Unlike all other present-day nationalities, Arab nationality is defined exclusively in terms of a single written language, which encompasses a huge range of mutually incomprehensible speech forms?the better to make the ?Arab nationality? as large as possible, and to establish continuity between today's ?Arabs? and the glorious past of the early Islamic conquerors. The secular version of Arabic nationalism lost its appeal when the Arab countries failed to unite politically and when they were defeated by Israel in 1967. The apparent (...) Islamization of Arabic society since 1967 is actually a response to these failures. When ?Arabs? perceived that secular ideology had failed to achieve their national goals, they turned to Islamism as a different strategy for achieving the same objectives. (shrink)
CONSIDER A NON EMPTY BUT OTHERWISE ARBITRARY SET OF\nPROPERTIES CALLED OBSERVATION-PROPERTIES (O-PROPERTIES).\nCALL A PROPERTY P A MEANINGFUL PROPERTY (M-PROPERTY) IF IT\nIS EQUIVALENT TO A (FINITE OR INFINITE) DISJUNCTION OF\nO-PROPERTIES--I.E., A NECESSARY AND SUFFICIENT CONDITION\nFOR P IS THAT AT LEAST ONE OBSERVATION-PROPERTY IN A\nCERTAIN SET O(P) BE TRUE. OBVIOUSLY THE CONJUNCTION AND\nDISJUNCTION OF TWO M-PROPERTIES IS AN M-PROPERTY; IN\nGENERAL THE NEGATION OF AN M-PROPERTY IS NOT AN M-PROPERTY.\nHOWEVER WE CAN DEFINE THE PSEUDO NEGATION OF AN M-PROPERTY\nP AS THE POSSESSION OF SOME (...) O-PROPERTY INCOMPATIBLE WITH P.\nTHE ALGEBRA OF DISJUNCTION, CONJUNCTION AND PSEUDO NEGATION\nOF M-PROPERTIES TURNS OUT TO START IN THE SAME RELATION TO\nBOOLEAN ALGEBRA AS INTUITIONISTIC LOGIC (NOT 3-VALUED\nLOGIC) DOES TO CLASSICAL LOGIC, AND SUGGESTS THEREFORE THAT\nINTUITIONISTIC RATHER THAN 3-VALUED LOGIC IS THE\nAPPROPRIATE FORMALISM TO DEAL WITH THE PARADOXES OF THE\nBALD MAN, THE HEAP, ETC. (shrink)
Our first aim is to make the study of informal notions of proof plausible. Put differently, since the raison d'étre of anything like existing proof theory seems to rest on such notions, the aim is nothing else but to make a case for proof theory; ...
A notation for the language of physics is given, and a system of axioms constructed. It is argued that from the standpoint of a 'realistic' ontology our method is preferable to Carnap's 'coordinate languages.' The primitive ideas are the part-whole relation μ and the set H of coordinate systems. Only such statements are intended in the axioms as are non-controversial; i.e. no open cosmological questions are prejudged.