78 found
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  1. Joseph S. Fulda (1995). Reasoning with Imperatives Using Classical Logic. Sorites 3:7-11.
    As the journal is effectively defunct, I am uploading a full-text copy, but only of my abstract and article, and some journal front matter. -/- Note that the pagination in the PDF version differs from the official pagination because A4 and 8.5" x 11" differ. -/- Traditionally, imperatives have been handled with deontic logics, not the logic of propositions which bear truth values. Yet, an imperative is issued by the speaker to cause (stay) actions which change the state of affairs, (...)
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  2. Joseph S. Fulda (1993). Exclusive Disjunction and the Biconditional: An Even-Odd Relationship. Mathematics Magazine 66 (2):124.
    Proves two simple identities relating the biconditional and exclusive disjunction. -/- The PDF has been made available gratis by the publisher.
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  3. Joseph S. Fulda, Remarks on the Argument From Design.
    Gives two pared-down versions of the argument from design, which may prove more persuasive as to a Creator, discusses briefly the mathematics underpinning disbelief and nonbelief and its misuse and some proper uses, moves to why the full argument is needed anyway, viz., to demonstrate Providence, offers a theory as to how miracles (open and hidden) occur, viz. the replacement of any particular mathematics underlying a natural law (save logic) by its most appropriate nonstandard variant. -/- Note: This is an (...)
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  4. Joseph S. Fulda (1999). In Defense of Charity and Philanthropy. Business and Society Review 104 (2):179-189.
    The article distinguishes between charity and philanthropy and answers those who argue that monies spent for either are an inefficient deployment of monies for present consumption that could better be deployed by investing in the production of future wealth. It closes by arguing that philanthropists provide a key leadership role in the free-market economy. -/- The author owns the copyright, and there was no agreement, express or implied, not to use the publisher's PDF.
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  5. Joseph S. Fulda (1989). The Logic of the Whole Truth. Rutgers Computer and Technology Law Journal 15 (2):435-446.
    Note: The author holds the copyright, and there was no agreement, express or implied, not to use a facsimile PDF. -/- Using erotetic logic, the paper defines the "the whole truth" in a manner consistent with U.S. Supreme Court precedent. It cannot mean "the whole story," as witnesses in an adversary system are permitted /only/ to answer the questions put to them, nor are they permitted to speculate, add irrelevant material, etc. Nor can it mean not to add an admixture (...)
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  6.  93
    Joseph S. Fulda (2006). A Plea for Automated Language-to-Logical-Form Converters. RASK 24:87-102.
    This has been made available gratis by the publisher. -/- This piece gives the raison d'etre for the development of the converters mentioned in the title. Three reasons are given, one linguistic, one philosophical, and one practical. It is suggested that at least /two/ independent converters are needed. -/- This piece ties together the extended paper "Abstracts from Logical Form I/II," and the short piece providing the comprehensive theory alluded to in the abstract of that extended paper in "Pragmatics, Montague, (...)
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  7.  99
    Joseph S. Fulda (1998). Partially Resolving the Tension Between Omniscience and Free Will: A Mathematical Argument. Sorites 9:53-55.
    As the journal is effectively defunct, I am uploading a full-text copy, but only of my abstract and article, and some journal front matter. -/- Note that the pagination in the PDF version differs from the official pagination because A4 and 8.5" x 11" differ. -/- Note also that this is not a mere repetition of the argument in /Mind/, nor merely an application of it; there are subtle differences. -/- Finally, although Christians are likely to take this as applicable (...)
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  8.  90
    Joseph S. Fulda (1992). The Mathematical Pull of Temptation. Mind 101 (402):305-307.
    Argues that the mathematical structure of a tempting or, more generally, risk-taking situation may prove far more dispositive of the choice made than either character or the lure/pull of the subject/object of temptation/risk-taking. -/- Briefly discusses some implications of this.
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  9.  82
    Joseph S. Fulda (2009). Perfectly Marked, Fair Tests with Unfair Marks. The Mathematical Gazette 93 (527):256-260.
