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Jonathan Haidt [32]Jonathan D. Haidt [1]
  1. Jonathan Haidt, Disgust: The Body and Soul Emotion in the 21st Century.
    The present volume is, we believe, the first-ever edited volume devoted to the emotion of disgust. In this chapter we address the following issues: 1. Why was disgust almost completely ignored until about 1990, 2. Why has there been a great increase in attention to disgust since about 1990?, 3. The outline of an integrative, body-to-soul preadaptation theory of disgust, 4. Some specific features of disgust that make it particularly susceptible to laboratory research and particularly appropriate to address some fundamental (...)
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  2. Jonathan Haidt, Elevation and the Positive Psychology of Morality.
    The power of the positive moral emotions to uplift and transform people has long been known, but not by psychologists. In 1771, Thomas Jefferson's friend Robert Skipwith wrote to him asking for advice on what books to buy for his library, and for his own education. Jefferson sent back a long list of titles in history, philosophy, and natural science. But in addition to these obviously educational works, Jefferson advised the inclusion of some works of fiction. Jefferson justified this (...)
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  3. Jonathan Haidt, J O N at H a N H a I D T.
    T hese are indignant times. Reading news- papers, talking to friends or coworkers, we seem often to live in a state of perpetual moral outrage.The targets of our indignation depend on the particular group, religion, and political party we are associated with. If the Terry Schiavo case does not convince of you of this, take the issue of same-sex marriage. Conservatives are furious over the prospect of gays and lesbians marrying, and liberals are furious that conservatives are furious. But has (...)
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  4. Jonathan Haidt, Finding Meaning in Vital Engagement and Good Hives.
    At the age of 15 I began calling myself an atheist. It was bad timing because the next year, in English class, I read Waiting for Godot and plunged into a philosophical depression. This was not a clinical depression with thoughts of personal worthlessness and a yearning for death. It was, rather, the kind of funk that Woody Allen’s characters were so prone to in his early movies. For example, in Annie Hall, a flashback shows us a nine-year-old Allen-esque boy (...)
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  5. Jonathan Haidt, Ideology and Intuition in Moral Education.
    We propose that social psychological findings on the intuitive bases of moral judgment have broad implications for moral education. The “five foundations theory of intuitive ethics” is applied to explain a longstanding rift in moral education as an ideological disagreement about which moral intuitions should be endorsed and cultivated. The Kohlbergian moral reasoning side has sought to limit the domain of moral education to Harm and Fairness-related moral concerns, whereas character education approaches have tried also to cultivate intuitions concerning the (...)
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  6. Jonathan Haidt, Moral Psychology and the Misunderstanding of Religion.
    Morality is one of those basic aspects of humanity, like sexuality and eating, that can’t fit into one or two academic fields. Morality is unique, however, in having a kind of spell that disguises it and protects its secrets. We all care about morality so passionately that it’s hard to look straight at it. We all look at the world through some kind of moral lens, and because most of the academic community uses the same lens, we validate each other’s (...)
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  7. Jonathan Haidt, Review. [REVIEW]
    During the cognitive revolution of the 1950s and ‘A great many people think they are thinking when they 1960s, behaviorist and Freudian theories gave way are merely rearranging their prejudices.’) Moral to mental models and information processing as the reasoning matters, but it matters primarily in social preferred framework in psychology. In the moral contexts in which people try to influence each other domain, Lawrence Kohlberg was a part of this and reach consensus with friends and allies. revolution. He built (...)
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  8. Jonathan Haidt, Virtues, and Perhaps Even Modules.
    Morality is one of the few topics in academe endowed with its own protective spell. A biologist is not blinded by her biological nature to the workings of biology. An economist is not confused by his own economic activity when he tries to understand the workings of markets[1]. But students of morality are often biased by their own moral commitments. Morality is so contested and so important to people that it is often difficult to set aside one’s humanity and study (...)
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  9. Jonathan Haidt, What (and Why) is Positive Psychology?
    Positive psychology is the study of the conditions and processes that contribute to the flourishing or optimal functioning of people, groups, and institutions. In this brief introduction, the authors give examples of current work in positive psychology and try to explain why the positive psychology movement has grown so quickly in just 5 years. They suggest that it filled a need: It guided researchers to understudied phenomena. The authors close by addressing some criticisms and shortcomings of positive psychology, such as (...)
