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  1.  154 DLs
    John Woods (2005). The Economics of Paradox: A Response to Armour-Garb. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 83 (1):103 – 113.
    For scientific essentialists, the only logical possibilities of existence are the real (or metaphysical) ones, and such possibilities, they say, are relative to worlds. They are not a priori, and they cannot just be invented. Rather, they are discoverable only by the a posteriori methods of science. There are, however, many philosophers who think that real possibilities are knowable a priori, or that they can just be invented. Marc Lange [Lange 2004] thinks that they can be invented, and tries to (...)
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  2.  83 DLs
    Artur S. D’Avila Garcez, Dov M. Gabbay, Oliver Ray & John Woods (2007). Abductive Reasoning in Neural-Symbolic Systems. Topoi 26 (1):37-49.
    Abduction is or subsumes a process of inference. It entertains possible hypotheses and it chooses hypotheses for further scrutiny. There is a large literature on various aspects of non-symbolic, subconscious abduction. There is also a very active research community working on the symbolic (logical) characterisation of abduction, which typically treats it as a form of hypothetico-deductive reasoning. In this paper we start to bridge the gap between the symbolic and sub-symbolic approaches to abduction. We are interested in benefiting from developments (...)
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  3.  76 DLs
    John Woods, Making Too Much of Possible Worlds.
    A possible worlds treatment of the normal alethic modalities was, after classical model theory, logic’s most significant semantic achievement in the century just past.[1] Kripke’s groundbreaking paper appeared in 1959 and, in the scant few succeeding years, its principal analytical tool, possible worlds, was adapted to serve a range of quite different-seeming purposes – from nonnormal logics,[2] to epistemic and doxastic logics[3], deontic[4] and temporal logics[5] and, not much later, the logic of counterfactual conditionals.[6] In short order, possible worlds acquired (...)
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  4.  60 DLs
    Dov M. Gabbay, John Woods & Akihiro Kanamori (eds.) (2004). Handbook of the History of Logic. Elsevier.
    Greek, Indian and Arabic Logic marks the initial appearance of the multi-volume Handbook of the History of Logic. Additional volumes will be published when ready, rather than in strict chronological order. Soon to appear are The Rise of Modern Logic: From Leibniz to Frege. Also in preparation are Logic From Russell to Gödel, The Emergence of Classical Logic, Logic and the Modalities in the Twentieth Century, and The Many-Valued and Non-Monotonic Turn in Logic. Further volumes will follow, including Mediaeval and (...)
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  5.  48 DLs
    John Woods (2011). W. V. Quine's “Two Dogmas of Empiricism”. Topoi 30 (1):87-97.
    True to the spirit of Topoi’s Untimely Reviews section, the present essay is a work of the counterfactual imagination. Suppose that Quine’s “Two Dogmas” had been written and published in the late 1990s rather than the early 1950s. What, in those circumstances, would philosophical commentary look like, especially against the marked developments in Quine’s philosophy in that same period? In short, how would Quine’s “Two Dogmas” stand up as a late 1990s paper rather than an early 1950s paper? Answering that (...)
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  6.  46 DLs
    John Woods (2013). Epistemology Mathematicized. Informal Logic 33 (2):292-331.
    Epistemology and informal logic have overlapping and broadly similar subject matters. A principle of methodological symmetry is: philosophical theories of sufficiently similar subject matters should engage similar methods. Suppose the best way to do epistemology is in highly formalized ways, with a large role for mathematical methods. The symmetry principle suggests this is also the best way to do the logic of the reasoning and argument, the subject matter of informal logic. A capitulation to mathematics is inimical to informal logicians, (...)
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  7.  39 DLs
    John Woods (1967). Is There a Relation of Intensional Conjunction? Mind 76 (303):357-368.
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  8.  36 DLs
    John Woods & Jillian Isenberg (2010). Psychologizing the Semantics of Fiction. Methodos 10.
    Les théoriciens sémantistes de la fiction cherchent typiquement à expliquer nos relations sémantiques au fictionnel dans le contexte plus général des théories de la référence, privilégiant une explication de la sémantique sur le psychologique. Dans cet article, nous défendons une dépendance inverse. Par l’éclaircissement de nos relations psychologiques au fictionnel, nous trouverons un guide pour savoir comment développer une sémantique de la fiction. S’ensuivra une esquisse de la sémantique.
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  9.  34 DLs
    Dov Gabbay, Rolf Nossum & John Woods (2006). Context-Dependent Abduction and Relevance. Journal of Philosophical Logic 35 (1):65 - 81.
