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  1.  532 DLs
    Zoltán Dienes & Josef Perner (1999). A Theory of Implicit and Explicit Knowledge. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):735-808.
    The implicit-explicit distinction is applied to knowledge representations. Knowledge is taken to be an attitude towards a proposition which is true. The proposition itself predicates a property to some entity. A number of ways in which knowledge can be implicit or explicit emerge. If a higher aspect is known explicitly then each lower one must also be known explicitly. This partial hierarchy reduces the number of ways in which knowledge can be explicit. In the most important type of implicit knowledge, (...)
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  2.  149 DLs
    Josef Perner (1991). Understanding the Representational Mind. Cambridge: MIT Press.
  3.  111 DLs
    Zoltán Dienes & Josef Perner (2007). Executive Control Without Conscious Awareness: The Cold Control Theory of Hypnosis. In Graham A. Jamieson (ed.), Hypnosis and Conscious States: The Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective. Oxford University Press 293-314.
  4.  71 DLs
    Josef Perner & Martin Doherty (2005). Do Infants Understand That External Goals Are Internally Represented? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (5):710-711.
    Evidence for infants' sensitivity to behavior being goal oriented leaves it open as to whether they see such behavior as being designed to lead to an external goal or whether they see it, in addition, as being directed by an internal representation of the goal. We point out the difficulty of finding possible criteria for how infants or children view this matter.
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  5.  63 DLs
    Zoltán Dienes & Josef Perner (2003). Unifying Consciousness with Explicit Knowledge. In Axel Cleeremans (ed.), The Unity of Consciousness. Oxford University Press 214--232.
  6.  61 DLs
    Josef Perner & Zoltán Dienes (2003). Developmental Aspects of Consciousness: How Much Theory of Mind Do You Need to Be Consciously Aware? Consciousness and Cognition 12 (1):63-82.
    When do children become consciously aware of events in the world? Five possible strategies are considered for their usefulness in determining the age in question. Three of these strategies ask when children show signs of engaging in activities for which conscious awareness seems necessary in adults , and two of the strategies consider when children have the ability to have the minimal form of higher-order thought necessary for access consciousness and phenomenal consciousness, respectively. The tentative answer to the guiding question (...)
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  7.  53 DLs
    Josef Perner, Daniela Kloo & Elisabeth Stöttinger (2007). Introspection & Remembering. Synthese 159 (2):253 - 270.
    We argue that episodic remembering, understood as the ability to re-experience past events, requires a particular kind of introspective ability and understanding. It requires the understanding that first person experiences can represent actual events. In this respect it differs from the understanding required by the traditional false belief test for children, where a third person attribution (to others or self) of a behavior governing representation is sufficient. The understanding of first person experiences as representations is also required for problem solving (...)
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  8.  44 DLs
    Josef Perner & Johannes L. Brandl (2009). Simulation À la Goldman: Pretend and Collapse. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 144 (3):435 - 446.
    Theories of mind draw on processes that represent mental states and their computational connections; simulation, in addition, draws on processes that replicate (Heal 1986 ) a sequence of mental states. Moreover, mental simulation can be triggered by input from imagination instead of real perceptions. To avoid confusion between mental states concerning reality and those created in simulation, imagined contents must be quarantined. Goldman bypasses this problem by giving pretend states a special role to play in simulation (Goldman 2006 ). We (...)
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  9.  37 DLs
    Josef Perner & Birgit Lang (1999). Development of Theory of Mind and Executive Control. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 3 (9):337-344.
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  10.  35 DLs
    Josef Perner & Deborrah Howes (1992). He Thinks He Knows: And More Developmental Evidence Against the Simulation (Role Taking) Theory. Mind and Language 7 (1-2):72-86.
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  11.  34 DLs
    Josef Perner, Susan R. Leekam, Deborah Myers, Shalini Davis & Nicola Odgers, Misrepresentation and Referential Confusion: Children's Difficulty with False Beliefs and Outdated Photographs.
    Three and 4-year-old children were tested on matched versions of Zaitchik's (1990) photo task and Wimmer and Perner's (1983) false belief task. Although replicating Zaitchik's finding that false belief and photo task are of equal difficulty, this applied only to mean performance across subjects and no substantial correlation between the two tasks was found. This suggests that the two tasks tap different intellectual abilities. It was further discovered that children's performance can be improved by drawing their attention to the back (...)
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  12.  33 DLs
    Josef Perner & Johannes Roessler, Teleology and Causal Understanding in Children's Theory of Mind.
    The causal theory of action (CTA) is widely recognized in the literature of the philosophy of action as the "standard story" of human action and agency--the nearest approximation in the field to a theoretical orthodoxy. This volume brings together leading figures working in action theory today to discuss issues relating to the CTA and its applications, which range from experimental philosophy to moral psychology. Some of the contributors defend the theory while others criticize it; some draw from historical sources while (...)
