203 found
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  1. John Woods (1969). Predicate Ranges. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 30 (2):259-269.
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  2. Richard S. Peters, John Woods & William H. Dray (forthcoming). Aims of Education: A Conceptual Inquiry. The Philosophy of Education.
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  3. Artur S. D’Avila Garcez, Dov M. Gabbay, Oliver Ray & John Woods (2007). Abductive Reasoning in Neural-Symbolic Systems. Topoi 26 (1):37-49.
    Abduction is or subsumes a process of inference. It entertains possible hypotheses and it chooses hypotheses for further scrutiny. There is a large literature on various aspects of non-symbolic, subconscious abduction. There is also a very active research community working on the symbolic (logical) characterisation of abduction, which typically treats it as a form of hypothetico-deductive reasoning. In this paper we start to bridge the gap between the symbolic and sub-symbolic approaches to abduction. We are interested in benefiting from developments (...)
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  4.  88
    John Woods (1965). The Contradiction-Exterminator. Analysis 25 (3):49 - 53.
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  5.  52
    John Woods (1967). Is There a Relation of Intensional Conjunction? Mind 76 (303):357-368.
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  6.  26
    Dov Gabbay & John Woods (2008). Resource-Origins of Nonmonotonicity. Studia Logica 88 (1):85 - 112.
    Formal nonmonotonic systems try to model the phenomenon that common sense reasoners are able to “jump” in their reasoning from assumptions Δ to conclusions C without their being any deductive chain from Δ to C. Such jumps are done by various mechanisms which are strongly dependent on context and knowledge of how the actual world functions. Our aim is to motivate these jump rules as inference rules designed to optimise survival in an environment with scant resources of effort and time. (...)
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  7. John Woods (2005). The Economics of Paradox: A Response to Armour-Garb. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 83 (1):103 – 113.
    For scientific essentialists, the only logical possibilities of existence are the real (or metaphysical) ones, and such possibilities, they say, are relative to worlds. They are not a priori, and they cannot just be invented. Rather, they are discoverable only by the a posteriori methods of science. There are, however, many philosophers who think that real possibilities are knowable a priori, or that they can just be invented. Marc Lange [Lange 2004] thinks that they can be invented, and tries to (...)
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  8.  4
    John Woods (2003). Paradox and Paraconsistency: Conflict Resolution in the Abstract Sciences. Cambridge University Press.
    In a world plagued by disagreement and conflict one might expect that the exact sciences of logic and mathematics would provide a safe harbor. In fact these disciplines are rife with internal divisions between different, often incompatible, systems. Do these disagreements admit of resolution? Can such resolution be achieved without disturbing assumptions that the theorems of logic and mathematics state objective truths about the real world? In this original and historically rich book John Woods explores apparently intractable disagreements in logic (...)
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  9.  19
    Uskali Mäki, Dov M. Gabbay, Paul Thagard & John Woods (eds.) (2012). Philosophy of Economics. North Holland.
    This volume serves as a detailed introduction for those new to the field as well as a rich source of new insights and potential research agendas for those already engaged with the philosophy of economics.
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  10.  21
    John Woods (1989). The Necessity of Formalism in Informal Logic. Argumentation 3:149-167.
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  11. John Woods, Making Too Much of Possible Worlds.
    A possible worlds treatment of the normal alethic modalities was, after classical model theory, logic’s most significant semantic achievement in the century just past.[1] Kripke’s groundbreaking paper appeared in 1959 and, in the scant few succeeding years, its principal analytical tool, possible worlds, was adapted to serve a range of quite different-seeming purposes – from nonnormal logics,[2] to epistemic and doxastic logics[3], deontic[4] and temporal logics[5] and, not much later, the logic of counterfactual conditionals.[6] In short order, possible worlds acquired (...)
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  12.  1
    John Woods (2013). Ancestor Worship in The Logic of Games. How Foundational Were Aristotle's Contributions? Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 8 (1).
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  13.  18
    John Woods & Douglas Walton (1978). Arresting Circles in Formal Dialogues. Journal of Philosophical Logic 7 (1):73 - 90.
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  14.  32
    Dov Gabbay & John Woods (2006). Advice on Abductive Logic. Logic Journal of the IGPL 14 (2):189-219.
