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  1. Heather Roberts & John Williams, Chapter 5 Constitutional Law.
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  2. John Williams, Defining the 'Social' in 'Social Entrepreneurship': Altruism and Entrepreneurship.
    What is social entrepreneurship? In, particular, what’s so social about it? Understanding what social entrepreneurship is enables researchers to study the phenomenon and policy-makers to design measures to encourage it. However, such an understanding is lacking partly because there is no universally accepted definition of entrepreneurship as yet. In this paper, we suggest a definition of social entrepreneurship that intuitively accords with what is generally accepted as entrepreneurship and that captures the way in which entrepreneurship may be altruistic. Based on (...)
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  3. John Williams, In Defence of an Argument for Evans's Principle 167.
    In this case (5) yields the result that A and D are I-related, but neither is I-related to B or C – the original person has two beginnings of existence. To get round this we need to add to (5)’s right-hand side the condition that there is no pair of distinct, simultaneously occurring person-stages u and v such that u is R-related to x and y and v is R-related to x and no pair of distinct, simultaneously occurring personstages u (...)
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  4. John Williams, Orwell and Huxley: Making Dissent Unthinkable.
    Neither novel should be read as predictions, the accuracy of which can be used to judge them. Rather, both attempt to portray what humanity could conceivably become. The authenticity of this conceivability is a necessary condition of the power of both works to raise central philosophical questions about the human condition. What is ethically wrong with control? How far can Man go in recreating himself? In what sense are these worlds anti-utopian? Are they really possible worlds? How credible are they (...)
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  5. John Williams, The Ethics of Placebo-Controlled Trials in Developing Countries to Prevent Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV.
    Placebo-trials on HIV-infected pregnant women in developing countries like Thailand and Uganda have provoked recent controversy. Such experiments aim to find a treatment that will cut the rate of vertical transmission more efficiently than existing treatments like zidovudine. This scenario is first stated as generally as possible, before three ethical principles found in the Belmont Report, itself a sharpening of the Helsinki Declaration, are stated. These three principles are the Principle of Utility, the Principle of Autonomy and the Principle of (...)
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  6. John N. Williams, Moore's Paradox, Defective Interpretation, Justified Belief and Conscious Belieftheo_1073 221..248.
    In this journal, Hamid Vahid argues against three families of explanation of Mooreparadoxicality. The first is the Wittgensteinian approach; I assert that p just in case I assert that I believe that p. So making a Moore-paradoxical assertion involves contradictory assertions. The second is the epistemic approach, one committed to: if I am justified in believing that p then I am justified in believing that I believe that p. So it is impossible to have a justified omissive Mooreparadoxical belief. The (...)
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  7. Neil Sinhababu & John Williams (forthcoming). The Backward Clock, Truth-Tracking, and Safety. Journal of Philosophy.
    We present Backward Clock, an original counterexample to Robert Nozick’s truth-tracking analysis of propositional knowledge, which works differently from other putative counterexamples and avoids objections to which they are vulnerable. We then argue that four ways of analysing knowledge in terms of safety, including Duncan Pritchard’s, cannot withstand Backward Clock either.
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  8. John R. Williams (forthcoming). When Suffering is Unbearable: Physicians, Assisted Suicide, and Euthanasia. Journal of Palliative Care.
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  9. John Williams (2015). Distant Intimacy: Space, Drones, and Just War. Ethics and International Affairs 29 (1):93-110.
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  10. John Williams (2015). Does the Richness of the Few Benefit Us All? By Zygmunt Bauman. Pp. Viii, 101, Cambridge, Polity Press, 2013, £40.00/£9.99/£6.99 . The Locust Effect: Why the End of Poverty Requires the End of Violence. By Gary A. Haugen and Victor Boutros. Pp. Xxii, 346, Oxford University Press, 2014, £18.99. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 56 (3):486-487.
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  11. John N. Williams (2015). Eliminativism, Dialetheism and Moore's Paradox. Theoria 81 (1):27-47.
    John Turri gives an example that he thinks refutes what he takes to be “G. E. Moore's view” that omissive assertions such as “It is raining but I do not believe that it is raining” are “inherently ‘absurd'”. This is that of Ellie, an eliminativist who makes such assertions. Turri thinks that these are perfectly reasonable and not even absurd. Nor does she seem irrational if the sincerity of her assertion requires her to believe its content. A commissive counterpart of (...)
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  12. John N. Williams (2015). Moore's Paradox in Speech: A Critical Survey. Philosophy Compass 10 (1):10-23.