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  13.  32 DLs
    Josef Perner, Bibiane Rendl & Alan Garnham (2007). Objects of Desire, Thought, and Reality: Problems of Anchoring Discourse Referents in Development. Mind and Language 22 (5):475–513.
    Our objectives in this article are to bring some theoretical order into developmental sequences and simultaneities in children’s ability to appreciate multiple labels for single objects, to reason with identity statements, to reason hypothetically, counterfactually, and with beliefs and desires, and to explain why an ‘implicit’ understanding of belief occurs before an ‘explicit’ understanding. The central idea behind our explanation is the emerging grasp of how objects of thought and desire relate to real objects and to each other. To capture (...)
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  14.  28 DLs
    Josef Perner & Zoltan Dienes (1999). Higher Order Thinking. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):164-165.
    O'Brien & Opie's position is consistent with the existence of implicit learning and subliminal perception below a subjective threshold but it is inconsistent with various other findings in the literature. The main problem with the theory is that it attributes consciousness to too many things. Incorporating the higher order thought theory renders their position more plausible.
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  15.  28 DLs
    Zoltan Dienes & Josef Perner (2002). What Sort of Representation is Conscious? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (3):336-337.
    We consider Perruchet & Vinter's (P&V's) central claim that all mental representations are conscious. P&V require some way of fixing their meaning of representation to avoid the claim becoming either obviously false or unfalsifiable. We use the framework of Dienes and Perner (1999) to provide a well-specified possible version of the claim, in which all representations of a minimal degree of explicitness are postulated to be conscious.
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  16.  24 DLs
    Josef Perner & Eva Rafetseder (2011). Is Reasoning From Counterfactual Antecedents Evidence for Counterfactual Reasoning? Thinking and Reasoning 16 (2):131-155.
    In most developmental studies the only error children could make on counterfactual tasks was to answer with the current state of affairs. It was concluded that children who did not show this error are able to reason counterfactually. However, children might have avoided this error by using basic conditional reasoning (Rafetseder, Cristi-Vargas, & Perner, 2010). Basic conditional reasoning takes background assumptions represented as conditionals about how the world works. If an antecedent of one of these conditionals is provided by the (...)
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  17.  24 DLs
    Josef Perner, Daniela Kloo & Michael Rohwer (2010). Retro- and Prospection for Mental Time Travel: Emergence of Episodic Remembering and Mental Rotation in 5 to 8 Year Old Children. [REVIEW] Consciousness and Cognition 19 (3):802-815.
    We investigate the common development of children’s ability to “look back in time” and to “look into the future” . Experiment 1 with 59 children 5 to 8.5 years old showed mental rotation, as a measure of prospection, explaining specific variance of free recall, as a measure of episodic remembering when controlled for cued recall. Experiment 2 with 31 children from 5 to 6.5 years measured episodic remembering with recall of visually experienced events when controlling for recall of indirectly conveyed (...)
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  18.  23 DLs
    Josef Perner, A. Gschaider, A. Kuhberger & S. Schrofner (1999). Predicting Others Through Simulation or by Theory? A Method to Decide. Mind and Language 14 (1):57-79.
  19.  21 DLs
    Josef Perner & Zoltan Dienes (1999). Deconstructing RTK: How to Explicate a Theory of Implicit Knowledge. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):790-801.
    In this response, we start from first principles, building up our theory to show more precisely what assumptions we do and do not make about the representational nature of implicit and explicit knowledge (in contrast to the target article, where we started our exposition with a description of a fully fledged representational theory of knowledge (RTK). Along the way, we indicate how our analysis does not rely on linguistic representations but it implies that implicit knowledge is causally efficacious; we discuss (...)
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  20.  21 DLs
    Josef Perner & Anton Kühberger (2002). Framing and the Theory-Simulation Controversy. Predicting People's Decisions. Mind and Society 3 (2):65-80.
    We introduce a particular way of drawing the distinction between the use of theory and simulation in the prediction of people's decisions and describe an empirical method to test whether theory or simulation is used in a particular case. We demonstrate this method with two effects of decision making involving the choice between a safe option (take amount X) and a risky option (take double the amount X with probability 1/2). People's predictions of choice frequencies for trivial (€ 0.75) as (...)
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  21.  15 DLs
    Elisabeth Stöttinger, Stefan Aigner, Klara Hanstein & Josef Perner (2009). Grasping the Diagonal: Controlling Attention to Illusory Stimuli for Action and Perception. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (1):223-228.
