Search results for 'John Willadams McCarthy' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. John Willadams McCarthy (1948). The Naturalism of Samuel Alexander. New York, King's Crown Press.score: 870.0
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  2. John McCarthy, John Searle's Chinese Room Argument.score: 600.0
    John Searle begins his ``Consciousness, Explanatory Inversion and Cognitive Science'' with " ``Ten years ago in this journal I published an article criticising what I call Strong AI, the view that for a system to have mental states it is sufficient for the system to implement the right sort of program with right inputs and outputs. Strong AI is rather easy to refute and the basic argument can be summarized in one sentence: {it a system, me for example, could (...)
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  3. John McCarthy (2010). Review of Christopher Ben Simpson, Religion, Metaphysics, and the Postmodern: William Desmond and John D. Caputo. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2010 (8).score: 540.0
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  4. John P. McCarthy (1992). "Confessions of an Original Sinner," by John Lukacs. The Chesterton Review 18 (3):419-423.score: 540.0
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  5. John McCarthy, Human-Type Common Sense Needs Extensions to Logic.score: 480.0
    John McCarthy, Stanford University Logical AI (artificial intelligence) is based on programs that represent facts about the world in languages of mathematical logic and decide what actions will achieve goals by logical reasoning. A lot has been accomplished with logic as is.
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  6. John McCarthy, From Here to Human-Level Intelligence.score: 480.0
    This article is the basis of an invited talk at KR-96 in 1996 November. It has been modified from the version that appeared in the preprints of that meeting. There is an html version , a .dvi version , .pdf version and a .ps version. Up to: Main McCarthy page Up to: Send comments to mccarthy@stanford.edu. I sometimes make changes suggested in them. - John McCarthy..
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  7. Stephen M. Fishman & Lucille McCarthy (2009). John Dewey on Happiness: Going Against the Grain of Contemporary Thought. Contemporary Pragmatism 6 (2):111-135.score: 360.0
    Dewey's theory of happiness goes against the grain of much contemporary psychologic and popular thought by identifying the highest form of human happiness with moral behavior. Such happiness, according to Dewey, avoids being at the mercy of circumstances because it is independent of the pleasures and successes we take from experience and, instead, is dependent upon the disposition we bring to experience. It accompanies a disposition characterized by an abiding interest in objects in which all can share, one founded upon (...)
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  8. Christine L. McCarthy (2007). A Review of Victor Kestenbaum, 2002. The Grace and the Severity of the Ideal: John Dewey and the Transcendent. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. [REVIEW] Studies in Philosophy and Education 26 (4):345-362.score: 360.0
  9. Timothy McCarthy (1981). Review: John L. Pollock, Subjunctive Reasoning. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 46 (1):170-173.score: 360.0
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  10. John McCarthy, Human-Level Ai Is Harder Than It Seemed.score: 300.0
    • alpha-beta pruning characterizes human play, but it ticed by early chess programmers—Turing, Shannon, Ulam, and Bernstein. We humans are not very good ing the heuristics we ourselves use. Approximations to used by Samuel, Newell and Simon, McCarthy. Proved lent to minimax by Hart and Levine, independently Knuth gives details.
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  11. John J. Curtin, Danielle E. McCarthy, Megan E. Piper & Timothy B. Baker (2006). Implicit and Explicit Drug Motivational Processes: A Model of Boundary Conditions. In Reinout W. Wiers & Alan W. Stacy (eds.), Handbook of Implicit Cognition and Addiction. Sage Publications Ltdscore: 280.0
  12. John McCarthy & Patrick Hayes (1969). Some Philosophical Problems From the Standpoint of Artificial Intelligence. In B. Meltzer & Donald Michie (eds.), Machine Intelligence 4. Edinburgh University Press 463--502.score: 240.0
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  13. John McCarthy, What is Artificial Intelligence?score: 240.0
  14. John McCarthy, The Robot and the Baby.score: 240.0
    This is the first science fiction story I have put up for the public to look at. While it was written just as a story, it partly illustrates my opinions about what household robots should be like. In my article Making Robots Conscious of their Mental States , I argued that robots should not be programmed to have..
