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  1. Lenahan L. O'Connell, Carroll U. Stephens, Michael Betz, Jon M. Shepard & Jamie R. Hendry (forthcoming). An Organizational Field Approach to Corporate Rationality: The Role of Stakeholder Activism. Business Ethics Quarterly.
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  2. Jon M. Shepard, Jon Shepard, James C. Wimbush & Carroll U. Stephens (forthcoming). The Place of Ethics in Business: Shifting Paradigms? Business Ethics Quarterly.
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  3. Craig V. VanSandt, Jon M. Shepard & Stephen M. Zappe (2006). An Examination of the Relationship Between Ethical Work Climate and Moral Awareness. Journal of Business Ethics 68 (4):409 - 432.
    This paper draws from the fields of history, sociology, psychology, moral philosophy, and organizational theory to establish a theoretical connection between a social/organizational influence (ethical work climate) and an individual cognitive element of moral behavior (moral awareness). The research was designed to help to fill a gap in the existing literature by providing empirical evidence of the connection between organizational influences and individual moral awareness and subsequent ethical choices, which has heretofore largely been merely assumed. Results of the study provide (...)
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  4. Jon M. Shepard (1999). The Maturing of the Japanese Economy. Business Ethics Quarterly 9 (3):527-540.
    This paper examines corporate social responsibility in Japan today within the context of the paradigm of the moral unity of business. Under this paradigm, business is expected to operate under the same set of moral standards operative in other societal institutions. We suggest that a micro moral unity characterizes Japan—business activity is linked to that society’s moral values but only within carefully circumscribed communities of interest. Because of the strains brought on by the maturing of the Japanese economy, the negative (...)
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  5. George W. Watson, Jon M. Shepard & Carroll U. Stephens (1999). Fairness and Ideology An Empirical Test of Social Contracts Theory. Business and Society 38 (1):83-108.
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  6. George Watson, Jon M. Shepard, Carroll U. Stephens, Amp & Others) (1999). Ideology and the Economic Social Contract in a Downsizing Environment. Business Ethics Quarterly 9 (4):659-672.
    By combining normative philosophy and empirical social science, we craft a research framework for assessing differential expectations embodied in normative conceptions of the economic social contract in the United States. We argue that there are distinctviews of such a contract grounded in individualist and communitarian philosophical ideologies. We apply this framework to organizational downsizing, postulating that certain human resource practices, in combination with the respective ideological orientations, will affect perceptions of the justice of downsizing policies.Living up to one’s word is (...)
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  7. Richard E. Wokutch & Jon M. Shepard (1999). The Maturing of the Japanese Economy: Corporate Social Responsibility Implications. Business Ethics Quarterly 9 (3):527-540.
    This paper examines corporate social responsibility in Japan today within the context of the paradigm of the moral unity of business. Under this paradigm, business is expected to operate under the same set of moral standards operative in other societal institutions. We suggest that a micro moral unity characterizes Japan—business activity is linked to that society’s moral values but only within carefully circumscribed communities of interest. Because of the strains brought on by the maturing of the Japanese economy, the negative (...)
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  8. Jon M. Shepard, Michael Betz & Lenahan O'Connell (1997). The Proactive Corporation: Its Nature and Causes. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 16 (10):1001-1010.
    We argue that the stakeholder perspective on corporate social responsibility is in the process of being enlarged. Due to the process of institutional isomorphism, corporations are increasingly adopting organizational features designed to promote proactivity over mere reactivity in their stakeholder relationships. We identify two sources of pressure promoting the emergence of the proactive corporation -- stakeholder activism and the recognition of the social embeddedness of the economy. The final section describes four organizational design dimensions being installed by the more proactive (...)
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  9. Jon M. Shepard, Michael G. Goldsby & Virginia W. Gerde (1997). Teaching Business Ethics Through Literature. Teaching Business Ethics 1 (1):33-51.
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  10. James C. Wimbush, Jon M. Shepard & Steven E. Markham (1997). An Empirical Examination of the Multi-Dimensionality of Ethical Climate in Organizations. Journal of Business Ethics 16 (1):67-77.
    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the ethical climate dimensions identified by Victor and Cullen (1987, 1988) could be replicated in the subunits of a multi-unit organization and if so, were the dimensions associated with particular types of operating units. We identified three of the dimensions of ethical climate found by Victor and Cullen and also found a new dimension of ethical climate related to service. Partial support was found for Victor and Cullen's hypothesis that certain ethical (...)
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  11. James C. Wimbush, Jon M. Shepard & Steven E. Markham (1997). An Empirical Examination of the Relationship Between Ethical Climate and Ethical Behavior From Multiple Levels of Analysis. Journal of Business Ethics 16 (16):1705-1716.
    Victor and Cullen (1988) identified several dimensions of ethical climate that exist in organizations and organizational subunits. We tested the relationship between these dimensions of ethical climate and ethical behavior at different levels of analysis. Using Within and Between Analysis (WABA) (cf. Dansereau, Alutto and Yammarino, 1984), partial support was found for a relationship between dimensions of ethical climate and ethical behavior.
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  12. Jon M. Shepard, Jon Shepard, James C. Wimbush & Carroll U. Stephens (1995). The Place of Ethics in Business. Business Ethics Quarterly 5 (3):577-601.
    This article uses concepts from sociology, history, and philosophy to explore the shifting relationship between moral values and business in the Western world. We examine the historical roots and intellectual underpinnings of two major business-society paradigms in ideal-type terms. In pre-industrial Western society, we argue that business activity was linked to society’s values of morality (the moral unity paradigm}-for good or for ill. With the rise of industrialism, we contend that business was freed from moral constraints by the alleged “invisible (...)
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  13. James C. Wimbush & Jon M. Shepard (1994). Toward an Understanding of Ethical Climate: Its Relationship to Ethical Behavior and Supervisory Influence. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 13 (8):637 - 647.
    In recent years, theoretical and empirical developments in the area of organizational climate has provided the impetus for research concerning ethical climate. According to this latter research, ethical climate is a multi-dimensional construct which is manifested in organizations. Studies, however, have not focused on the relationship between ethical climate and ethical behavior. Furthermore, an enhanced understanding of the multi-dimensionality of ethical climate will likely advance what we know about organizational climate and culture in general. We propose further examination of ethical (...)
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  14. Jon M. Shepard & Linda S. Hartenian (1991). Egoistic and Ethical Orientations of University Students Toward Work-Related Decisions. Journal of Business Ethics 10 (4):303 - 310.
    An onslaught of ethically questionable actions by top government, business, and religious leaders during the 1980s has brought the issue of ethics in decision making to the forefront of public consciousness. This study examines the ethical orientation of university students in four decision-making situations. The dependent variable — ethical orientation toward work-related decisions — is measured through student responses to questions following four work-related vignettes. Possible responses to each vignette are structured to permit categorization of respondents into two broad orientations: (...)
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  15. Michael Betz, Lenahan O'Connell & Jon M. Shepard (1989). Gender Differences in Proclivity for Unethical Behavior. Journal of Business Ethics 8 (5):321 - 324.
    This paper explores possible connections between gender and the willingness to engage in unethical business behavior. Two approaches to gender and ethics are presented: the structural approach and the socialization approach. Data from a sample of 213 business school students reveal that men are more than two times as likely as women to engage in actions regarded as unethical but it is also important to note that relatively few would engage in any of these actions with the exception of buying (...)
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