    Shows how, as a consequence of the Arrow Impossibility Theorem, objectivity in grading is chimerical, given a sufficiently knowledgeable teacher (of his students, not his subject) in a sufficiently small class. -/- PDF available from JStor only; permission to post full version previously granted by journal editors and publisher expired. -/- Unpublished reply posted gratis.
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  10.  75
    Joseph S. Fulda (2000). The Logic of “Improper Cross”. Artificial Intelligence and Law 8 (4):337-341.
    Uses erotetic logic to model the courtroom objection "Improper Cross!". -/- Readers downloading the article should also please download the erratum et corrigendum, which is locally available.
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  11.  79
    Joseph S. Fulda (2010). The Logic of “Asked and Answered!”: The Case of the Traffic Light. Ratio Juris 23 (2):282-287.
    Uses erotetic logic to model the courtroom objection "Asked and Answered!".
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  12.  77
    Joseph S. Fulda (2012). Austinian Ifs Revisited – And Squared Away with the Equivalence Thesis and the Theory of Conditional Elements. RASK 36:51-71.
    This paper deals with Austinian ifs of every stripe within classical logic. It is argued that they are truth-functional and the theory of conditional elements is used. Ellipsis is key. Corrects an error in Fulda (2010) in translation and therefore scope. -/- The PDF is made available gratis by the Publisher.
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  13.  69
    Joseph S. Fulda, The Worst Way (Not) to Communicate.
    Evaluates e-mail critically from four perspectives. Note: This is /not/ the full version. The full version is available upon written request only.
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  14.  67
    Joseph S. Fulda (2010). The Full Theory of Conditional Elements: Enumerating, Exemplifying, and Evaluating Each of the Eight Conditional Elements. Acta Analytica 25 (4):459-477.
    This paper presents a unified, more-or-less complete, and largely pragmatic theory of indicative conditionals as they occur in natural language, which is entirely truth-functional and does not involve probability. It includes material implication as a special—and the most important—case, but not as the only case. The theory of conditional elements, as we term it, treats if-statements analogously to the more familiar and less controversial other truth-functional compounds, such as conjunction and disjunction.
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  15.  60
    Joseph S. Fulda (2012). Implications of a Logical Paradox for Computer-Dispensed Justice Reconsidered: Some Key Differences Between Minds and Machines. Artificial Intelligence and Law 20 (3):321-333.
    We argued [Since this argument appeared in other journals, I am reprising it here, almost verbatim.] (Fulda in J Law Info Sci 2:230–232, 1991/AI & Soc 8(4):357–359, 1994) that the paradox of the preface suggests a reason why machines cannot, will not, and should not be allowed to judge criminal cases. The argument merely shows that they cannot now and will not soon or easily be so allowed. The author, in fact, now believes that when—and only when—they are ready they (...)
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  16.  15
    Joseph S. Fulda (1986). Meaningfulness From Logical Form. Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 61 (4):482-496.
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  17.  17
    Joseph S. Fulda (2006). Abstracts From Logic Form: An Experimental Study of the Nexus Between Language and Logic I. Journal of Pragmatics 38 (5):778-807.
  18.  39
    Joseph S. Fulda (1992). Reply to an Objection to Animal Rights. Journal of Value Inquiry 26 (1):87-88.
    Notwithstanding the numerous errors in this piece, the core teaching remains unscathed: Arithmetic (or any other branch of mathematics) cannot do moral work. If it appears otherwise, that simply means some nonstandard version of the relevant area of mathematics will work. -/- Negative results can indeed sometimes be shown using mathematics, but not on such fundamental normative questions as whether something/someone has rights. Also, mathematics can put into relief, sometimes, a fundamental normative question, even though it cannot resolve it.
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  19.  11
    Joseph S. Fulda (2006). Abstracts From Logical Form: An Experimental Study of the Nexus Between Language and Logic II. Journal of Pragmatics 38 (6):925-943.
    This experimental study provides further support for a theory of meaning first put forward by Bar-Hillel and Carnap in 1953 and foreshadowed by Asimov in 1951. The theory is the Popperian notion that the meaningfulness of a proposition is its a priori falsity. We tested this theory in the first part of this paper by translating to logical form a long, tightly written, published text and computed the meaningfulness of each proposition using the a priori falsity measure. We then selected (...)