    Since the pioneering work of [Aglioti, S., DeSouza, J. F., & Goodale, M. A. . Size-contrast illusions deceive the eye but not the hand. Current Biology, 5, 679–685] visual illusions have been used to provide evidence for the functional division of labour within the visual system—one system for conscious perception and the other system for unconscious guidance of action. However, these studies were criticised for attentional mismatch between action and perception conditions and for the fact that grip size is not (...)
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  22.  15 DLs
    Michael Beran, Johannes Brandl, Josef Perner & Joëlle Proust (eds.) (2012). The Foundations of Metacognition. Oxford University Press.
    Bringing together researchers from across the cognitive sciences, the book is valuable for philosophers of mind, developmental and comparative psychologists, and neuroscientists.
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  23.  14 DLs
    Josef Perner & Johannes L. Brandl (2009). Review: Simulation À la Goldman: Pretend and Collapse. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 144 (3):435 - 446.
    Theories of mind draw on processes that represent mental states and their computational connections; simulation, in addition, draws on processes that replicate (Heal 1986) a sequence of mental states. Moreover, mental simulation can be triggered by input from imagination instead of real perceptions. To avoid confusion between mental states concerning reality and those created in simulation, imagined contents must be quarantined. Goldman bypasses this problem by giving pretend states a special role to play in simulation (Goldman 2006). We argue that (...)
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  24.  11 DLs
    Manuel Sprung, Josef Perner & Peter Mitchell (2007). Opacity and Discourse Referents: Object Identity and Object Properties. Mind and Language 22 (3):215–245.
    It has been found that children appreciate the limited substitutability of co-referential terms in opaque contexts a year or two after they pass false belief tasks (e.g. Apperly and Robinson, 1998, 2001, 2003). This paper aims to explain this delay. Three- to six-year-old children were tested with stories where a protagonist was either only partially informed or had a false belief about a particular object. Only a few children had problems predicting the protagonist’s action based on his partial knowledge, when (...)
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  25.  10 DLs
    Josef Perner (1998). Room for Concept Development? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (1):82-83.
    Millikan's externalist account of concept acquisition cannot completely avoid the distinction between central (defining) and peripheral (characteristic) features, because some knowledge is required to achieve reference and to decide what kind of information to record about the identified substances. However, the emphasis on external reference may provide the requisite principled way to make this distinction.
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  26.  9 DLs
    Josef Perner (1998). 13 The Meta-Intentional Nature of Executive Functions and Theory of Mind. In Peter Carruthers & Jill Boucher (eds.), Language and Thought: Interdisciplinary Themes. Cambridge University Press 270.
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  27.  9 DLs
    Josef Perner (2012). MiniMeta: In Search of Minimal Criteria for Metacognition. In Michael Beran, Johannes Brandl, Josef Perner & Joëlle Proust (eds.), The Foundations of Metacognition. Oxford University Press 94--116.
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  28.  8 DLs
    Michael J. Beran, Johannes L. Brandl, Josef Perner & Joélle Proust (2012). On the Nature, Evolution, Development, and Epistemology of Metacognition: Introductory Thoughts. In Michael Beran, Johannes Brandl, Josef Perner & Joëlle Proust (eds.), The Foundations of Metacognition. Oxford University Press
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  29.  8 DLs
    Elisabeth Stöttinger & Josef Perner (2006). Dissociating Size Representation for Action and for Conscious Judgment: Grasping Visual Illusions Without Apparent Obstacles. Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):269-284.
    Visual illusions provide important evidence for the co-existence of unconscious and conscious representations. Objects surrounded by other figures are consciously perceived as different in size, while the visuo-motor system supposedly uses an unconscious representation of the discs’ true size for grip size scaling. Recent evidence suggests other factors than represented size, e.g., surrounding rings conceived as obstacles, affect grip size. Use of the diagonal illusion avoids visual obstacles in the path of the reaching hand. Results support the dual representation theory. (...)
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  30.  7 DLs
    Josef Perner & Brian Leahy (forthcoming). Mental Files in Development: Dual Naming, False Belief, Identity and Intensionality. Review of Philosophy and Psychology:1-18.
    We use mental files to present an analysis of children's developing understanding of identity in alternative naming tasks and belief. The core assumption is that younger children below the age of about 4 years create different files for an object depending on how the object is individuated . They can anchor them to the same object, hence think of the same object whether they think of it as a rabbit or as an animal. However, the claim is, they cannot yet (...)
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  31.  7 DLs
    Josef Perner & Anton Kühberger (2005). Mental Simulation. In B. Malle & S. Hodges (eds.), Other Minds. Guilford Press 174.
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  32.  6 DLs
    Josef Perner (2000). Memory and Theory of Mind. In Endel Tulving (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Memory. Oxford University Press 297--312.
