The Leslie matrix model (Leslie, 1945) for discrete population growth has been modified and used several times in population dynamics. A review is given of the basic model (n t + 1 = An t) and of its principal modifications. The modifications relating to the influences of internal or external factors to the population are studied with greater detail. The same applies to models where the population is divided in stages rather than in age classes.In the same line, Hadjibiros (1975, (...) 1976) studied a more general model, where the transition matrix corresponds to a population divided in stages of unequal duration, and where the time varying influences of the internal or external factors are included. This model offers the possibility of computer simulation of the population dynamics of a natural population represented by a demographic vector. (shrink)
This article questions the continued use and application of EVA® (economic value added) because it is epistemologically a non-sequitur, fails to satisfy the requirements of sound research methodology in terms of being a reliable and valid metric, and is unlikely to satisfy the requirements of Rule 702 of the Federal Rules of Evidence. In the light of these insufficiencies, the continued use of EVA® is ethically questionable, and moreover in time is likely to result in class actions.
Since its original 1996 publication,Jorge Garcia''s ``The Heart of Racism'''' has beenwidely reprinted, a testimony to its importanceas a distinctive and original analysis ofracism. Garcia shifts the standard framework ofdiscussion from the socio-political to theethical, and analyzes racism as essentially avice. He represents his account asnon-revisionist (capturing everyday usage),non-doxastic (not relying on belief),volitional (requiring ill-will), and moralized(racism is always wrong). In this paper, Icritique Garcia''s analysis, arguing that hedoes in fact revise everyday usage, that hisaccount does tacitly rely on (...) belief, thatill-will is not necessary for racism, and thata moralized account gets both the scope and thedynamic of racism wrong. While I do not offeran alternative positive account myself, Isuggest that traditional left-wing structuralanalyses are indeed superior. (shrink)
In several enigmatic passages, Paulo Freire describes the pedagogy of the oppressed as a 'pedagogy of laughter'. The inclusion of laughter alongside problem-posing dialogue might strike some as ambiguous, considering that the global exploitation of the poor is no laughing matter. And yet, laughter seems to be an important aspect of the pedagogy of the oppressed. In this paper, I examine the role of laughter in Freire's critical pedagogy through a series of questions: Are all forms of laughter equally (...) emancipatory? Certainly a revolutionary pedagogue can laugh, but should he or she, and what are the political (if not revolutionary) implications of this laughter? In order to shed new light on Freire's fleeting yet provocative comments, I turn to Jacques Rancière for his emphasis on the aesthetics of politics, and Paulo Virno who connects joke telling with critical theory. Overall, I argue that we need to take Freire's gesture toward a pedagogy of laughter seriously in order to understand the aesthetics of critical pedagogy and the fundamental need for a redistribution of the sensible that underlies educational relations between masters and pupils. (shrink)
Paulo Freire's major work, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, owes adebt to psychoanalysis. In particular, as this paper argues,Freire's account of teacher authority needs to be understoodthrough psychoanalytic sensibilities. Paulo Freire maintains thatteacher authority can be ``on the side of freedom.'' This is ahighly charged claim given that liberalist traditions generallycast authority as the enemy of freedom. Breaking with liberalunderstandings of authority, Freire's ``authority on the sideof freedom'' is a matter of maintaining the delicate psychicbalance that leads neither to (...) domination nor to submission.This paper investigates how such an authoritative balance functions. (shrink)
The work of Paulo Freire, while remaining important to many educators, has been challenged by some postmodernist arguments. In particular, the pursuit of justice becomes difficult, or at least more complicated, when the concept of difference is taken seriously. This paper reconsiders the Freirean commitment to justice in the light of ideas from Young (1990, Justice and the politics of difference, New Jersey: Princeton University Press) and Pavlich and Ratner (1996 Justice and the Postmodern, In M. Peters, W. Hope, (...) J. Marshall, & S. Webster (Eds.), Critical theory, poststructuralism and the social context, Palmerston North: Dunmore Press). How might the work of Paulo Freire accommodate these ideas and what demands do they place on his philosophy? In addressing this question, I focus on three key themes in contemporary debates over pedagogy and justice: (i) the notion that the individual is produced; (ii) the significance of difference; and (iii) the idea that justice is context dependent and multiple. I argue that given Freire’s emphasis in later publications on the produced and unfinished self and his recognition of the multilayered nature of oppression, Freirean theory continues to have much to offer to these debates. (shrink)