    Based on the premise that what is relevant, consistent, or true may change from context to context, a formal framework of relevance and context is proposed in which • contexts are mathematical entities • each context has its own language with relevant implication • the languages of distinct contexts are connected by embeddings • inter-context deduction is supported by bridge rules • databases are sets of formulae tagged with deductive histories and the contexts they belong to • abduction and revision (...)
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  10.  34 DLs
    John Woods, Begging the Question is Not a Fallacy.
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  11.  32 DLs
    Dov Gabbay, Stephan Hartmann & John Woods (eds.) (forthcoming). Handbook of the History and Philosophy of Logic, Vol. 10: Inductive Logic. Elsevier.
  12.  29 DLs
    John Woods (2005). Dialectical Considerations on the Logic of Contradiction: Part I. Logic Journal of the Igpl 13 (2):231-260.
    This is an examination of the dialectical structure of deep disagreements about matters not open to empirical check. A dramatic case in point is the Law of Non-Contradiction . Dialetheists are notoriously of the view that, in some few cases, LNC has a true negation. The traditional position on LNC is that it is non-negotiable. The standard reason for thinking it non-negotiable is, being a first principle, there is nothing to negotiate. One of my purposes is to show that the (...)
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  13.  28 DLs
    John Woods (2012). Semantic Penumbra: Concept Similarity in Logic. [REVIEW] Topoi 31 (1):121-134.
    Logic’s historically central mission has been to provide formally precise descriptions of logical consequence. This was done with two broad expectations in mind. One was that a pre-theoretically recognizable concept of consequence would be present in the ensuing formalization. The other was that the formalization would be mathematically mature. The first expectation calls for conceptual adequacy. The other calls for technical virtuosity. The record of the past century and a third discloses a tension between the two. Accordingly, logicians have sought (...)
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  14.  28 DLs
    John Woods (2011). MacColl's Elusive Pluralism. Philosophia Scientiæ 15:205-233.
    MacColl a été récemment l’objet de trois intéressantes thèses. D’abord, il serait le probable père du pluralisme en logique. Ensuite, son pluralisme porterait un instrumentalisme sous-jacent. Enfin, les deux thèses précédentes expliqueraient l’oubli dans lequel il serait tombé après 1909. Bien qu’il soit à la fois pluraliste et instrumentaliste à certains égards, je suggèrerai qu’il est difficile de trouver dans les écrits de MacColl un pluralisme qui puisse satisfaire les trois thèses précédentes en apparaissant pour la première fois chez MacColl, (...)
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  15.  27 DLs
    Fabio Paglieri & John Woods (2011). Enthymemes: From Reconstruction to Understanding. [REVIEW] Argumentation 25 (2):127-139.
    Traditionally, an enthymeme is an incomplete argument, made so by the absence of one or more of its constituent statements. An enthymeme resolution strategy is a set of procedures for finding those missing elements, thus reconstructing the enthymemes and restoring its meaning. It is widely held that a condition on the adequacy of such procedures is that statements restored to an enthymeme produce an argument that is good in some given respect in relation to which the enthymeme itself is bad. (...)
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  16.  27 DLs
    Fabio Paglieri & John Woods (2011). Enthymematic Parsimony. Synthese 178 (3):461 - 501.
    Enthymemes are traditionally defined as arguments in which some elements are left unstated. It is an empirical fact that enthymemes are both enormously frequent and appropriately understood in everyday argumentation. Why is it so? We outline an answer that dispenses with the so called "principle of charity", which is the standard notion underlying most works on enthymemes. In contrast, we suggest that a different force drives enthymematic argumentation—namely, parsimony, i.e. the tendency to optimize resource consumption, in light of the agent's (...)
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  17.  24 DLs
    John Woods (1969). Predicate Ranges. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 30 (2):259-269.
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  18.  22 DLs
    John Woods, Fiction Preface.
    The logic of fiction has been a stand-alone research programme only since the early 1970s.1 It is a fair question as to why in the first place fictional discourse would have drawn the interest of professional logicians. It is a question admitting of different answers. One is that, since fictional names are “empty”, fiction is a primary datum for any logician seeking a suitably comprehensive logic of denotation. Another answer arises from the so-called incompleteness problem, exemplified by the fact (or (...)
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  19.  22 DLs
    Dov Gabbay & John Woods (2006). Advice on Abductive Logic. Logic Journal of the Igpl 14 (2):189-219.