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  10. Jonathan Haidt & James A. Coan, Viewing Cute Images Increases Behavioral Carefulness.
    Infantile physical morphology—marked by its “cuteness”—is thought to be a potent elicitor of caregiving, yet little is known about how cuteness may shape immediate behavior. To examine the function of cuteness and its role in caregiving, the authors tested whether perceiving cuteness can enhance behavioral carefulness, which would facilitate caring for a small, delicate child. In 2 experiments, viewing very cute images (puppies and kittens)—as opposed to slightly cute images (dogs and cats)—led to superior performance on a subsequent fine-motor dexterity (...)
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  11. Calvin K. Lai, Jonathan Haidt & Brian A. Nosek (2014). Moral Elevation Reduces Prejudice Against Gay Men. Cognition and Emotion 28 (5):781-794.
  12. Rhett Diessner, Ravi Iyer, Meghan M. Smith & Jonathan Haidt (2013). Who Engages with Moral Beauty? Journal of Moral Education 42 (2):139-163.
    Aristotle considered moral beauty to be the telos of the human virtues. Displays of moral beauty have been shown to elicit the moral emotion of elevation and cause a desire to become a better person and to engage in prosocial behavior. Study 1 (N = 5380) shows engagement with moral beauty is related to several psychological constructs relevant to moral education, and structural models reveal that the story of engagement with moral beauty may be considered a story of love and (...)
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  13. Jonathan Haidt (2013). Moral Psychology for the Twenty-First Century. Journal of Moral Education 42 (3):281-297.
    Lawrence Kohlberg slayed the two dragons of twentieth-century psychology?behaviorism and psychoanalysis. His victory was a part of the larger cognitive revolution that shaped the world in which all of us study psychology and education today. But the cognitive revolution itself was modified by later waves of change, particularly an ?affective revolution? that began in the 1980s and an ?automaticity revolution? in the 1990s. In this essay I trace the history of moral psychology within the broader intellectual trends of psychology and (...)
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  14. Paul Rozin & Jonathan Haidt (2013). The Domains of Disgust and Their Origins: Contrasting Biological and Cultural Evolutionary Accounts. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17 (8):367-368.
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  15. Gary D. Sherman & Jonathan Haidt (2011). Cuteness and Disgust: The Humanizing and Dehumanizing Effects of Emotion. Emotion Review 3 (3):245-251.
    Moral emotions are evolved mechanisms that function in part to optimize social relationships. We discuss two moral emotions— disgust and the “cuteness response”—which modulate social-engagement motives in opposite directions, changing the degree to which the eliciting entity is imbued with mental states (i.e., mentalized). Disgust-inducing entities are hypo-mentalized (i.e., dehumanized); cute entities are hyper-mentalized (i.e., “humanized”). This view of cuteness—which challenges the prevailing view that cuteness is a releaser of parental instincts (Lorenz, 1950/1971)—explains (a) the broad range of affiliative behaviors (...)
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  16. Joshua Greene & Jonathan Haidt (2010). Trends in Cognitive Sciences–How (and Where) Does Moral Judgment Work? Trends in Cognitive Sciences. Web 13:02011-9.
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  17. Jonathan Haidt (2009). Morality is One of Those Basic Aspects of Humanity, Like Sexuality and Eating, That Can't Fit Into One or Two Academic Fields. Moral-Ity is Unique, However, in Having a Kind of Spell That Disguises It and Protects its Secrets. We All Care About Morality so Passionately That It is Hard to Look Straight at It. We All Look at the World Through Some Kind of Moral Lens, and Because Most of the Academic Community Uses the Same Lens, We Validate Each Other's Visions and Distortions. I Think This Problem is ... [REVIEW] In Jeffrey Schloss & Michael J. Murray (eds.), The Believing Primate: Scientific, Philosophical, and Theological Reflections on the Origin of Religion. Oxford University Press. 278.
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  18. Jonathan Haidt & Fredrik Bjorklund (2008). Social Intuitionists Answer Six Questions About Morality. In W. Sinnott-Armstrong (ed.), Moral Psychology Vol. 2. MIT Press.
    We review the state of the art in moral psychology to answer 6 questions: 1) Where do moral beliefs and motivations come from? 2) How does moral judgment work? 3) What is the evidence for the social intuitionist model? 4) What exactly are the moral intuitions? 5) How does morality develop? And 6) Why do people vary in their morality? We describe the intuitionist approach to moral psychology. The mind makes rapid affective evaluations of everything it encounters, and these evaluations (...)
