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John Woods [150]John Hayden Woods [2]John H. Woods [1]
  1. John Woods, Begging the Question is Not a Fallacy.
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  2. John Woods, Igniorance, Inference and Proof Abductive Logic Meets the Criminal Law.
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  3. Dov M. Gabbay & John Woods, Advice on Abductive Logic.
    One of our purposes here is to expose something of the elementary logical structure of abductive reasoning, and to do so in a way that helps orient theorists to the various tasks that a logic of abduction should concern itself with. We are mindful of criticisms that have been levelled against the very idea of a logic of abduction; so we think it prudent to proceed with a certain diffidence. That our own account of abduction is itself abductive is methodological (...)
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  4. John Woods, Dialectical Considerations on the Logic of Contradiction: Part I.
    This is an examination of the dialectical structure of deep disagreements about matters not open to empirical check. A dramatic case in point is the Law of Non- Contradiction (LNC). Dialetheists are notoriously of the view that, in some few cases.
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  5. John Woods, I Models.
    The use of models in the construction of scientific theories is as widespread as it is philosophically interesting (and, one might say, vexing).1 In neither philosophical nor scientific practice do we find a univocal concept of model.2 But there is one established usage to which we want to direct our particular attention in this paper, in which a model is constituted by the theorist’s idealizations and abstractions. Idealizations are expressed by statements known to be false. Abstractions are achieved by suppressing (...)
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  6. John Woods, Advice on Abductive Logic.
    duction; so we think it prudent to proceed with a certain diffidence. That our own account of abduction is itself abductive is methodological expression of this diffi- dence. A second objective is to test our conception of abduction’s logical structure against some of the more promising going accounts of abductive reasoning.
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  7. John Woods, A Quantum Logic of Down Below.
    The logic that was purpose-built to accommodate the hoped-for reduction of arithmetic gave to language a dominant and pivotal place. Flowing from the founding efforts of Frege, Peirce, and Whitehead and Russell, this was a logic that incorporated proof theory into syntax, and in so doing made of grammar a senior partner in the logicistic enterprise. The seniority was reinforced by soundness and completeness metatheorems, and, in time, Quine would quip that the “grammar [of logic] is linguistics on purpose” [Quine, (...)
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  8. John Woods, Error.
    John Woods Department of Philosophy University of British Columbia 1866 Main Mall Vancouver B.C. V6T1Z..
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  9. John Woods, Eight Theses Reflecting on Stephen Toulmin.
    John Woods Department of Philosophy University of British Columbia 1866 Main Mall Vancouver B.C. V6T1Z..
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  10. John Woods, Fiction Preface.
    The logic of fiction has been a stand-alone research programme only since the early 1970s.1 It is a fair question as to why in the first place fictional discourse would have drawn the interest of professional logicians. It is a question admitting of different answers. One is that, since fictional names are “empty”, fiction is a primary datum for any logician seeking a suitably comprehensive logic of denotation. Another answer arises from the so-called incompleteness problem, exemplified by the fact (or (...)
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  11. John Woods, Making Too Much of Possible Worlds.
    A possible worlds treatment of the normal alethic modalities was, after classical model theory, logic’s most significant semantic achievement in the century just past.[1] Kripke’s groundbreaking paper appeared in 1959 and, in the scant few succeeding years, its principal analytical tool, possible worlds, was adapted to serve a range of quite different-seeming purposes – from nonnormal logics,[2] to epistemic and doxastic logics[3], deontic[4] and temporal logics[5] and, not much later, the logic of counterfactual conditionals.[6] In short order, possible worlds acquired (...)
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  12. John Woods, Unifying the Fictional?
    “A model is a work of fiction(. There are the obvious idealizations of physics – infinite potentials, zero-time correlations, perfect rigid rods, and frictionless planes. But it would be a mistake to think entirely in terms of idealizations of properties we conceive of as limiting cases, to which we can approach closer and closer in reality. For some properties are not even approached in reality. They are pure fictions.” Nancy Cartwright..
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  13. Dov Gabbay, Stephan Hartmann & John Woods (eds.) (forthcoming). Handbook of the History and Philosophy of Logic, Vol. 10: Inductive Logic. Elsevier.
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  14. Dov Gabbay, Stephan Hartmann & John Woods (eds.) (forthcoming). Handbook of the History of Logic, Vol. 10. Elsevier.