    One of our purposes here is to expose something of the elementary logical structure of abductive reasoning, and to do so in a way that helps orient theorists to the various tasks that a logic of abduction should concern itself with. We are mindful of criticisms that have been levelled against the very idea of a logic of abduction; so we think it prudent to proceed with a certain diffidence. That our own account of abduction is itself abductive is methodological (...)
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  20.  22 DLs
    John Woods, Unifying the Fictional?
    “A model is a work of fiction(. There are the obvious idealizations of physics – infinite potentials, zero-time correlations, perfect rigid rods, and frictionless planes. But it would be a mistake to think entirely in terms of idealizations of properties we conceive of as limiting cases, to which we can approach closer and closer in reality. For some properties are not even approached in reality. They are pure fictions.” Nancy Cartwright..
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  21.  20 DLs
    John Woods (1973). Descriptions, Essences and Quantified Modal Logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic 2 (2):304 - 321.
    Could one give expression to a doctrine of essentialism without running afoul of semantical problems that are alleged to beggar systems of quantified modal logic? An affirmative answer is, I believe, called for at least in the case of individual essentialism. Individual essentialism is an ontological thesis concerning a kind of necessary connection between objects and their (essential) properties. It is not or anyhow not primarily a semantic thesis, a thesis about meanings, for example. And thus we are implicitly counselled (...)
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  22.  18 DLs
    John Woods (2007). Lightening Up on the Ad Hominem. Informal Logic 27 (1):109-134.
    In all three of its manifestations, —abusive, circumstantial and tu quoque—the role of the ad hominem is to raise a doubt about the opposite party’s casemaking bona-fides.Provided that it is both presumptive and provisional, drawing such a conclusion is not a logical mistake, hence not a fallacy on the traditional conception of it. More remarkable is the role of the ad hominem retort in seeking the reassurance of one’s opponent when, on the face of it, reassurance is precisely what he (...)
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  23.  18 DLs
    John Woods, Error.
    John Woods Department of Philosophy University of British Columbia 1866 Main Mall Vancouver B.C. V6T1Z..
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  24.  18 DLs
    John Woods & Douglas Walton (1975). Petitio Principii. Synthese 31 (1):107 - 127.
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  25.  16 DLs
    John Woods & Brent Hudak (1992). Verdi is the Puccini of Music. Synthese 92 (2):189 - 220.
    An account of analogical characterization is developed in which the following things are claimed.(1) Analogical predications are irreflexive, asymmetrical, atransitive and non-inversive. (2) Analogies A and B share role-similarity descriptions sufficiently abstract to overcome the differences between A and B. Analogies pivot on the point of limited similarity and substantial, even radical, difference. (3) The semantical theory for sentences making analogical attributions requires a distinction between (sentential) meaning as truth conditions and (sentential) meaning as a functional compound of the meanings (...)
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  26.  16 DLs
    John Woods (1999). John Stuart Mill (1806--1873). Argumentation 13 (3):317-334.
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  27.  16 DLs
    John Woods, Igniorance, Inference and Proof Abductive Logic Meets the Criminal Law.
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  28.  16 DLs
    John Woods (2000). Slippery Slopes and Collapsing Taboos. Argumentation 14 (2):107-134.
    A slippery slope argument is an argument to this twofold effect. First, that if a policy or practice P is permitted, then we lack the dialectical resources to demonstrate that a similar policy or practice P* is not permissible. Since P* is indeed not permissible, we should not endorse policy or practice P. At the heart of such arguments is the idea of dialectical impotence, the inability to stop the acceptance of apparently small deviations from a heretofore secure policy or (...)
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  29.  15 DLs
    Dov Gabbay & John Woods (2008). Resource-Origins of Nonmonotonicity. Studia Logica 88 (1):85 - 112.
    Formal nonmonotonic systems try to model the phenomenon that common sense reasoners are able to “jump” in their reasoning from assumptions Δ to conclusions C without their being any deductive chain from Δ to C. Such jumps are done by various mechanisms which are strongly dependent on context and knowledge of how the actual world functions. Our aim is to motivate these jump rules as inference rules designed to optimise survival in an environment with scant resources of effort and time. (...)
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  30.  14 DLs
    John Woods & Hans V. Hansen (1997). Hintikka on Aristotle's Fallacies. Synthese 113 (2):217-239.
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  31.  13 DLs
    Uskali Mäki, Dov M. Gabbay, Paul Thagard & John Woods (eds.) (2012). Philosophy of Economics. North Holland.
    This volume serves as a detailed introduction for those new to the field as well as a rich source of new insights and potential research agendas for those already engaged with the philosophy of economics.
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  32.  13 DLs
    John Woods & Douglas Walton (1977). Composition and Division. Studia Logica 36 (4):381 - 406.