O objetivo desse texto é levantar algumas questões sobre as raízes do judaísmo de Paulo, ou dos referenciais judaicos que sustentam a sua visão de mundo - no decorrer de suas jornadas após a visão da estrada de Damasco. Há elementos para afirmar que além do seu farisaísmo assumido, Paulo recolheu concepções teóricas de outros movimentos judaicos do período. Tendo lido ou conhecido elementos das principais tendências do pensamento apocalíptico. Utilizou esses conceitos no sentido de atuar não só (...) junto aos judeus influenciados pelo farisaísmo como também junto àqueles outros inseridos na tradição apocalíptica. Acreditamos que Paulo expressa, além do mais, a culminância de uma tradição judaica consistente. Tradição que vinha, literariamente, do terceiro Isaías e que culminou, talvez, no Livro dos Jubileus, que defendia a necessária universalização messiânica da experiência religiosa judaica. Paulo ultima essa tradição e a transforma de experiência meramente teórica em prática concreta realizada numa perspectiva messiânica. (shrink)
The year of the centennial of the Argentinean writer Jorge Luis Borges is probably the right time to exhume one of the links that this universal writer had with William James. In 1945, Emece, a publisher from Buenos Aires, printed a Spanish translation of William James’s book Pragmatism, with a foreword by Jorge Luis Borges.
Paulo Freire : the educator, his oeuvre, and changing contexts -- Holistic interpretations of Freire's work : a critical review -- Critical literacy, praxis, and emancipatory politics -- "Remaining on the same side of the river" : neo-liberalism, party movements, and the struggle for greater coherence -- Reinventing Freire in a Southern context : the Mediterranean -- Engaging with practice : a Freirean reflection on different pedagogical sites.
In this article I re-examine the role that aesthetics play in Paulo Freire's pedagogy of the oppressed. As opposed to the vast majority of scholarship in this area, I suggest that aesthetics play a more centralised role in pedagogy above and beyond arts-based curricula. To help clarify Freire's position, I will argue that underlying the linguistic resolution of the student/teacher dialectic in the problem-posing classroom is an accompanying shift in the very aesthetics of recognition. In order to demonstrate the (...) always already aesthetic nature of all education, I will turn to the aesthetic philosophy of Jacques Rancière. Through Rancière we can begin to understand how the pedagogy of the oppressed is predicated on an aesthetic redistribution of the sensible, of what can be seen and what can be heard. As Rancière will confirm, if we truly want to understand the aesthetics of pedagogy, we cannot simply see aesthetics as external to teaching and learning. Rather, education as an aesthetic event has to be taken seriously, and aesthetics should regain primacy in discussions of critical pedagogy. (shrink)
Machine generated contents note: Notes on Contributors.1. Introduction: Hatred of Democracy... and of the Public Role of Education? (Maarten Simons and Jan Masschelein).2. The Public Role of Teaching: To Keep the Door Closed (Goele Cornelissen).3. Learner, Student, Speaker: Why It Matters How We Call Those We Teach (Gert Biesta).4. Ignorance and Translation, 'Artifacts' for Practices of Equality (Marc Derycke).5. Democratic Education: An (im)possibility That Yet Remains to Come (Daniel Friedrich, Bryn Jaastad and Thomas S. Popkewitz)6. Governmental, Political and Pedagogic Subjectivation: (...) Foucault with Rancière (Maarten Simons and Jan Masschelein).7. The Immigrant Has No Proper Name: The Disease of Consensual Democracy Within the Myth of Schooling (Carl Anders Safstrom).8. Queer Politics in Schools: A Rancièrean Reading (Claudia W. Ruitenberg).9. Paulo Freire's Last Laugh: Rethinking Critical Pedagogy's Funny Bone Through Jacques Rancière ( Tyson Edward Lewis).10. Settling no Conflict in the Public Place: Truth in Education, and in Rancièrean Scholarship (Charles Bingham).11. The Hatred of Public Schooling: The School as the Mark of Democracy (Jan Masschelein and Maarten Simons).12. Endgame: Reading, Writing, Talking (and Perhaps Thinking) in a Faculty of Education (Jorge Larrosa). (shrink)
In this essay Sarah Galloway considers emancipation as a purpose for education through examining the theories of Paulo Freire and Jacques Rancière. Both theorists are concerned with the prospect of distinguishing between education that might socialize people into what is taken to be an inherently oppressive society and education with emancipation as its purpose. Galloway reconstructs the theories in parallel, examining the assumptions made, the processes of oppression described, and the movements to emancipation depicted. In so doing, she argues (...) that that the two theorists hold a common model for theorizing oppression and emancipation as educational processes, distinguished by the differing assumptions they each make about humanity, but that their theories ultimately have opposing implications for educational practices. Galloway further maintains that Freire and Rancière raise similar educational problems and concerns, both theorizing that the character of the relations among teachers, students, and educational materials is crucial to an emancipatory education. Galloway's approach allows discussion of some of the criticisms that have been raised historically about Freire's theory and how these might be addressed to some degree by Rancière's work. Taking the two theories together, she argues that the possibility for an emancipatory education cannot be ignored if education is to be considered as more than merely a process of passing down the skills and knowledge necessary in order to socialize people into current society. (shrink)
