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Profile: Johnny Hartz Søraker (University of Twente)
  1. Johnny Hartz Søraker (2014). Continuities and Discontinuities Between Humans, Intelligent Machines, and Other Entities. Philosophy and Technology 27 (1):31-46.
    When it comes to the question of what kind of moral claim an intelligent or autonomous machine might have, one way to answer this is by way of comparison with humans: Is there a fundamental difference between humans and other entities? If so, on what basis, and what are the implications for science and ethics? This question is inherently imprecise, however, because it presupposes that we can readily determine what it means for two types of entities to be sufficiently different—what (...)
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  2. Johnny Hartz Søraker (2012). How Shall I Compare Thee? Comparing the Prudential Value of Actual Virtual Friendship. Ethics and Information Technology 14 (3):209-219.
    It has become commonplace to hold the view that virtual surrogates for the things that are good in life are inferior to their actual, authentic counterparts, including virtual education, virtual skill-demanding activities and virtual acts of creativity. Virtual friendship has also been argued to be inferior to traditional, embodied forms of friendship. Coupled with the view that virtual friendships threaten to replace actual ones, the conclusion is often made that we ought to concentrate our efforts on actual friendships rather than (...)
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  3. Johnny Hartz Søraker (2012). Prudential-Empirical Ethics of Technology (PEET)–An Early Outline. Philosophy 53 (1):3-18.
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  4. Johnny Hartz Søraker (2012). Virtual Worlds and Their Challenge to Philosophy: Understanding the “Intravirtual” and the “Extravirtual”. Metaphilosophy 43 (4):499-512.
    The Web, in particular real-time interactions in three-dimensional virtual environments (virtual worlds), comes with a set of unique characteristics that leave our traditional frameworks inapplicable. The present article illustrates this by arguing that the notion of “technology relations,” as put forward by Ihde and Verbeek, becomes inapplicable when it comes to the Internet, and this inapplicability shows why these phenomena require new philosophical frameworks. Against this background, and more constructively, the article proposes a fundamental distinction between “intravirtual” and “extravirtual” consequences—a (...)
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  5. Johnny Hartz Søraker (2011). Virtual Entities, Environments, Worlds and Reality: Suggested Definitions and Taxonomy. In Charles Ess & May Thorseth (eds.), Trust and Virtual Worlds. Peter Lang.
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  6. Johnny Hartz Søraker (2006). The Role of Pragmatic Arguments in Computer Ethics. Ethics and Information Technology 8 (3):121-130.
    The purpose of this paper is to stress the importance of pragmatic arguments if we are to reach overlapping consensuses across cultural and disciplinary borders. An analytical distinction is made between, on the one hand, arguments based on socio-political or philosophical presuppositions, and on the other hand, pragmatic arguments. The latter are (as far as possible) detached from culture-specific or disciplinary presuppositions. I will mainly focus on the issue of regulation and surveillance on the Internet, and put forward (...)
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