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  15. John McCarthy (1996). Making Robots Conscious of Their Mental States. In S. Muggleton (ed.), Machine Intelligence 15. Oxford University Pressscore: 240.0
    In AI, consciousness of self consists in a program having certain kinds of facts about its own mental processes and state of mind. We discuss what consciousness of its own mental structures a robot will need in order to operate in the common sense world and accomplish the tasks humans will give it. It's quite a lot. Many features of human consciousness will be wanted, some will not, and some abilities not possessed by humans have already been found feasible and (...)
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  16. John Mccarthy (1997). Modality, Si! Modal Logic, No! Studia Logica 59 (1):29-32.score: 240.0
    This article is oriented toward the use of modality in artificial intelligence (AI). An agent must reason about what it or other agents know, believe, want, intend or owe. Referentially opaque modalities are needed and must be formalized correctly. Unfortunately, modal logics seem too limited for many important purposes. This article contains examples of uses of modality for which modal logic seems inadequate.I have no proof that modal logic is inadequate, so I hope modal logicians will take the examples as (...)
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  17. John McCarthy, The Web--Early Visions, Present Reality, Grander Future.score: 240.0
    Licklider--1960--Man-Computer Symbiosis Roberts--1970--ARPAnet Internet Engelbart--1962-1968--Mouse, linked documents Kay--1970--Dynabook Berners-Lee--late 1980s and early 90s--World Wide Web Brin and Page--1996--Google--first adequate search engine other prophets--Nelson, etc. whom I neglect undeservedly from ignorance.
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  18. John McCarthy, A Logical Approach to Context.score: 240.0
    Logical AI develops computer programs that represent what they know about the world primarily by logical formulas and decide what to do primarily by logical reasoning--including nonmonotonic logical reasoning. It is convenient to use logical sentences and terms whose meaning depends on context. The reasons for this are similar to what causes human language to use context dependent meanings. This note gives elements of some of the formalisms to which we have been led. Fuller treatments are in [McC93], [Guh91] and (...)
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  19. John McCarthy (1995). Todd Moody's Zombies. Journal of Consciousness Studies 2 (4):345-347.score: 240.0
    From the AI point of view, consciousness must be regarded as a collection of interacting processes rather than the unitary object of much philosophical speculation. We ask what kinds of propositions and other entities need to be designed for consciousness to be useful to an animal or a machine. We thereby assert that human consciousness is useful to human functioning and not just and epiphenomenon. Zombies in the sense of Todd Moody's article are merely the victims of Moody's prejudices. To (...)
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  20. John McCarthy, Notes on Self-Awareness.score: 240.0
    These notes discuss self-awareness in humans and machines. The goal is to determine useful forms of machine self-awareness and also those that are on the road to human-level AI. This is a draft which is to be improved, and suggestions are solicited. There are a few formulas in this version. The final version will have more.
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  21. John McCarthy, An Everywhere Continuous Nowhere Differentiable Function.score: 240.0
    My 1953 proof that the function is everywhere continuous and nowhere differentiable is just 13 lines. I've added some remarks to the note in the American Mathematical Monthly.
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  22. John McCarthy (1979). Ascribing Mental Qualities to Machines. In Martin Ringle (ed.), Philosophical Perspectives in Artificial Intelligence. Humanities Pressscore: 240.0
    Ascribing mental qualities like beliefs, intentions and wants to a machine is sometimes correct if done conservatively and is sometimes necessary to express what is known about its state. We propose some new definitional tools for this: definitions relative to an approximate theory and second order structural definitions.
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  23. John C. McCarthy (1994). Some Preliminary Remarks on “Cognitive Interest” in Husserlian Phenomenology. Husserl Studies 11 (3):135-152.score: 240.0
    From an etymological standpoint the word "interest" is well suited to phenomenological investigations, lnteresse, to be among, 1 or as Husserl sometimes translates, Dabeisein, 2 succinctly expresses the sense ofHusserl's more usual term, "intentionality." Mind, he never tired or saying, is not at all another thing alongside the various things of the world; it is already outside itself, and in the company of the things it thinks. Yet despite the appropriateness of "interest" to name this fact of psychic life, only (...)
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  24. John McCarthy, The Well-Designed Child.score: 240.0
    This article is inspired by recent psychological studies confirming that a child is not born a blank slate but has important innate capabilities. An important part of the ``learning'' required to deal with the three dimensional world of objects, processes, and other beings was done by evolution. Each child need not do this learning itself.