    One of our purposes here is to expose something of the elementary logical structure of abductive reasoning, and to do so in a way that helps orient theorists to the various tasks that a logic of abduction should concern itself with. We are mindful of criticisms that have been levelled against the very idea of a logic of abduction; so we think it prudent to proceed with a certain diffidence. That our own account of abduction is itself abductive is methodological (...)
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  15.  5
    John Woods (2012). Cognitive Economics and the Logic of Abduction. Review of Symbolic Logic 5 (1):148-161.
    An agent-centered, goal-directed, resource-bound logic of human reasoning would do well to note that individual cognitive agency is typified by the comparative scantness of available cognitive resourcess ignorance-preserving character. My principal purpose here is to tie abduction’s scarce-resource adjustment capacity to its ignorance preservation.
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  16.  31
    Fabio Paglieri & John Woods (2011). Enthymematic Parsimony. Synthese 178 (3):461 - 501.
    Enthymemes are traditionally defined as arguments in which some elements are left unstated. It is an empirical fact that enthymemes are both enormously frequent and appropriately understood in everyday argumentation. Why is it so? We outline an answer that dispenses with the so called "principle of charity", which is the standard notion underlying most works on enthymemes. In contrast, we suggest that a different force drives enthymematic argumentation—namely, parsimony, i.e. the tendency to optimize resource consumption, in light of the agent's (...)
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  17.  46
    John Woods (2013). Epistemology Mathematicized. Informal Logic 33 (2):292-331.
    Epistemology and informal logic have overlapping and broadly similar subject matters. A principle of methodological symmetry is: philosophical theories of sufficiently similar subject matters should engage similar methods. Suppose the best way to do epistemology is in highly formalized ways, with a large role for mathematical methods. The symmetry principle suggests this is also the best way to do the logic of the reasoning and argument, the subject matter of informal logic. A capitulation to mathematics is inimical to informal logicians, (...)
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  18.  12
    D. Gabbay & John Woods (2005). Filtration Structures and the Cut Down Problem in Abduction. In John Woods, Kent A. Peacock & A. D. Irvine (eds.), Mistakes of Reason: Essays in Honour of John Woods. University of Toronto Press 398-417.
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  19.  51
    John Woods (2012). Semantic Penumbra: Concept Similarity in Logic. [REVIEW] Topoi 31 (1):121-134.
    Logic’s historically central mission has been to provide formally precise descriptions of logical consequence. This was done with two broad expectations in mind. One was that a pre-theoretically recognizable concept of consequence would be present in the ensuing formalization. The other was that the formalization would be mathematically mature. The first expectation calls for conceptual adequacy. The other calls for technical virtuosity. The record of the past century and a third discloses a tension between the two. Accordingly, logicians have sought (...)
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  20.  25
    John Woods & Douglas Walton (1975). Petitio Principii. Synthese 31 (1):107 - 127.
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  21.  60
    John Woods (2011). W. V. Quine's “Two Dogmas of Empiricism”. Topoi 30 (1):87-97.
    True to the spirit of Topoi’s Untimely Reviews section, the present essay is a work of the counterfactual imagination. Suppose that Quine’s “Two Dogmas” had been written and published in the late 1990s rather than the early 1950s. What, in those circumstances, would philosophical commentary look like, especially against the marked developments in Quine’s philosophy in that same period? In short, how would Quine’s “Two Dogmas” stand up as a late 1990s paper rather than an early 1950s paper? Answering that (...)
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  22.  36
    John Woods (2007). Ignorance and Semantic Tableaux: Aliseda on Abduction. Theoria 22 (3):305-318.
    This is an examination of similarities and differences between two recent models of abductive reasoning. The one is developed in Atocha Aliseda’s Abductive Reasoning: Logical Investigations into the Processes of Discovery and Evaluation (2006). The other is advanced by Dov Gabbay and the present author in their The Reach of Abduction: Insight and Trial (2005). A principal difference between the two approaches is that in the Gabbay-Woods model, but not in the Aliseda model, abductive inference is ignorance-preserving. A further differ-ence (...)
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  23.  10
    John Woods (2005). Book Review: Adler Jonathan E. (2002), Belief's Own Ethics Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Pp Xv+357. H/B $45.00. [REVIEW] Argumentation 19 (2):251-253.
  24.  10
    John Woods (1979). Laws of Thought and Epistemic Proofs. Idealistic Studies 9 (1):55-65.