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  15. Richard S. Peters, John Woods & William H. Dray (forthcoming). Aims of Education: A Conceptual Inquiry. The Philosophy of Education.
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  16. John Woods (forthcoming). John Locke. Argumentation.
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  17. John Woods (forthcoming). What is Informal Logic. Informal Logic: The First International Symposium.
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  18. John Woods (2013). Ancestor Worship in The Logic of Games. How Foundational Were Aristotle's Contributions? Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 8 (1).
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  19. John Woods (2013). Epistemology Mathematicized. Informal Logic 33 (2):292-331.
    Epistemology and informal logic have overlapping and broadly similar subject matters. A principle of methodological symmetry is: philosophical theories of sufficiently similar subject matters should engage similar methods. Suppose the best way to do epistemology is in highly formalized ways, with a large role for mathematical methods. The symmetry principle suggests this is also the best way to do the logic of the reasoning and argument, the subject matter of informal logic. A capitulation to mathematics is inimical to informal logicians, (...)
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  20. Paul Thagard Gabbay & John Woods (2012). Jaroslav Peregrin. In Ruth M. Kempson, Tim Fernando & Nicholas Asher (eds.), Philosophy of Linguistics. North Holland.
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  21. Paul Thagard Gabbay & John Woods (2012). Wolfram Hinzen. In Ruth M. Kempson, Tim Fernando & Nicholas Asher (eds.), Philosophy of Linguistics. North Holland.
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  22. Uskali Mäki, Dov M. Gabbay, Paul Thagard & John Woods (eds.) (2012). Philosophy of Economics. North Holland.
    This volume serves as a detailed introduction for those new to the field as well as a rich source of new insights and potential research agendas for those already engaged with the philosophy of economics.
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  23. John Woods (2012). Cognitive Economics and the Logic of Abduction. Review of Symbolic Logic 5 (1):148-161.
    An agent-centered, goal-directed, resource-bound logic of human reasoning would do well to note that individual cognitive agency is typified by the comparative scantness of available cognitive resourcess ignorance-preserving character. My principal purpose here is to tie abduction’s scarce-resource adjustment capacity to its ignorance preservation.
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  24. John Woods (2012). Semantic Penumbra: Concept Similarity in Logic. [REVIEW] Topoi 31 (1):121-134.
    Logic’s historically central mission has been to provide formally precise descriptions of logical consequence. This was done with two broad expectations in mind. One was that a pre-theoretically recognizable concept of consequence would be present in the ensuing formalization. The other was that the formalization would be mathematically mature. The first expectation calls for conceptual adequacy. The other calls for technical virtuosity. The record of the past century and a third discloses a tension between the two. Accordingly, logicians have sought (...)
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  25. Fabio Paglieri & John Woods (2011). Enthymemes: From Reconstruction to Understanding. [REVIEW] Argumentation 25 (2):127-139.
    Traditionally, an enthymeme is an incomplete argument, made so by the absence of one or more of its constituent statements. An enthymeme resolution strategy is a set of procedures for finding those missing elements, thus reconstructing the enthymemes and restoring its meaning. It is widely held that a condition on the adequacy of such procedures is that statements restored to an enthymeme produce an argument that is good in some given respect in relation to which the enthymeme itself is bad. (...)
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  26. Fabio Paglieri & John Woods (2011). Enthymematic Parsimony. Synthese 178 (3):461 - 501.
    Enthymemes are traditionally defined as arguments in which some elements are left unstated. It is an empirical fact that enthymemes are both enormously frequent and appropriately understood in everyday argumentation. Why is it so? We outline an answer that dispenses with the so called "principle of charity", which is the standard notion underlying most works on enthymemes. In contrast, we suggest that a different force drives enthymematic argumentation—namely, parsimony, i.e. the tendency to optimize resource consumption, in light of the agent's (...)
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  27. John Woods (2011). God, Genidentity and Existential Parity. Grazer Philosophische Studien 25:181-196.
    The God of the Biblical and patristic tradition, though perhaps incomplete, possesses properties including those that involve genidentity or C-connections with us. Thus God's existence is at least possible. Using a modified version of Parson's elaboration of Meinong's theory of objects, we find that God exists if we do. But we also find that much else exists if we do; rather too much for confident belief.