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  20.  30
    Joseph S. Fulda (2013). The Logic of Failures of the Cinematic Imagination: Two Case Studies – and a Logical Puzzle and Solution in Just One. Pragmatics and Society 4 (1):105-111.
    This piece is intended to explicate - by providing a precising definition of - the common cinematic figure which I term “the failure of the cinematic imagination,“ while presenting a logical puzzle and its solution within a simple Gricean framework. -/- It should be noted that this is neither fully accurate nor fully precise, because of the audience; one should examine the remaining articles in the issue to understand what I mean.
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  21.  21
    Joseph S. Fulda (1985). Alpha Beta Pruning. SIGART Newsletter 94:26.
    Alpha-beta pruning is a technique for pruning trees in artificial intelligence game-playing. This note draws an analogy between the technique, which is, in essence, an application of many-valued logic to the cut-off of the evaluation of conditionals in computer programs (for efficiency).
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  22.  26
    Joseph S. Fulda (2011). Sting Operations Revisited More Generally: Seeing the Forest and the Trees. Sexuality and Culture 15 (4):395-398.
    Review article referring to my prior work in many contexts with the upshot that: Subject to an /extremely/ limited set of exceptions, /all/ sting operations are /per se/ gravely and deeply immoral for the simplest and plainest of reasons: They are calculated and deliberate attempts to bring out the worst in a fellow human being, to play to their weaknesses, and to pander to their blind spots. Whether performed by the government, the media, or other private organizations (for-profit or not-for-profit), (...)
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  23.  24
    Joseph S. Fulda (1988). Ratings and Confirmation. Quality and Quantity 22 (4):435-438.
    We present a linear formalism which makes explicit and precise the confirming effect of independent multiple observers and repeated trials on composite ratings, taking as parameters quantitative estimates of the subjective inputs discussed. -/- Note that the subjective probability used here is so used to study the past not predict the future and is rather limited to what has been called in artificial intelligence "certainty factors," which are arbitrary, or, more well-known, the arbitrary values ascribed to predicates in fuzzy "logic." (...)
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  24.  24
    Hector Hernandez Ortiz & Joseph S. Fulda (2012). Strengthening the Antecedent, Concessive Conditionals, Conditional Rhetorical Questions, and the Theory of Conditional Elements. Journal of Pragmatics 44 (3):328-331.
    Extends the theory of conditional elements in three ways. The critical way, primarily due to the senior author, is the solution to the fallacy of the strengthened antecedent within classical logic.
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  25.  21
    Joseph S. Fulda (2010). Vann McGee’s Counterexample to Modus Ponens: An Enthymeme. Journal of Pragmatics 42 (1):271-273.
    Solves Vann McGee's counterexample to Modus Ponens within classical logic by disclosing the suppressed premises and bringing them /within/ the argument.
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  26.  19
    Joseph S. Fulda (1991). The Paradox of the Surprise Test. The Mathematical Gazette 75 (474):419-421.
    Presents a /simple/ epistemic solution to the paradox of the surprise test, suitable for undergraduates. Given the Gazette's audience, recalcitrant versions, such as Sorenson's, would have been inappropriate to even mention. It is also classified under "logical paradoxes," because it can be argued that given the existence of logical, rather than epistemic, solutions, so also the paradox is logical, rather than epistemic. -/- The author was not sent proofs, because the /Gazette/ was then run on a "shoestring budget"; the 2009 (...)
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  27.  20
    Joseph S. Fulda & Kevin De Fontes (1989). The A Priori Meaningfulness Measure and Resolution Theorem Proving. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 1 (3):227-230.
    Demonstrates the validity of the measure presented in "Estimating Semantic Content" on textbook examples using (binary) resolution [a generalization of disjunctive syllogism] theorem proving; the measure is based on logical probability and is the mirror image of logical form; it dates to Popper.
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  28.  22
    Joseph S. Fulda (1998). “The Extended Mind”—Extended. Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 28 (3):33-34.