Montaigne said it in the sixteenth century, and Plato's Ion said it long before: we are but interpreters of interpretations. Jorge J. E. Gracia's Painting Borges: Philosophy Interpreting Art Interpreting Literature rests upon the assumption that this somewhat plaintive verdict on the inescapability of interpretation is in fact an occasion for celebration. For various reasons—some of which I will discuss below—Painting Borges is a welcome addition to the field of interpretation theory and will be of interest not only to (...) philosophers and hermeneuts, but also to scholars of Latin American art and literature.The book's central theme, announced in the subtitle, is the philosophical interpretation of the artistic .. (shrink)
Este artigo é uma tentativa de analisar sociologicamente o processo de institucionalização pelo qual vem passando a ‘Cruzada Evangelística Interdenominacional nos Trens das Boas Novas’ (CEI), na prática diária dos cultos pentecostais realizados nos vagões de trem da Companhia Paulista de Trens Metropolitanos do Estado de São Paulo (CPTM). Nossa hipótese é que o culto no trem vem passando por um processo de burocratização das funções religiosas diárias, o que pode ser observado desde sua origem, em seu desenvolvimento, na (...) sua organização e até em seus mecanismos de resistência. Nosso objetivo principal será demonstrar que o lugar onde os cultos são realizados não impede o processo de institucionalização do movimento, uma vez que as representações religiosas, os costumes e as práticas pentecostais dos sujeitos religiosos garantem a continuidade desse grupo e sua manutenção. Como metodologia utilizou-se, além da pesquisa bibliográfica, a pesquisa de campo, através da aplicação de questionários e realização de entrevistas, considerando seus aspectos quantitativos e qualitativos contemplados pelas Ciências Sociais, pesquisa aprovada pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa (CEP-UMESP) em 30 de novembro de 2006. Palavras-chave : Religião; Modernidade; Pentecostalismo.This article is an attempt to sociologically analyze the institutionalization process by which has been going through ‘Cruzada Evangelística Interdenominacional’ on “Trens das Boas Novas” (Good News Trains”) – CEI, in the daily practice of pentecostal services performed in the train wagons of the ‘Companhia Paulista de Trens Metropolitanos do Estado de São Paulo’ - CPTM. Our suspicion is that the service of the train has been undergoing a process of bureaucratization of daily religious functions, which can be seen from its origin, in its development, in its organization and even in their resistance mechanisms. Our main goal will be to show that the place where the services are performed does not prevent the institutionalization of the movement, since the religious representations, the customs and practices of pentecostal religious subjects ensure the continuity of this groups and its maintenance. As methodology was used, in addition to library research, field research through questionnaires and interviews, taking into account their quantitative and qualitative aspects covered by the Social Sciences, research approved by the Research Ethics Committee - CEP-UMESP on November 30, 2006. Key words: Religion; Modernity; Pentecostalism. (shrink)
The author discusses the significance of Jorge Amado's brief but crucial incursion into the world of children's literature: his O Gato Malhado e a Andorinha Sinhá (about a tabby cat and a young lady swallow). This adventure from the pen of the Brazilian author resonates not only in the area of textual genesis in this literary field, or that of illustration, but also in the area of childhood culture, a world which may perhaps be marginal and is only just (...) beginning to claim a place in Portuguese universities. This little work by Jorge Amado is presented as an extremely rich source for the definition of a paradigm that respects the needs of text, illustrations and childhood culture. (shrink)
Considerando as crianças como atores sociais (com voz e ação) competentes para a interpretação do contexto em que se inserem, apresenta-se no presente artigo uma reflexão sobre a sua importância, enquanto sujeitos e participantes na investigação partilhada. Através da participação das crianças como investigadoras em dois estudos de opinião, pretende-se discutir as respetivas possibilidades e limites, enquanto metodologia participativa na Educação Básica. A informação proveniente das crianças forneceu pistas de intervenção aplicadas à escola.