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  25.  1
    John Woods & Alirio Rosales (2010). Virtuous Distortion. In W. Carnielli L. Magnani (ed.), Model-Based Reasoning in Science and Technology. 3--30.
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  26.  14
    John Woods & Douglas Walton (1982). Question-Begging and Cumulativeness in Dialectical Games. Noûs 16 (4):585-605.
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  27.  34
    John Woods (2005). Dialectical Considerations on the Logic of Contradiction: Part I. Logic Journal of the IGPL 13 (2):231-260.
    This is an examination of the dialectical structure of deep disagreements about matters not open to empirical check. A dramatic case in point is the Law of Non-Contradiction . Dialetheists are notoriously of the view that, in some few cases, LNC has a true negation. The traditional position on LNC is that it is non-negotiable. The standard reason for thinking it non-negotiable is, being a first principle, there is nothing to negotiate. One of my purposes is to show that the (...)
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  28.  17
    John Woods & Douglas Walton (1982). The Petitio: Aristotle'S Five Ways. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 12 (March):77-100.
  29.  17
    John Woods (1999). Angustus DeMorgan (1806--1871). Argumentation 13 (4):393-397.
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  30.  20
    John Woods & Hans V. Hansen (1997). Hintikka on Aristotle's Fallacies. Synthese 113 (2):217-239.
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  31. John Hayden Woods (1974). The Logic of Fiction: A Philosophical Sounding of Deviant Logic. Mouton.
     
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  32.  9
    John Woods (1969). Fictionality and the Logic of Relations. Southern Journal of Philosophy 7 (1):51-63.
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  33.  18
    Dov Gabbay & John Woods (2001). Non-Cooperation in Dialogue Logic. Synthese 127 (1-2):161 - 186.
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  34.  6
    John Woods & Brent Hudak (1989). By Parity of Reasoning. Informal Logic 11 (3).
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  35.  15
    John Woods (2000). Antoine Arnauld (1612--1694). Argumentation 14 (1):31-43.
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  36.  26
    John Woods (2007). Lightening Up on the Ad Hominem. Informal Logic 27 (1):109-134.
    In all three of its manifestations, —abusive, circumstantial and tu quoque—the role of the ad hominem is to raise a doubt about the opposite party’s casemaking bona-fides.Provided that it is both presumptive and provisional, drawing such a conclusion is not a logical mistake, hence not a fallacy on the traditional conception of it. More remarkable is the role of the ad hominem retort in seeking the reassurance of one’s opponent when, on the face of it, reassurance is precisely what he (...)
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  37.  14
    John Woods (1976). Ad Baculum. Grazer Philosophische Studien 2:133-140.
    In an attempt to overcome the traditional casual neglect of the study of the informal fallacies, we here treat one fallacy, the ad baculum, at an adequate theoretical level in order to determine how it may best be understood as a fallacy. We conclude, after following through a number of plausible routes of tracking down the essential fallaciousness of the ad baculum, that the type of phenomenon apparently so typically thought to constitute ad baculum by the texts is not, so (...)
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  38.  26
    John Woods (2007). Lightening Up on the Ad Hominem. Informal Logic 27 (1):109-134.
    In all three of its manifestations, —abusive, circumstantial and tu quoque—the role of the ad hominem is to raise a doubt about the opposite party’s casemaking bona-fides.Provided that it is both presumptive and provisional, drawing such a conclusion is not a logical mistake, hence not a fallacy on the traditional conception of it. More remarkable is the role of the ad hominem retort in seeking the reassurance of one’s opponent when, on the face of it, reassurance is precisely what he (...)
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  39.  74
    Dov M. Gabbay, John Woods & Akihiro Kanamori (eds.) (2004). Handbook of the History of Logic. Elsevier.
    Greek, Indian and Arabic Logic marks the initial appearance of the multi-volume Handbook of the History of Logic. Additional volumes will be published when ready, rather than in strict chronological order. Soon to appear are The Rise of Modern Logic: From Leibniz to Frege. Also in preparation are Logic From Russell to Gödel, The Emergence of Classical Logic, Logic and the Modalities in the Twentieth Century, and The Many-Valued and Non-Monotonic Turn in Logic. Further volumes will follow, including Mediaeval and (...)
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  40.  12
    John Woods (2000). Hasty Generalization. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 7:221-232.
    Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca write in The New Rhetoric that, “The first half of this chapter is devoted to the analysis of the relations that establish reality by resort to the particular case. The latter can play a wide variety of roles; as an example, it makes generalization possible. . . .” I will suggest that no fallacy theorist or philosopher of science who has a serious interest in bringing the fallacy of hasty generalization to theoretical heel should omit consideration of (...)
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  41.  1
    Dov Gabbay & John Woods (2003). Normative Models of Rational Agency: The Theoretical Disutility of Certain Approaches. Logic Journal of the IGPL 11 (6):597-613.
    Much of cognitive science seeks to provide principled descriptions of various kinds and aspects of rational behaviour, especially in beings like us or AI simulacra of beings like us. For the most part, these investigators presuppose an unarticulated common sense appreciation of the rationality that such behaviour consists in. On those occasions when they undertake to bring the relevant norms to the surface and to give an account of that to which they owe their legitimacy, these investigators tend to favour (...)
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  42.  2
    John Woods (1999). Aristotle (384--322 B.C.). Argumentation 13 (2):203-220.
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  43. Dov M. Gabbay & John Woods (2003). Agenda Relevance - a Study in Formal Pragmatics. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  44.  10
    John Woods & Douglas Walton (1974). Argumentum ad Verecundiam. Philosophy and Rhetoric 7 (3):135 - 153.
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  45.  34
    Fabio Paglieri & John Woods (2011). Enthymemes: From Reconstruction to Understanding. [REVIEW] Argumentation 25 (2):127-139.
    Traditionally, an enthymeme is an incomplete argument, made so by the absence of one or more of its constituent statements. An enthymeme resolution strategy is a set of procedures for finding those missing elements, thus reconstructing the enthymemes and restoring its meaning. It is widely held that a condition on the adequacy of such procedures is that statements restored to an enthymeme produce an argument that is good in some given respect in relation to which the enthymeme itself is bad. (...)
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  46.  39
    John Woods & Jillian Isenberg (2010). Psychologizing the Semantics of Fiction. Methodos 10.
    Les théoriciens sémantistes de la fiction cherchent typiquement à expliquer nos relations sémantiques au fictionnel dans le contexte plus général des théories de la référence, privilégiant une explication de la sémantique sur le psychologique. Dans cet article, nous défendons une dépendance inverse. Par l’éclaircissement de nos relations psychologiques au fictionnel, nous trouverons un guide pour savoir comment développer une sémantique de la fiction. S’ensuivra une esquisse de la sémantique.
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  47.  5
    John Woods (2002). Speaking Your Mind: Large Inarticulateness Constitutional and Circumstantial. [REVIEW] Argumentation 16 (1):59-79.
    When someone is asked to speak his mind, it is sometimes possible for him to furnish what his utterance appears to have omitted. In such cases we might say that he had a mind to speak. Sometimes, however, the opposite is true. Asked to speak his mind, our speaker finds that he has no mind to speak. When it is possible to speak one's mind and when not is largely determined by the kinds of beings we are and by the (...)
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  48.  12
    John Woods (2008). Beyond Reasonable Doubt: An Abductive Dilemma in Criminal Law. Informal Logic 28 (1):60-70.
    In criminal cases at common law, juries are permitted to convict on wholly circumstantial evidence even in the face of a reasonable case for acquittal. This generates the highly counterintuitive—if not absurd—consequence that there being reason to think that the accused didn’t do it is not reason to doubt that he did. This is the no-reason-to-doubt problem. It has a technical solution provided that the evidence on which it is reasonable to think that the accused didn’t do it is a (...)
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  49.  12
    John Woods (1969). Intensional Relations. Studia Logica 25 (1):61 - 77.
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  50.  32
    John Woods (2011). MacColl's Elusive Pluralism. Philosophia Scientiæ 15:205-233.
    MacColl a été récemment l’objet de trois intéressantes thèses. D’abord, il serait le probable père du pluralisme en logique. Ensuite, son pluralisme porterait un instrumentalisme sous-jacent. Enfin, les deux thèses précédentes expliqueraient l’oubli dans lequel il serait tombé après 1909. Bien qu’il soit à la fois pluraliste et instrumentaliste à certains égards, je suggèrerai qu’il est difficile de trouver dans les écrits de MacColl un pluralisme qui puisse satisfaire les trois thèses précédentes en apparaissant pour la première fois chez MacColl, (...)
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