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  28. John Woods (2011). MacColl's Elusive Pluralism. Philosophia Scientiæ 15:205-233.
    MacColl a été récemment l’objet de trois intéressantes thèses. D’abord, il serait le probable père du pluralisme en logique. Ensuite, son pluralisme porterait un instrumentalisme sous-jacent. Enfin, les deux thèses précédentes expliqueraient l’oubli dans lequel il serait tombé après 1909. Bien qu’il soit à la fois pluraliste et instrumentaliste à certains égards, je suggèrerai qu’il est difficile de trouver dans les écrits de MacColl un pluralisme qui puisse satisfaire les trois thèses précédentes en apparaissant pour la première fois chez MacColl, (...)
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  29. John Woods (2011). Recent Developments in Abductive Logic. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (1):240-244.
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  30. John Woods (2011). Whither Consequence? Informal Logic 31 (4):318-343.
    There are passages in Fallacies suggesting a skeptical attitude to the very idea of inductive arguments, hence to the existence of inductive fallacies. Although the passages are brief and few in number, it would appear that Hamblin’s resistance stems from doubts about the existence of relations of inductive consequence. This paper attempts to find a case in which such skepticism might plausibly be grounded. The case it proposes is highly conjectural, but important if true. Its greater importance lies in the (...)
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  31. John Woods (2011). W. V. Quine's “Two Dogmas of Empiricism”. Topoi 30 (1):87-97.
    True to the spirit of Topoi’s Untimely Reviews section, the present essay is a work of the counterfactual imagination. Suppose that Quine’s “Two Dogmas” had been written and published in the late 1990s rather than the early 1950s. What, in those circumstances, would philosophical commentary look like, especially against the marked developments in Quine’s philosophy in that same period? In short, how would Quine’s “Two Dogmas” stand up as a late 1990s paper rather than an early 1950s paper? Answering that (...)
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  32. John Woods & Jillian Isenberg (2010). Psychologizing the Semantics of Fiction. Methodos 10.
    Les théoriciens sémantistes de la fiction cherchent typiquement à expliquer nos relations sémantiques au fictionnel dans le contexte plus général des théories de la référence, privilégiant une explication de la sémantique sur le psychologique. Dans cet article, nous défendons une dépendance inverse. Par l’éclaircissement de nos relations psychologiques au fictionnel, nous trouverons un guide pour savoir comment développer une sémantique de la fiction. S’ensuivra une esquisse de la sémantique.
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  33. John Woods & Alirio Rosales (2010). Virtuous Distortion. In. In W. Carnielli L. Magnani (ed.), Model-Based Reasoning in Science and Technology. 3--30.
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  34. Dov M. Gabbay & John Woods (2009). Fallacies as Cognitive Virtues. In. In Ondrej Majer, Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen & Tero Tulenheimo (eds.), Games: Unifying Logic, Language, and Philosophy. Springer Verlag. 57--98.
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  35. Thierry Libert, T. Forster, R. Holmes, Dov M. Gabbay, John Woods & Akihiro Kanamori (2009). Alternative Set Theories. In Dov Gabbay (ed.), The Handbook of the History of Logic. Elsevier.
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  36. Dov Gabbay & John Woods (2008). Resource-Origins of Nonmonotonicity. Studia Logica 88 (1):85 - 112.
    Formal nonmonotonic systems try to model the phenomenon that common sense reasoners are able to “jump” in their reasoning from assumptions Δ to conclusions C without their being any deductive chain from Δ to C. Such jumps are done by various mechanisms which are strongly dependent on context and knowledge of how the actual world functions. Our aim is to motivate these jump rules as inference rules designed to optimise survival in an environment with scant resources of effort and time. (...)
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  37. John Woods (2008). Book Review. [REVIEW] Journal of Value Inquiry 42 (3):417-418.
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  38. John Woods (2008). Beyond Reasonable Doubt: An Abductive Dilemma in Criminal Law. Informal Logic 28 (1):60-70.
    In criminal cases at common law, juries are permitted to convict on wholly circumstantial evidence even in the face of a reasonable case for acquittal. This generates the highly counterintuitive—if not absurd—consequence that there being reason to think that the accused didn’t do it is not reason to doubt that he did. This is the no-reason-to-doubt problem. It has a technical solution provided that the evidence on which it is reasonable to think that the accused didn’t do it is a (...)