    It is raining but you don't believe that it is raining. Imagine accepting this claim. Then you are committed to saying ‘It is raining but I don't believe that it is raining’. This would be an ‘absurd’ thing to claim or assert, yet what you say might be true. It might be raining, while at the same time, you are completely ignorant of the state of the weather. But how can it be absurd of you to assert something about yourself (...)
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  13. John N. Williams (2015). Not Knowing You Know: A New Objection to the Defeasibility Theory of Knowledge. Analysis 75 (2):213-217.
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  14. John R. Williams (2015). A History of Political Ideas: From Antiquity to the Middle Ages. By Philippe Nemo, Translated by Kenneth Casler. Pp. Ix, 665, Pittsburgh, PA, Duquesne University Press, 2013, $36.00. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 56 (3):467-469.
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  15. John R. Williams (2015). Just War: Authority, Tradition, and Practice. Edited by Anthony F. Lang Jr., Cian O'Driscoll, and John Williams. Pp. Viii, 328, Washington, DC, Georgetown University Press, 2013, $26.50. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 56 (3):509-511.
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  16. John R. Williams (2015). The Economy of Desire: Christianity and Capitalism in a Postmodern World . By Daniel M. Bell Jr. Pp. 224, Grand Rapids, MI, Baker Academic, 2012, $19.99. The Wound and the Blessing: Economics, Relationships and Happiness. By Luigino Bruni . Pp. Xxiv, 123, Hyde Park, NY, New City Press, 2012, £12.50. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 56 (3):484-486.
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  17. John N. Williams (2014). Moore's Paradox in Belief and Desire. Acta Analytica 29 (1):1-23.
    Is there a Moore’s paradox in desire? I give a normative explanation of the epistemic irrationality, and hence absurdity, of Moorean belief that builds on Green and Williams’ normative account of absurdity. This explains why Moorean beliefs are normally irrational and thus absurd, while some Moorean beliefs are absurd without being irrational. Then I defend constructing a Moorean desire as the syntactic counterpart of a Moorean belief and distinguish it from a ‘Frankfurt’ conjunction of desires. Next I discuss putative examples (...)
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  18. John R. Williams (2014). Tradition, Rationality, and Virtue: The Thought of Alasdair MacIntyre. By Thomas D. D'Andrea. Pp. Xviii, 486, Aldershot, Hampshire, Ashgate, 2006, £60.00/$99.95. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 55 (1):147-148.
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  19. John Williams, Dominique Sprumont, Marie Hirtle, Clement Adebamowo & Paul Braunschweiger (2014). Consensus Standards for Introductory E-Learning Courses in Human Participants Research Ethics. Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (6):426-428.
    This paper reports the results of a workshop held in January 2013 to begin the process of establishing standards for e-learning programmes in the ethics of research involving human participants that could serve as the basis of their evaluation by individuals and groups who want to use, recommend or accredit such programmes. The standards that were drafted at the workshop cover the following topics: designer/provider qualifications, learning goals, learning objectives, content, methods, assessment of participants and assessment of the course. The (...)
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  20. John Williams, David-Hillel Ruben's 'Traditions and True Successors': A Critical Reply.
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  21. John Williams, Eliminativism, Williams' Principle and Evans' Principle.
  22. John Williams, Further Reflection on True Successors and Traditions.
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  23. John N. Williams (2013). Moore's Paradox and the Priority of Belief Thesis. Philosophical Studies 165 (3):1117-1138.
    Moore’s paradox is the fact that assertions or beliefs such asBangkok is the capital of Thailand but I do not believe that Bangkok is the capital of Thailand or Bangkok is the capital of Thailand but I believe that Bangkok is not the capital of Thailandare ‘absurd’ yet possibly true. The current orthodoxy is that an explanation of the absurdity should first start with belief, on the assumption that once the absurdity in belief has been explained then this will translate (...)
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  24. John N. Williams (2013). The Completeness of the Pragmatic Solution to Moore's Paradox in Belief: A Reply to Chan. Synthese 190 (12):2457-2476.
    Moore’s paradox in belief is the fact that beliefs of the form ‘ p and I do not believe that p ’ are ‘absurd’ yet possibly true. Writers on the paradox have nearly all taken the absurdity to be a form of irrationality. These include those who give what Timothy Chan calls the ‘pragmatic solution’ to the paradox. This solution turns on the fact that having the Moorean belief falsifies its content. Chan, who also takes the absurdity to be a (...)
