Settling definitions is often seen as a central tool for clarifying concepts, and answering questions. Examples might be , or . A common way of answering such questions is by formulating necessary and sufficient conditions for a thing to be of a certain sort. It is this form of real definition that is of concern here.
This paper traces the connections between the assertion or denial of innate ideas, and the possibility of the soul being immortal, in the contrasting cases of Descartes and Locke. Descartes and Locke disagree about whether there are innate ideas and the nature of the soul, but they agree that the soul is immortal. The issue explored is which theory of the mind, Descartes's or Locke's, is in the best position to contend that we to survive death, and indeed exist immortally. (...) The argument is not as straightforwardly in Descartes's favor, as one might suppose. (shrink)
Fundamentals of Philosophy is a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the major topics in philosophy and is designed to be used as a companion to any undergraduate philosophy course. Each chapter provides an authoritative overview of topics commonly taught at the undergraduate level, focusing on the major issues that typically arise when studying the subject. Discussions are up to date and written in an engaging manner so as to provide students with the core building-blocks of their degree course. Helpful exercises (...) are included at the end of each chapter, as well as bibliographies and annotated further reading sections. This textbook brings together specially commissioned articles by leading philosophers. (shrink)
What are arguments for? How do they work and how do they fail? Arguing Well gives a lucid introduction to the nature of arguments and provides a guide on when to implement reason. It explains the principles of good reasoning, how to apply it and strategies to overcome forces that lead to abandoning it. A simple introduction to symbolic logic gives the reader a useful tool in dealing with arguments. Throughout the book, the long neglected psychological factors that prevent the (...) operating of reasoning are uncovered and a guide is provided on when to implement reason. (shrink)