In this paper we show that the class of fork squares has a complete orthodox axiomatization in fork arrow logic (FAL). This result may be seen as an orthodox counterpart of Venema's non-orthodox axiomatization for the class of squares in arrow logic. FAL is the modal logic of fork algebras (FAs) just as arrow logic is the modal logic of relation algebras (RAs). FAs extend RAs by a binary fork operator and are axiomatized by adding three equations to RAs equational (...) axiomatization. A proper FA is an algebra of relations where the fork is induced by an injective operation coding pair formation. In contrast to RAs, FAs are representable by proper ones and their equational theory has the expressive power of full first-order logic. A square semantics (the set of arrows is U×U for some set U) for arrow logic was defined by Y. Venema. Due to the negative results about the finite axiomatizability of representable RAs, Venema provided a non-orthodox finite axiomatization for arrow logic by adding a new rule governing the applications of a difference operator. We address here the question of extending the type of relational structures to define orthodox axiomatizations for the class of squares. Given the connections between this problem and the finitization problem addressed by I. Németi, we suspect that this cannot be done by using only logical operations. The modal version of the FA equations provides an orthodox axiomatization for FAL which is complete in view of the representability of FAs. Here we review this result and carry it further to prove that this orthodox axiomatization for FAL also axiomatizes the class of fork squares. (shrink)
In this article, I argue that Paulo Freire?s liberatory conception of education is interesting, challenging, even transforming because central to it are important aspects of education which other philosophers marginalise. I also argue that Freire?s critics are right when they claim that he paid insufficient attention to another important aspect of education. Finally, I argue for a conception of education which takes account of the strengths and at the same time overcomes the limitations of Freire?s liberatory conception.
Although social justice is an integral component of medical professionalism, there is little discussion in medical education about how to teach it to future physicians. Using adult learning theory and the work of Brazilian educator Paulo Freire, medical educators can teach a socially-conscious professionalism through educational content and teaching strategies. Such teaching can model non-hierarchical relationships to learners, which can translate to their clinical interactions with patients. Freirian teaching can additionally foster professionalism in both teachers and learners by ensuring (...) that they are involved citizens in their local, national and international communities. (shrink)
Through the lens of Guatemala’s Jorge Carpio Nicolle case I analyze the mechanisms that preserve impunity in Latin American nations struggling to emerge from violent conflict and embrace, the rule of law. I reveal how the infective influence of parallel powers, the ineffectiveness of the judicial process, and obstructive legal doctrine destroy domestic efforts to prosecute those responsible for human rights violations. The Carpio case exposes the role of international courts in providing justice when domestic courts fail to do (...) so, and it demonstrates the importance of human rights groups in pursuing this justice. (shrink)
A pesquisa revela a grande influencia dos beneditinos no Brasil e na São Paulo colonial. São revelados diversos aspectos da historia da Ordem de São Bento e suas particularidades no período retratado: São Paulo colonial.