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  25. John R. Williams (2013). Placing Nature on the Borders of Religion, Philosophy and Ethics (Transcending Boundaries in Philosophy and Theology). Edited by Forrest Clingerman and Mark H. Dixon . Pp. Xiv, 224, Farnham, Surrey, Ashgate, 2011, £50.00. Turning Images in Philosophy, Science, & Religion: A New Book of Nature. Edited by Charles Taliaferro and Jil Evans . Pp. Xii, 256, Oxford University Press, 2011, £30.00/$50.00. The Singing Heart of the World: Creation, Evolution and Faith. By John Feehan. Pp. 204, Dublin, Columba Press, 2010, €14.99/£12.99. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 54 (4):706-708.
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  26. John R. Williams (2013). Religious Liberties: Anti‐Catholicism and Liberal Democracy in Nineteenth‐Century U.S. Literature and Culture (Imagining the Americas Series). By Elizabeth Fenton. Pp. Xi, 178, New York, Oxford University Press, 2011, $65.00. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 54 (6):1063-1064.
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  27. Farber Ilya, Thomas Brian Mooney, Mark Nowacki, Yoo Guan Tan & John N. Williams, Thinking Things Through: An Introduction to Analytical Skills Second Edition.
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  28. Eric Tsang & John Williams, Generalization and Induction: Misconceptions, Clarifications and a Classification of Induction.
    In “Generalizing Generalizability in Information Systems Research,” Lee and Baskerville try to clarify generalization and classify it into four types. Unfortunately, their account is problematic. We propose repairs. Central among these is our balance-of-evidence argument that we should adopt the view that Hume’s problem of induction has a solution, even if we do not know what it is. We build upon this by proposing an alternative classification of induction. There are five types of generalization: theoretical, within-population, cross-population, contextual, and temporal, (...)
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  29. John Williams (2012). Moore-Paradoxical Assertion, Fully Conscious Belief and the Transparency of Belief. Acta Analytica 27 (1):9-12.
    I offer a novel account of the absurdity of Moore-paradoxical assertion in terms of an interlocutor’s fully conscious beliefs. This account starts with an original argument for the principle that fully conscious belief collects over conjunction. The argument is premised on the synchronic unity of consciousness and the transparency of belief.
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  30. John Williams (2012). Politics Most Unusual: Violence, Sovereignty and Democracy in the 'War on Terror'. Contemporary Political Theory 11 (1):e1 - e3.
  31. John N. Williams (2012). Moore-Paradoxical Belief, Conscious Belief and the Epistemic Ramsey Test. Synthese 188 (2):231-246.
    Chalmers and Hájek argue that on an epistemic reading of Ramsey’s test for the rational acceptability of conditionals, it is faulty. They claim that applying the test to each of a certain pair of conditionals requires one to think that one is omniscient or infallible, unless one forms irrational Moore-paradoxical beliefs. I show that this claim is false. The epistemic Ramsey test is indeed faulty. Applying it requires that one think of anyone as all-believing and if one is rational, to (...)
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  32. John R. Williams (2012). A Liberal Catholic Bioethics (Ethik in der Praxis/Practical Ethics Studien/Studies). By James F. Drane. Pp. 296, Berlin, Germany, LIT Verlag, 2010, € 24.90. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 53 (5):875-875.
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  33. John R. Williams (2012). Cosmopolitanism: A Philosophy for Global Ethics. By Stan van Hooft . Pp. V, 200, Stocksfield, Acumen, 2009, £50.00/£16.99. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 53 (5):901-902.
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  34. John R. Williams (2012). Chimeras, Hybrids and Interspecies Research: Politics and Policymaking. By Andrea L. Bonnicksen. Pp. Xiii, 166, Washington, DC, Georgetown University Press, 2009, $26.95. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 53 (5):873-874.
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  35. John R. Williams (2012). Driven From Home: Protecting the Rights of Forced Migrants. Edited by David Hollenbach, SJ . Pp. Viii, 287, Washington, DC, Georgetown University Press, 2010, $29.95. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 53 (3):533-534.
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  36. John R. Williams (2012). Exploitation and Developing Countries: The Ethics of Clinical Research. Edited by Jennifer S. Hawkins and Ezekiel J. Emanuel . Pp. 327, Princeton and Oxford, Princeton University Press, 2008, $14.95. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 53 (5):895-897.
  37. John R. Williams (2012). Ecological Hermeneutics: Biblical, Historical and Theological Perspectives. Edited by David G. Horrell , Cherryl Hunt , Christopher Southgate and Francesca Stavrakopoulou. Pp. Xii, 333, London, T & T Clark, 2010, £24.99. Ecological Awareness: Exploring Religion, Ethics and Aesthetics. Edited by Sigurd Bergmann and Heather Eaton [Studies in Religion and the Environment, Vol. 3]. Pp. Ii, 263, Berlin, Germany, LIT Verlag, 2011, €29.90. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 53 (5):898-900.