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  25. John McCarthy, What Artificial Intelligence Needs From Symbolic Logic.score: 240.0
    Here are the topics. What is logical AI? The common sense informatic situation Relevant history of logic Problems with logical AI Nonmonotonic reasoning Domain dependent control of reasoning Concepts as objects Contexts as objects Partially defined objects Self-awareness Remarks and references LOGICAL AI Logical AI proposes computer systems that represent what they know about the world by sentences in a suitable mathematical logical language. It achieves goals by inferring that a certain strategy of action is appropriate to achieve the goal. (...)
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  26. John McCarthy, Artificial Intelligence and Philosophy.score: 240.0
    AI needs many ideas that have hitherto been studied only by philosophers. This is because a robot, if it is to have human level intelligence and ability to learn from its experience, needs a general world view in which to organize facts. It turns out that many philosophical problems take new forms when thought about in terms of how to design a robot. Some approaches to philosophy are helpful and others are not.
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  27. John McCarthy & Sasa Buvac, Formalizing Context (Expanded Notes).score: 240.0
    These notes discuss formalizing contexts as first class objects. The basic relationships are: ist(c,p) meaning that the proposition p is true in the context c, and value(c,p) designating the value of the term e in the context c Besides these, there are lifting formulas that relate the propositions and terms in subcontexts to possibly more general propositions and terms in the outer context. Subcontextx are often specialised with regard to time, place and terminology. Introducing contexts as formal objects will permit (...)
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  28. John McCarthy, The Advice Taker Revisited.score: 240.0
    • [Common Sense Informatic Situation] In general a thinking human is in what we call the common sense informatic situation, as distinct from the bounded informatic situation. The known facts are necessarily incomplete. We live in a world of middle-sized object which can only be partly observed and in which the consequences of our actions can only partly be determined.
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  29. Paul Sullivan & John Mccarthy (2004). Toward a Dialogical Perspective on Agency. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 34 (3):291–309.score: 240.0
    The aim of this article is to motivate and outline a dialogical perspective on agency that accommodates centrifugal and centripetal tendencies in current cultural theories of agency. To complement approaches that assume a high degree of integration and clarity, we emphasise the diversity of agency as it is experienced in the open-ended dialogical relationship with a particular other. While these former approaches to agency provide us with the means to examine the influence of social processes such as division of labour (...)
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  30. John McCarthy, Elephant 2000 - a Programming Language Based on Speech Acts.score: 240.0
    Elephant 2000 is a proposed programming language good for writing and verifying programs that interact with people (eg. transaction processing) or interact with programs belonging to other organizations (eg. electronic data interchange) 1. Communication inputs and outputs are in an I-O language whose sentences are meaningful speech acts identified in the language as questions, answers, offers, acceptances, declinations, requests, permissions and promises. 2. The correctness of programs is partly defined in terms of proper performance of the speech acts. Answers should (...)
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  31. John McCarthy, First Order Theories of Individual Concepts and Propositions.score: 240.0
    We discuss first order theories in which individual concepts are admitted as mathematical objects along with the things that reify them. This allows very straightforward formalizations of knowledge, belief, wanting, and necessity in ordinary first order logic without modal operators. Applications are given in philosophy and in artificial intelligence. We do not treat general concepts, and we do not present any full axiomatizations but rather show how various facts can be expressed.
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  32. John McCarthy, Challenges to Machine Learning: Relations Between Reality and Appearance.score: 240.0
    Apology: My knowledge of of machine learning is no more recent than Tom Mitchell's book. Its chapters describe, except for inductive logic programming, programs aimed at classifying appearances.
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  33. John P. McCarthy (1992). Hilaire Belloc and Catholic History. Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 67 (1):62-73.score: 240.0
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  34. John W. Murphy, Irving H. Anellis, John D. Windhausen, Thomas Nemeth & George McCarthy (1991). Reviews. [REVIEW] Studies in East European Thought 41 (1):63-82.score: 240.0
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  35. John McCarthy, Actions and Other Events in Situation Calculus.score: 240.0
    internal events that happen spontaneously from external events (actions). It also treats processes, e.g. a buzzer, that do not settle down. The non-monotonic reasoning is circumscription done situation by situation.
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  36. John McCarthy, An Example for Natural Language Understanding and the Ai Problems It Raises.score: 240.0
    An Example for Natural Language Understanding and the AI Problems it Raises I think this 1976 memorandum is of 1996 interest. The problems it raises haven't been solved or even substantially reformulated.