Frente uma situação sócio-cultural, eclesial e societária onde vive-se a falta de liberdade criativa e de uma ação ousada, alternativa e esperançosa, Paulo parece apontar caminho, à luz do Evangelho da liberdade, para uma experiência nova e prometedora. O que importa é assumir com responsabilidade a Vida e superar toda "escravidão", vale dizer, o que vale é viver em liberdade na experiência do amor diante do império da impotência e da morte. A experiência da fé tem que levar ao (...) agir ético que revele uma vida livre e construtora de uma nova realidade de vida, relacionamento e compromisso no atual contexto. (shrink)
I De las muchas cosas que lleva ya escritas Jorge Riechmann sobre problemas sustantivos relacionados con la crisis ecológica, la última publicada, Cuidar la T(t)ierra, es seguramente la más notable. Y, sin duda, es la aportación más sugerente que ha aparecido por estos pagos al concepto de sostenibilidad y a su práctica en el mundo actual. Se trata de un libro de más seiscientas páginas en el que el lector atento apreciará un montón de cosas que sólo excepcionalmente suelen (...) darse juntas: la .. (shrink)
In this paper we show that the class of fork squares has a complete orthodox axiomatization in fork arrow logic (FAL). This result may be seen as an orthodox counterpart of Venema's non-orthodox axiomatization for the class of squares in arrow logic. FAL is the modal logic of fork algebras (FAs) just as arrow logic is the modal logic of relation algebras (RAs). FAs extend RAs by a binary fork operator and are axiomatized by adding three equations to RAs equational (...) axiomatization. A proper FA is an algebra of relations where the fork is induced by an injective operation coding pair formation. In contrast to RAs, FAs are representable by proper ones and their equational theory has the expressive power of full first-order logic. A square semantics (the set of arrows is ᵎ x ᵎ for some set ᵎ) for arrow logic was defined by Y. Venema. Due to the negative results about the finite axiomatizability of representable RAs, Venema provided a non-orthodox finite axiomatization for arrow logic by adding a new rule governing the applications of a difference operator. We address here the question of extending the type of relational structures to define orthodox axiomatizations for the class of squares. Given the connections between this problem and the finitization problem addressed by I. Németi, we suspect that this cannot be done by using only logical operations. The modal version of the FA equations provides an orthodox axiomatization for FAL which is complete in view of the representability of FAs. Here we review this result and carry it further to prove that this orthodox axiomatization for FAL also axiomatizes the class of fork squares. (shrink)
Although it is commonly assumed that Paulo Freire was widely influential in the field of education in the United States immediately upon publication of his classic work, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, in 1970, the historical evidence indicates otherwise. In fact, Freire's work only began to gain wide reception in the field in the mid- and late 1980s. In the process of charting a new history of the reception of Freire's work in the field, this historical article illuminates contemporary issues (...) with the use of Freire's ideas in educational conversations about social structure and agency. In particular, the article seeks to renew a close, contextual read of Freire's texts, especially Pedagogy of the Oppressed, and invigorate discussion about Freire's primary claim?that education must be the central feature of building movements for radical social change. Similarly, the article seeks to renew attention to the structural concerns that initiated the turn towards critical Marxist scholarship in the field?concerns about the relationship between school and society in the United States that the initial wave of critical scholars knew must be addressed before fully engaging ideas about the ways in which schools may participate in the push for social change. (shrink)
O Artigo Episcopado Brasileiro em São Paulo – Unidade da Igreja no Brasil marca o itinerário da Igreja no Brasil no final do Século XIX. Como situar a sociedade brasileira no Século XIX? Como a Igreja reagiu ao Estado Republicano? Qual foi o papel do Romano Pontífice na Igreja no Brasil? A Reunião dos Bispos em São Paulo em 1890 sela a Unidade do Episcopado. O tema é oportuno quando pontuamos os 60 anos da CNBB (1952-2012) e os (...) 50 anos da Abertura do Concílio Ecumênico Vaticano II (1962-2012). A Igreja é que Una tanto mais será luz para a sociedade se se apresentar Unida. (shrink)
Paulo Freire and Lorenzo Milani are considered as key figures in a number of Southern European countries for providing signposts for a critical approach to education. In this paper I will view their ideas and biographical trajectories comparatively to glean some important insights for a critical pedagogy. The common theme throughout this comparative analysis is that of education for social justice based on critical literacy. The paper also deals with such themes as the relationship between education and politics, the (...) relationship between education and life, the collective dimension of learning and the ability to read as well as write the word and the world. (shrink)
El artículo reconstruye el “ciclo moderno” de la educación comunitaria latinoamericana desde la producción intelectual de Paulo Freire, pasando `por la experiencia de la revolución sandinista, el desarrollo de los movimientos democráticos en América del Sur y la emergencia de nuevos movimientos sociales en los años ochenta para llegar finalmente a los años noventa que vuelve a retomar la primera utopía freiriana. El autor aborda complementariamente la ética de la educación comunitaria y el desafío de construir ciudadanías democráticas desde (...) los valores de ésta. (shrink)