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  19. Jonathan Haidt (2005). Invisible Fences of the Moral Domain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (4):552-553.
    Crossing the border into the moral domain changes moral thinking in two ways: (1) the facts at hand become “anthropocentric” facts not easily open to revision, and (2) moral reasoning is often the servant of moral intuitions, making it difficult for people to challenge their own intuitions. Sunstein's argument is sound, but policy makers are likely to resist.
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  20. Jonathan Haidt & Sara Algoe (2004). Moral Amplification and the Emotions That Attach Us to Saints and Demons. In Jeff Greenberg, Sander L. Koole & Tom Pyszczynski (eds.), Handbook of Experimental Existential Psychology. Guilford Press. 322--335.
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  21. David Glen Mick, Susan M. Broniarczyk & Jonathan Haidt (2004). Choose, Choose, Choose, Choose, Choose, Choose, Choose: Emerging and Prospective Research on the Deleterious Effects of Living in Consumer Hyperchoice. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 52 (2):207-211.
    The ideology of consumption and the imperative of consumer choice have washed across the globe. In today's developed economies there is an ever-increasing amount of buying, amidst an ever-increasing amount of purchase options, amidst an ever-increasing amount of stress, amidst an ever-decreasing amount of discretionary time. This brief essay reviews research suggesting, for example, that hyperchoice confuses people and increases regret, that hyperchoice is initially attractive but ultimately unsatisfying, and that hyperchoice is psychologically draining. Future research is then discussed, including (...)
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  22. Dacher Keltner & Jonathan Haidt (2003). Approaching Awe, a Moral, Spiritual, and Aesthetic Emotion. Cognition and Emotion 17 (2):297-314.
  23. Dacher Keltner & Jonathan Haidt (2003). Approaching Awe as Moral Aesthetic and Spiritual Emotions. Cognition and Emotion 17:p297 - 314.
  24. Joshua Greene & Jonathan Haidt (2002). How (and Where) Does Moral Judgment Work? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (12):517-523.
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  25. Jonathan Haidt & Dacher Keltner (1999). Culture and Emotion: Multiple Methods Find New Faces and a Gradient of Recognition. Cognition and Emotion 13:225-266.
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  26. Jonathan Haidt & Dacher Keltner (1999). Culture and Facial Expression: Open-Ended Methods Find More Expressions and a Gradient of Recognition. Cognition and Emotion 13 (3):225-266.
  27. Dacher Keltner & Jonathan Haidt (1999). Social Functions of Emotions at Four Levels of Analysis. Cognition and Emotion 13 (5):505-521.
  28. Jonathan Haidt, The Emotional Dog Gets Mistaken for a Possum.
    Saltzstein and Kasachkoff (2004) critique the social intuitionist model (Haidt, 2001), but the model that they critique is a stripped-down version that should be called the “possum” model. They make three charges about the possum model that are not true about the social intuitionist model: that it includes no role for reasoning, that it reduces social influence to compliance, and that it does not take a developmental perspective. After I defend the honor of the social intuitionist model, I raise two (...)
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  29. Jonathan D. Haidt, Moral Judgment, Affect, and Culture, or, Is It Wrong to Eat Your Dog?
    Graduate Group Chairperson Acknowledgments Above all I wish to thank my co-advisors, <span class='Hi'>Jonathan</span> Baron and Alan Fiske, and my additional committee members, John Sabini and Paul Rozin, for their wisdom and guidance over the years. This dissertation is the report of a collaborative research project, carried out with Silvia Helena Koller of the Universidade Federal de Rio Grande do Sul, in Porto Alegre, Brazil, and with Maria G. Dias of the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, in Recife, Brazil. The research (...)
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  30. Jonathan Haidt & Jesse Graham, Haidt & Graham --.
    Most academic efforts to understand morality and ideology come from theorists who limit the domain of morality to issues related to harm and fairness. For such theorists, conservative beliefs are puzzles requiring non-moral explanations. In contrast, we present moral foundations theory, which broadens the moral domain to match the anthropological literature on morality. We extend the theory by integrating it with a review of the sociological constructs of community, authority, and sacredness, as formulated by Emile Durkheim and others. We present (...)
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