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  33.  6 DLs
    Zoltán Dienes, Michael Beran, Johannes L. Brandl, Josef Perner & Joelle Proust (2012). Is Hypnotic Responding the Strategic Relinquishment of Metacognition? In Michael Beran, Johannes Brandl, Josef Perner & Joëlle Proust (eds.), The Foundations of Metacognition. Oxford University Press
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  34.  5 DLs
    Brian Leahy, Eva Rafetseder & Josef Perner (2014). Basic Conditional Reasoning: How Children Mimic Counterfactual Reasoning. Studia Logica 102 (4):793-810.
    Children approach counterfactual questions about stories with a reasoning strategy that falls short of adults’ Counterfactual Reasoning (CFR). It was dubbed “Basic Conditional Reasoning” (BCR) in Rafetseder et al. (Child Dev 81(1):376–389, 2010). In this paper we provide a characterisation of the differences between BCR and CFR using a distinction between permanent and nonpermanent features of stories and Lewis/Stalnaker counterfactual logic. The critical difference pertains to how consistency between a story and a conditional antecedent incompatible with a nonpermanent feature of (...)
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  35.  5 DLs
    Josef Perner & Alan Garnham (1988). Conditions for Mutuality. Journal of Semantics 6 (1):369-385.
    We present a finite psychological decision procedure for determining whether a situation 5 provides a participant a in that situation with grounds G for assuming that a and b, the other participant, mutually know some proposition p indicated by S. Our criterion derives from analytic criteria proposed by Lewis (1969) and Schiffer (1972). We discuss how our criterion applies in a series of test examples, and compare it with Clark and Marshall's (1981) triple copresence heuristic. We argue that triple copresence (...)
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  36.  5 DLs
    Josef Perner & Johannes L. Brandl (2005). File Change Semantics for Preschoolers: Alternative Naming and Belief Understanding. Interaction Studies 6 (3):483-501.
  37.  4 DLs
    Josef Perner & Markus Aichhorn (2008). Theory of Mind, Language and the Temporoparietal Junction Mystery. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (4):123-126.
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  38.  4 DLs
    Susan R. Leekam & Josef Perner (1991). Does the Autistic Child Have a Metarepresentational Deficit? Cognition 40 (3):203-218.
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  39.  3 DLs
    Josef Perner (1996). Simulation as Explicitation of Predication-Implicit Knowledge About the Mind: Arguments for a Simulation-Theory Mix. In Peter Carruthers & Peter K. Smith (eds.), Theories of Theories of Mind. Cambridge University Press 90--104.
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  40.  3 DLs
    Zoltán Dienes & Josef Perner (2004). Assumptions of a Subjective Measure of Consciousness: Three Mappings. In Rocco J. Gennaro (ed.), Higher-Order Theories of Consciousness: An Anthology. John Benjamins 56--173.
  41.  3 DLs
    Zoltán Dienes & Josef Perner (1994). Dissociable Definitions of Consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (3):403-404.
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  42.  3 DLs
    Josef Perner (1995). The Many Faces of Belief: Reflections on Fodor's and the Child's Theory of Mind. Cognition 57 (3):241-269.
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  43.  3 DLs
    A. Kuhberger, Josef Perner, M. Schulte & R. Leingruber (1995). Choice or No Choice: Is the Langer Effect Evidence Against Simulation? Mind and Language 10 (4):423-36.
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  44.  3 DLs
    Ted Ruffman & Josef Perner (2005). Do Infants Really Understand False Belief? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (10):462-463.
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  45.  3 DLs
    Anton Kühberger, Josef Perner, Michael Schulte & Robert Leingruber (1995). Choice or No Choice: Is the Langer Effect Evidence Against Simulation? Mind and Language 10 (4):423-436.
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  46.  2 DLs
    Josef Perner & Eva Rafetseder (2011). Of Conditional Reasoning. In Christoph Hoerl, Teresa McCormack & Sarah R. Beck (eds.), Understanding Counterfactuals, Understanding Causation. Oxford University Press 90.
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  47.  1 DLs
    Alan Garnham & Josef Perner (1990). Does Manifestness Solve Problems of Mutuality? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (1):178-179.
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  48.  1 DLs
    Josef Perner (1989). Is “Thinking” Belief? Reply to Wellman and Bartsch. Cognition 33 (3):315-319.
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  49.  1 DLs
    Eva Rafetseder & Josef Perner (2012). When the Alternative Would Have Been Better: Counterfactual Reasoning and the Emergence of Regret. Cognition and Emotion 26 (5):800-819.
  50.  1 DLs
    Josef Perner & Jane E. Ogden (1988). Knowledge for Hunger: Children's Problem with Representation in Imputing Mental States. Cognition 29 (1):47-61.
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