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  39. John Woods (2008). Finocchiaro: Arguments About Arguments. Informal Logic 28 (2):193-202.
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  40. Atocha Aliseda, Johan van Benthem, Lorenzo Magnani, Angel Nepomuceno-Fernandez, Fernando Soler Toscano, Joke Meheus, Dagmar Provijn, John Woods, Silvio Pinto & Ilkka Niiniluoto (2007). On Atocha Aliseda Abductive Reasoning. Theoria 22 (60).
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  41. H. Cowles, Matthew Walenski, Robert Kluender, Markus Knauff, Artur S. Davila Garcez, Dov M. Gabbay, Oliver Ray, John Woods, Robin Clark & Murray Grossman (2007). Logic and Cognition. Topoi 26 (1).
     
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  42. Artur S. D’Avila Garcez, Dov M. Gabbay, Oliver Ray & John Woods (2007). Abductive Reasoning in Neural-Symbolic Systems. Topoi 26 (1):37-49.
    Abduction is or subsumes a process of inference. It entertains possible hypotheses and it chooses hypotheses for further scrutiny. There is a large literature on various aspects of non-symbolic, subconscious abduction. There is also a very active research community working on the symbolic (logical) characterisation of abduction, which typically treats it as a form of hypothetico-deductive reasoning. In this paper we start to bridge the gap between the symbolic and sub-symbolic approaches to abduction. We are interested in benefiting from developments (...)
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  43. John Woods (2007). Lightening Up on the Ad Hominem. Informal Logic 27 (1):109-134.
    In all three of its manifestations, —abusive, circumstantial and tu quoque—the role of the ad hominem is to raise a doubt about the opposite party’s casemaking bona-fides.Provided that it is both presumptive and provisional, drawing such a conclusion is not a logical mistake, hence not a fallacy on the traditional conception of it. More remarkable is the role of the ad hominem retort in seeking the reassurance of one’s opponent when, on the face of it, reassurance is precisely what he (...)
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  44. John Woods (2007). Agendas, Relevance and Dialogic Ascent. Argumentation 21 (3):209-221.
    E. C. W. Krabbe characterizes a metadialogue as a dialogue about a dialogue, which in turn, is characterized as a ground level dialogue. Krabbe raises a number of interesting questions about this distinction, of which the most pressing is whether the difference between ground level and metadialogues can be drawn in a principled and suitably general way. In this note, I develop the idea that something counts as a metadialogue to the extent that it stands to its ground level counterpart (...)
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  45. John Woods (2007). Ignorance and Semantic Tableaux: Aliseda on Abduction. Theoria 22 (3):305-318.
    This is an examination of similarities and differences between two recent models of abductive reasoning. The one is developed in Atocha Aliseda’s Abductive Reasoning: Logical Investigations into the Processes of Discovery and Evaluation (2006). The other is advanced by Dov Gabbay and the present author in their The Reach of Abduction: Insight and Trial (2005). A principal difference between the two approaches is that in the Gabbay-Woods model, but not in the Aliseda model, abductive inference is ignorance-preserving. A further differ-ence (...)
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  46. John Woods (2007). The Concept of Fallacy is Empty. In. In L. Magnani & P. Li (eds.), Model-Based Reasoning in Science, Technology, and Medicine. Springer. 69--90.
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  47. Dov Gabbay, Rolf Nossum & John Woods (2006). Context-Dependent Abduction and Relevance. Journal of Philosophical Logic 35 (1):65 - 81.
    Based on the premise that what is relevant, consistent, or true may change from context to context, a formal framework of relevance and context is proposed in which • contexts are mathematical entities • each context has its own language with relevant implication • the languages of distinct contexts are connected by embeddings • inter-context deduction is supported by bridge rules • databases are sets of formulae tagged with deductive histories and the contexts they belong to • abduction and revision (...)
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  48. Dov Gabbay & John Woods (eds.) (2006). The Handbook of the History of Logic, Vol. 7: Logic and the Modalities in the Twentieth Century. Elsevier Press.
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  49. John Woods (2006). Fictions and Their Logic. In Dale Jacquette (ed.), Philosophy of Logic. North Holland. 5--835.
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