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  37. John McCarthy, Beyond Lisp.score: 240.0
    • Lisp programs are Lisp data—abstract syntax. Programming languages need functions for their abstract • English is important for its semantics—not its syntax • The largest piece of cake—Kleene µ operator • An elephant never forgets and is faithful. • Resolution considered harmful. • Special provers are just strategies—Davis-Putnam • Programs as logical formulas—Algol 48 and Algol..
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  38. John C. McCarthy (1993). How Knowing the World Completes the World. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 67:71-86.score: 240.0
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  39. John McCarthy, Concepts As Objects.score: 240.0
    “...it seems that hardly anybody proposes to use different variables for propositions and for truth-values, or different variables for individuals and individual concepts.” (Carnap 1956, p. 113).
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  40. Edward Roddy, Weiya Zhang, Michael Doherty, Nigel K. Arden, Julie Barlow, Fraser Birrell, Alison Carr, Kuntal Chakravarty, John Dickson, Elaine Hay, Gillian Hosie, Michael Hurley, Kelsey M. Jordan, Christopher McCarthy, Marion McMurdo, Simon Mockett, Sheila O'Reilly, George Peat, Adrian Pendleton & Selwyn Richards (2006). Evidence‐Based Clinical Guidelines: A New System to Better Determine True Strength of Recommendation. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (3):347-352.score: 240.0
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  41. John C. McCarthy (1992). A Path Into Metaphysics. Review of Metaphysics 46 (2):429-430.score: 240.0
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  42. John McCarthy, Creative Solutions to Problems.score: 240.0
    engineering—Achieve goals in the world—so study world 1. Write programs using non-logical representations. 2. represent facts about the world in logic and decide what to do by logical inference..
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  43. John McCarthy (2006). Review of Heinrich Meier, Leo Strauss and the Theologico-Political Problem. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2006 (6).score: 240.0
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  44. John McCarthy, Universality: Or Why There Are Separate Sciences.score: 240.0
    The basic computer components are universal. Whatever can be built from transistors can also be built from vacuum tubes, relays, fluidic elements, McCulloch-Pitts neurons, connectionist neurons, or from any of the other kinds of neuron Marvin Minsky proved universal in his 1954 Princeton PhD dissertation.
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  45. John McCarthy, What Will Self-Aware Systems Be Aware Of?score: 240.0
    #tex2html_wrap_inline114# Easy aspects of state: battery level, memory available, etc. #tex2html_wrap_inline116# Ongoing activities: serving users, driving a car #tex2html_wrap_inline118# Knowledge and lack of knowledge #tex2html_wrap_inline120# purposes, intentions, hopes, fears, likes, dislikes #tex2html_wrap_inline122# Actions it is free to choose among relative to external constraints. That's where free will comes from.
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  46. John McCarthy, Phenomenal Data Mining: From Observations to Phenomena.score: 240.0
    • Conventional data mining infers relations among e.g. the fraction of supermarket baskets with diapers also contain beer. • Phenomenal data mining concerns relations between data and the phenomena underlying the data, e.g. y married couples keeping old friends buy diapers and • Example: The sales receipts of a supermarket usually not identify the customers. Grouping baskets by customer is possible and useful but requires new techniques.
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  47. John McCarthy (1989). The Density of Reference: Paul Ricœur on Religious Textual Reference. [REVIEW] International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 26 (1):1 - 28.score: 240.0
  48. John McCarthy, The Mutilated Checkerboard in Set Theory.score: 240.0
    An 8 by 8 checkerboard with two diagonally opposite squares removed cannot be covered by dominoes each of which covers two rectilinearly adjacent squares. present a set theory description of the proposition and an informal proof that the covering is impossible. While no present system that I know of will accept either formal description or the proof, I claim that both should be admitted in any heavy duty set theory.
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  49. John McCarthy (1954). The Moral Obligation of Voting. Philosophical Studies 4:108-109.score: 240.0
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  50. Friedrich Rapp, George McCarthy, Irving H. Anellis, Alex Kozulin, John Ryder, John W. Murphy & Yuri Tuvim (1987). Reviews. [REVIEW] Studies in East European Thought 34 (1-2):239-270.score: 240.0
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