    Reviews Clark and Chalmers (1998) and extends their argument from declarative knowledge (extensional knowledge) to procedural knowledge (algorithmic knowledge-how).
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  29.  34
    Joseph S. Fulda (2013). The Logic of Failures of the Cinematic Imagination: Two Case Studies – and a Logical Puzzle and Solution in Just One. Pragmatics and Society 4 (1):105-111.
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  30.  12
    Joseph S. Fulda (1989). Material Implication Revisited. American Mathematical Monthly 96 (3):247-250.
    Demonstrates that the "paradoxes of material implication" are only apparent, sticking entirely within the confines of classical logic.
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  31.  9
    Joseph S. Fulda (1988). The Logic of Expert Judging Systems and the Rights of the Accused. AI and Society 2 (3):266-269.
  32.  4
    Joseph S. Fulda (2009). Rendering Conditionals in Mathematical Discourse with Conditional Elements. Journal of Pragmatics 41 (7):1435-1439.
    In "Material Implications" (1992), mathematical discourse was said to be different from ordinary discourse, with the discussion centering around conditionals. This paper shows how.
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  33.  16
    Joseph S. Fulda (2013). Toward a Thick Libertarianism. Reason Papers 35 (1):193-196.
    Extends the conception of "libertarianism" from the narrow politico-legal sphere to the ethical sphere, by adding two ethical principles which are the logical extension of the politico-legal principle, distinguishing between modesty and humility and providing a definition of the latter, relating the ethical principles to this understanding of humility, and giving two additional (libertarian) grounds for the acceptance of the ethical principles.
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  34.  9
    Joseph S. Fulda (1993). Computer-Generated Art, Music, and Literature: Philosophical Conundrums. SIGART Bulletin 4 (1):6-7.
    Considers the question of the authorship of the works in the title from a /philosophical/, as opposed to legal, standpoint, using the sense-reference dichotomy, intension-extension dichotomy, and procedural knowledge-declarative knowledge dichotomy. Reaches no conclusion.
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  35.  15
    Joseph S. Fulda (2013). The Limits of Consent. Sexuality and Culture 17 (4):659-665.
    This journal has frequently taken the position that /consent/, or at least /informed consent/, is all that from a secular viewpoint is necessary for an activity to be ethical. We argue to the contrary, that /consent/ is and /only/ is a /political/ criterion for determining /criminality/—even for a libertarian. Consensual behavior can be /unethical/—although it should not be criminalized—if the consent will never be truly revocable in the future of if such revocability is severely compromised. We give three examples, one (...)
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  36.  6
    Joseph S. Fulda (2000). Owning the Future, Seth Shulman. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1999. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 2 (3):193-194.
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  37.  14
    Joseph S. Fulda (2000). A Gift of Fire: Social Legal, and Ethical Issues in Computing by Sara Baase. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 2 (4):241-247.
    Extremely favorable review, with hardly any criticisms at all.
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  38.  9
    Joseph S. Fulda (2010). How Digital Perfection Disempowers Scholars. Journal of Information Ethics 19 (2):5-7.
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  39.  9
    Joseph S. Fulda (1991). The Logic of “Double Talk”: A Case Study in Diplomatic Deception. Journal of Literary Semantics 20 (1):53-55.
    Gives what we call "Asimov's Conjecture" that ambiguity can cause lying without lying, in that read one way a statement is tautologous, while read another way presents an iron-clad promise. Solves the conjecture on Asimov's own case by showing how the statement used (as diplomatic deception) is tautologous in propositional logic and an iron-clad promise in predicate logic (with a tense variable). The motivation for the experiment by Fulda & DeFontes (1989) and "Abstracts from Logical Form I/II (2006).".
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  40. Joseph S. Fulda (2009). Information Ethics: Privacy, Property, and Power, Adam D. Moore (Ed.). [REVIEW] Journal of Information Ethics 18 (1):94-103.
    Largely favorable review, with only one significant criticism. Note that the URL points to /all/ reviews in the issue.
     
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  41.  13
    Joseph S. Fulda (2012). Google Books and Other Internet Mischief. Journal of Information Ethics 21 (2):104-109.
