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Joseph Cruz [10]Joseph L. H. Cruz [1]
  1. Joseph Cruz, Connectionism.
    Although the scientific study of the mind as a distinct discipline has been around for only a short time, there are already rumblings of a fundamental change in view about what the mind is like. At the center of this controversy is a cluster of approaches that are together variously called connectionism, neural network modeling, parallel distributed processing (PDP), or dynamic systems theory. This course is an intensive introduction to the connectionist's proposals for thinking about the mind and understanding its (...)
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  2. Joseph Cruz, Contextualism and the Neglected Question of Context.
    A satisfactory contextualist theory of knowledge must provide an account of how knowledge varies across contexts. There are three contextualist proposals for developing such an account. This paper demonstrates that all of them are unacceptable. Contextualists have therefore failed to provide a satisfactory theory of knowledge.
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  3. Joseph Cruz, Early Modern Philosophy.
    The early modern period in Western philosophy (roughly 1600-1800) is the source of many of our most powerful and seductive intellectual commitments. While we may disagree with philosophers of this period, the terms of philosophical inquiry and our standards of rational argumentation are in part derived from the work of Descartes, Leibniz, Locke, Berkeley, Hume and Kant. For this reason, we will pursue a rigorous and sustained introduction to this episode of human intellectual history. We will cover topics in (...)
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  4. Joseph Cruz, Epistemic Norms and the Sellarsian Dilemma for Foundationalism.
    Foundationalists and coherentists disagree over the structure of the part of the mental state corpus that is relevant for epistemic achievement (Bonjour, 1999; Dancy, 1989; Haack, 1993; Sosa, 1980; Pollock and Cruz, 1999). Given the goals of a theory of epistemic justification and the trajectory of the debate over the last three decades, it is not difficult to see how structural questions possess a kind of immediacy. In order to undertake an epistemic evaluation of a belief, one intuitive and appealing (...)
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  5. Joseph Cruz, Is There Reason for Skepticism?
    Two compelling and persistent projects of contemporary epistemology are engaging skepticism and searching for adequate epistemic principles. The former, of course, can be traced in various forms through the ancients and moderns, and the last decade has seen skepticism debated with renewed vigor. The centrality of skepticism in epistemology is manifest. It both presents a foil against which positive epistemic theses may be modified and tested, and offers powerful arguments that perhaps even lead to the conclusion that skepticism correctly captures (...)
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  6. Joseph Cruz, Methods & Foundations of Cognitive Science.
    Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary study of minds and intelligent behavior in human beings and animals. The challenge of integrating a study of the mind with a scientific world view has only recently attracted sustained effort. In this course, we will examine the various scientific methodologies that have been brought to bear to uncover the nature of the mind. We will critically assess the data and theoretical results that define contemporary cognitive science. Beyond the results of experiments and the theories (...)
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  7. Joseph Cruz, Philosophy of Psychology.
    There is a long tradition in philosophy where philosophers attend to the nature, limits, and aspirations of science in general. The increased specialization of scientists themselves, however, has precipitated a parallel development in the philosophy of science. Thus, in addition to general philosophy of science research, it is now common to find philosophers investigating the foundations of particular sciences. Three sciences — physics, biology, and psychology — have received the most attention, as the philosophical issues within these fields have crystallized (...)
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  8. Joseph Cruz, Robert Gordon Research Professor.
    Robert Gordon (Ph.D., Columbia) works primarily in philosophy of mind and cognitive science. For his Master's degree he specialized in Medieval and Renaissance philosophy, with a thesis on Nicholas of Cusa. His doctoral dissertation was in ethics and metaethics, on universalizability and analogy in moral arguments.
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  9. Joseph Cruz, Senior Seminar — Philosophical Naturalism.
    Philosophical naturalism is the thesis that the entirety of the universe is composed of natural things or processes, and philosophers including Aristotle, Hume, Hegel, Nietzsche, Foucault, Mackie, and Fodor subscribe, in some sense, to it. This elusive commitment has been variously interpreted to mean that everything in the universe is physical or material, or that everything is amenable to scientific investigation, or that nothing is supernatural, or that nothing is known a priori, or that everything is natural in some broader (...)
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  10. Joseph Cruz (2010). 12 Is There a Reason for Skepticism? In Joseph Keim Campbell, Michael O.’Rourke & Harry S. Silverstein (eds.), Knowledge and Skepticism. Mit Press. 287.
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  11. Joseph L. H. Cruz (1998). Mindreading: Mental State Ascription and Cognitive Architecture. Mind and Language 13 (3):323-340.
    The debate between the theory-theory and simulation has largely ignored issues of cognitive architecture. In the philosophy of psychology, cognition as symbol manipulation is the orthodoxy. The challenge from connectionism, however, has attracted vigorous and renewed interest. In this paper I adopt connectionism as the antecedent of a conditional: If connectionism is the correct account of cognitive architecture, then the simulation theory should be preferred over the theory-theory. I use both developmental evidence and constraints on explanation in psychology to support (...)
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