  33.  12 DLs
    John Woods, A Quantum Logic of Down Below.
    The logic that was purpose-built to accommodate the hoped-for reduction of arithmetic gave to language a dominant and pivotal place. Flowing from the founding efforts of Frege, Peirce, and Whitehead and Russell, this was a logic that incorporated proof theory into syntax, and in so doing made of grammar a senior partner in the logicistic enterprise. The seniority was reinforced by soundness and completeness metatheorems, and, in time, Quine would quip that the “grammar [of logic] is linguistics on purpose” [Quine, (...)
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  34.  12 DLs
    John Woods (2001). Walton, Douglas (1998). Ad Hominem Arguments. Argumentation 15 (4):503-507.
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  35.  12 DLs
    John Woods & Douglas Walton (1982). The Petitio: Aristotle'S Five Ways. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 12 (March):77-100.
  36.  11 DLs
    Dov Gabbay & John Woods (2001). Non-Cooperation in Dialogue Logic. Synthese 127 (1-2):161 - 186.
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  37.  10 DLs
    John Woods (1978). Can the Tale Be Told? Canadian Journal of Philosophy 8 (2):351 - 354.
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  38.  10 DLs
    John Woods & Douglas Walton (1978). Arresting Circles in Formal Dialogues. Journal of Philosophical Logic 7 (1):73 - 90.
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  39.  10 DLs
    John Woods, Eight Theses Reflecting on Stephen Toulmin.
    John Woods Department of Philosophy University of British Columbia 1866 Main Mall Vancouver B.C. V6T1Z..
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  40.  10 DLs
    John Woods (1976). Ad Baculum. Grazer Philosophische Studien 2:133-140.
    In an attempt to overcome the traditional casual neglect of the study of the informal fallacies, we here treat one fallacy, the ad baculum, at an adequate theoretical level in order to determine how it may best be understood as a fallacy. We conclude, after following through a number of plausible routes of tracking down the essential fallaciousness of the ad baculum, that the type of phenomenon apparently so typically thought to constitute ad baculum by the texts is not, so (...)
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  41.  9 DLs
    John Woods (1997). Begging the Question: Circular Reasoning as a Tactic of Argumentation Douglas N. Walton Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1991, Xv + 360 Pp. U.S. $49.95. [REVIEW] Dialogue 36 (02):435-.
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  42.  9 DLs
    John Woods (1971). Book Review:Set Theory K. Kuratowski, A. Mostowski. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 38 (2):314-.
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  43.  9 DLs
    John Woods (1965). Was Achilles' "Achilles' Heel" Achilles' Heel? Analysis 25 (4):142 - 146.
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  44.  8 DLs
    John Woods (1975). Identity and Modality. Philosophia 5 (1-2):69-120.
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  45.  8 DLs
    John Woods (1967). Polish Logic 1920–1939. Edited by Storrs McCall. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1967. Pp. Viii, 406. $15.00. [REVIEW] Dialogue 6 (03):408-410.
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  46.  8 DLs
    John Woods (1994). John Locke on Arguments “Ad”. Inquiry 13 (3-4):1-1.
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  47.  8 DLs
    John Woods (2000). How Philosophical is Informal Logic? Informal Logic 20 (2).
    Consider the proposition, "Informal logic is a subdiscipline of philosophy". The best chance of showing this to be true is showing that informal logic is part of logic, which in turn is a part of philosophy. Part 1 is given over to the task of sorting out these connections. If successful, informal logic can indeed be seen as part of philosophy; but there is no question of an exclusive relationship. Part 2 is a critical appraisal of the suggestion that informal (...)
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  48.  8 DLs
    John Woods, I Models.
    The use of models in the construction of scientific theories is as widespread as it is philosophically interesting (and, one might say, vexing).1 In neither philosophical nor scientific practice do we find a univocal concept of model.2 But there is one established usage to which we want to direct our particular attention in this paper, in which a model is constituted by the theorist’s idealizations and abstractions. Idealizations are expressed by statements known to be false. Abstractions are achieved by suppressing (...)
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  49.  8 DLs
    John Woods & Douglas Walton (1975). Moral Expertise. Journal of Moral Education 5 (1):13-18.
    Abstract: Current philosophical trends in North America are again raising the issue as to whether or not there can be ? moral experts?. An expert is defined here as one who predicts and explains better than the layman m a particular domain on the basis of his specialized underlying knowledge of it This analysis is then applied to the domain of morality. Special attention is given to the claim that moral philosophers are professionally more capable of critically thinking through the (...)
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