    This article argues for substantial ex–post criminal penalties against purveyors of stolen intellectual property, in lieu of current legislation winding its way through both chambers of the United States Congress. Inter alia, it discusses why such a drastic remedy has proven necessary and what other measures the Congress should consider adopting. It concludes with a sobering discussion of Internet mischief more generally. -/- Note: This is in marked contrast to views expressed in 1999 when civil justice would have sufficed, and (...)
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  42.  13
    Joseph S. Fulda (2012). Written for the Moment. Journal of Information Ethics 21 (1):21-26.
    This article argues that the disclosure, dissemination, sale, and publication of texts—such as text messages, e-mails, and letters—addressed to anyone other than the public at large are gravely and profoundly immoral. The argument has two strands, the first based on a conception of privacy largely due to Steven Davis (2009), and the second based on the concept of authorial autonomy and its reverse, authorial dilution.
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  43.  5
    Joseph S. Fulda (2013). "A Brevity on Worsham's" Fast-Food Scholarship". Journal of Information Ethics 22 (1):5-7.
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  44.  8
    Joseph S. Fulda (1998). A New Standard for Appropriation, with Some Remarks on Aggregation. Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 28 (4):6-11.
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  45.  12
    Joseph S. Fulda (2012). Authors' Moral Rights—And How Editors and Publishers Routinely Abridge Them. Journal of Information Ethics 21 (2):7-9.
    Discusses a variety of maneuvers that editors and publishers, respectively, use with the untoward result that the author conveys something other than what and only what he intended to convey.
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  46.  11
    Joseph S. Fulda (1981). The Logistic Equation and Population Decline. Journal of Theoretical Biology 91 (2):255-259.
    A demonstration of two difficulties, both prevalent, in modeling. The first is scopal errors, which are often hard to detect because of their subtlety. The second is that two equations, though facially identical, are implicitly conjoined to /different/ inequalities, limiting the range of the variables or parameters in the equations, thereby changing the (here, ecological) interpretation of the equation, and thus its meaning, and therefore whether it is or is not an adequate model.
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  47.  9
    Joseph S. Fulda (2008). Pragmatics, Montague, and “Abstracts From Logical Form”. Journal of Pragmatics 40 (6):1146-1147.
    In "Abstracts from Logical Form I/II," it was stated in the abstract that it remained necessary to put the pilot experiments into a "comprehensive theory." It is suggested here that the comprehensive theory is nothing other than classical logic modestly extended to include higher-order predicates, functions, and epistemic predicates, as well as a quantitative quantifier to deal with cases other than "all" (taken literally) or "some" in the sense of at least one. It is further suggested that up to a (...)
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  48.  7
    Joseph S. Fulda (2007). Internet Stings Directed at Pedophiles: A Study in Philosophy and Law. Sexuality and Culture 11 (1):52-98.
    The article is intended to, in Sections I and II, flesh out and put within a metaphilosophical framework the theoretical argument first made in 2002 in “Do Internet Stings Directed at Pedophiles Capture Offenders or Create Offenders? And Allied Questions” (Sexuality & Culture 6(4): 73–100), with some modifications (See note 14). Where there are differences, I stand by this version as the final version of the argument. Section III addresses three experimental or empirical studies which might be thought to contradict (...)
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  49.  5
    Joseph S. Fulda (1988). Estimating Semantic Content: An A Priori Approach. International Journal of Intelligent Systems 3 (1):35-43.
    Gives a general method as well as some results (inspired by Asimov, 1951; since discovered to be in Bar-Hillel and Carnap [several versions; Charles Parsons referred me to /Language and Information/]) to recover meaning (eventually automatically) from logical form/logical probability, which are mirror images. (Sets are taken as extensions of predicates, and knowledge of the sizes is needed; to that extent the method is a posteriori).
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  50.  5
    Joseph S. Fulda (1999). Can One Really Reason About Laws? Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 29 (2):31.
    This is a review article of Tokuyasu Kakuta, Makoto Haraguchi, and Yoshiaki Okubo, "A Goal-Dependent Abstraction for Legal Reasoning by Analogy," /Artificial Intelligence and Law/ 5(March 1997): 97-118.
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