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  38. John R. Williams (2012). Gifts, Corruption, Philanthropy: The Ambiguity of Gift Practices in Business (Frontiers of Business Ethics 5). By Peter Verhezen. Pp. Xxi, 321, Bern, Peter Lang, 2009, €42.00/£42.00/$65.95. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 53 (5):888-889.
  39. John R. Williams (2012). Living the Truth: A Theory of Action (Moral Traditions Series). By Klaus Demmer, MSC. Translated by Brian McNeil. Pp. X, 164, Washington, DC, Georgetown University Press, 2010, $24.25. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 53 (4):707-708.
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  40. John R. Williams (2012). Market Complicity and Christian Ethics (New Studies in Christian Ethics 29). By Albino Barrera. Pp. Xii, 312, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2011, £55.00/$88.00. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 53 (5):887-888.
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  41. John R. Williams (2012). Nature and Altering It. By Allen Verhey. Pp. X, 150, Grand Rapids, Michigan, Eerdmans, 2010, $15.00/£10.99. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 53 (5):877-878.
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  42. John R. Williams (2012). New Directions in Development Ethics: Essays in Honor of Denis Goulet. Edited by Charles K. Wilber and Amitava Krishna Dutt . Pp. Xv, 495, Notre Dame, IN, University of Notre Dame Press, 2010, $60.00. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 53 (5):895-895.
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  43. John R. Williams (2012). Philosophy of Love, Sex, and Marriage: An Introduction. By Raja Halwani. Pp. Viii, 334, New York, Routledge, 2010, $17.99. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 53 (5):881-882.
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  44. John R. Williams (2012). Trusting Doctors: The Decline of Moral Authority in American Medicine. By Jonathan B. Imber. Pp. Xix, 275, Princeton/Oxford, Princeton University Press, 2008, $17.95. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 53 (5):879-880.
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  45. John R. Williams (2012). The Identity of Christian Morality (Ashgate New Critical Thinking in Religion, Theology and Biblical Studies Series). By Ann Marie Mealey. Pp. Viii, 187, Farnham, Surrey, Ashgate, 2009, £55.00. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 53 (4):704-705.
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  46. John R. Williams (2012). This Mortal Flesh: Incarnation and Bioethics. By Brent Waters. Pp. 208, Grand Rapids, MI, Brazos Press, 2009, $21.99. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 53 (5):869-870.
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  47. John R. Williams (2012). Virtue as Social Intelligence: An Empirically Grounded Theory. By Nancy E. Snow. Pp. X, 134, New York, Routledge, 2010, $19.99. The Lost Art of Happiness. By Arthur Dobrin. Pp. 239, Amherst, NY, Prometheus Books, 2011, $17.00. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 53 (4):699-700.
  48. Mitchell S. Green & John N. Williams (2011). Moore's Paradox, Truth and Accuracy. Acta Analytica 26 (3):243-255.
    G. E. Moore famously observed that to assert ‘I went to the pictures last Tuesday but I do not believe that I did’ would be ‘absurd’. Moore calls it a ‘paradox’ that this absurdity persists despite the fact that what I say about myself might be true. Krista Lawlor and John Perry have proposed an explanation of the absurdity that confines itself to semantic notions while eschewing pragmatic ones. We argue that this explanation faces four objections. We give a better (...)
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  49. T. Mooney, John Williams & Mark Nowacki (2011). Kovesi and the Formal and Material Elements of Concepts. Philosophia 39 (4):699-720.
    In his seminal work Moral Notions , Julius Kovesi presents a novel account of concept formation. At the heart of this account is a distinction between what he terms the material element and the formal element of concepts. This paper elucidates his distinction in detail and contrasts it with other distinctions such as form-matter, universal-particular, genus-difference, necessary-sufficient, and open texture-closed texture. We situate Kovesi’s distinction within his general philosophical method, outlining his views on concept formation in general and explain how (...)
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  50. Thomas Brian Mooney & John Williams, Asymmetrical Friendships.
    Famously, Aristotle in his discussion of friendship in Books 8 and 9 of the Nicomachaean Ethics (EN) introduces a tripartite distinction in friendship. Friendships are either friendships of pleasure or of utility or of character. This typology has struck a responsive chord among many other writers on friendship. Nevertheless it is our contention that there is a fourth important category of friendship that has been overlooked in the philosophical literature. We call this fourth category, asymmetrical friendship. Asymmetrical friendships do not (...)
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