Are Separate Sciences.
    The basic computer components are universal. Whatever can be built from transistors can also be built from vacuum tubes, relays, fluidic elements, McCulloch-Pitts neurons, connectionist neurons, or from any of the other kinds of neuron Marvin Minsky proved universal in his 1954 Princeton PhD dissertation.
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  36. John McCarthy, What Futures Shall We Make?
    The earth is humanity's garden, and we should make it as productive and beautiful as we can. This view is in contrast to the somewhat religious view that humanity is an intruder on Nature.
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  37. John A. McCarthy (forthcoming). Kopernikus und die bewegliche schönheit Schiller und die gravitationslehre. Zeitschrift für Ästhetik Und Allgemeine Kunstwissenschaft.
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  38. John McCarthy (2013). A Critical Priest Trips Over His Vows. The Chesterton Review 39 (3):317-320.
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  39. John P. McCarthy (2012). Hilaire Belloc. The Chesterton Review 12 (2):165-174.
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  40. John McCarthy (2011). WikiLeaks [Sec=Unclassified]. Ethos 19 (2):13.
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  41. John McCarthy (2010). Review of Christopher Ben Simpson, Religion, Metaphysics, and the Postmodern: William Desmond and John D. Caputo. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2010 (8).
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  42. John Mccarthy (2008). Théologie Et Écologie. Nouvelle Revue Théologique 130 (3):550-572.
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  43. John McCarthy (2006). Review of Heinrich Meier, Leo Strauss and the Theologico-Political Problem. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2006 (6).
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  44. John McCarthy, Notes on Self-Awareness.
    These notes discuss self-awareness in humans and machines. The goal is to determine useful forms of machine self-awareness and also those that are on the road to human-level AI. This is a draft which is to be improved, and suggestions are solicited. There are a few formulas in this version. The final version will have more.
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  45. John McCarthy, What is Artificial Intelligence?
  46. Paul Sullivan & John Mccarthy (2004). Toward a Dialogical Perspective on Agency. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 34 (3):291–309.
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  47. John C. McCarthy (2001). La Sagesse du Monde. Review of Metaphysics 55 (1):122-125.
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  48. John J. McCarthy (2001). Optimal Language Learning. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (3):132-133.
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  49. John C. McCarthy (2000). Nihilism Before Nietzsche. Review of Metaphysics 54 (1):140-143.
  50. John C. Mccarthy (1999). Encyclopedia of Phenomenology. Review of Metaphysics 52 (3):677-679.
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