Search results for 'Joyce Plaza' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Joyce Plaza (2004). The Big Fix: How the Pharmaceutical Industry Rips Off American Consumers. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 13 (04):420-421.score: 240.0
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  2. D. E. Cody (2001). In Focus. Life After BioethicsLine: A Reply to Joyce Plaza. American Journal of Bioethics: Ajob 2 (4).score: 90.0
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  3. Richard Joyce (2001). The Myth of Morality. Cambridge University Press.score: 60.0
    In The Myth of Morality, Richard Joyce argues that moral discourse is hopelessly flawed. At the heart of ordinary moral judgments is a notion of moral inescapability, or practical authority, which, upon investigation, cannot be reasonably defended. Joyce argues that natural selection is to blame, in that it has provided us with a tendency to invest the world with values that it does not contain, and demands that it does not make. Should we therefore do away with morality, (...)
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  4. Richard Joyce, Error Theory.score: 60.0
    To hold an error theory about morality is to endorse a kind of radical moral skepticism—a skepticism analogous to atheism in the religious domain. The atheist thinks that religious utterances, such as “God loves you,” really are truth-evaluable assertions (as opposed to being veiled commands or expressions of hope, etc.), but that the world just doesn’t contain the items (e.g., God) necessary to render such assertions true. Similarly, the moral error theorist maintains that moral judgments are truth-evaluable assertions (thus contrasting (...)
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  5. Richard Joyce, Nihilism.score: 60.0
    “Nihilism” (from the Latin “nihil” meaning nothing) is not a well-defined term. One can be a nihilist about just about anything: A philosopher who does not believe in the existence of knowledge, for example, might be called an “epistemological nihilist”; an atheist might be called a “religious nihilist.” In the vicinity of ethics, one should take care to distinguish moral nihilism from political nihilism and from existential nihilism. These last two will be briefly discussed below, only with the aim of (...)
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  6. Richard Joyce (2006). The Evolution of Morality. MIT Press.score: 60.0
    Moral thinking pervades our practical lives, but where did this way of thinking come from, and what purpose does it serve? Is it to be explained by environmental pressures on our ancestors a million years ago, or is it a cultural invention of more recent origin? In The Evolution of Morality, Richard Joyce takes up these controversial questions, finding that the evidence supports an innate basis to human morality. As a moral philosopher, Joyce is interested in whether any (...)
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  7. Richard Joyce (2002). Theistic Ethics and the Euthyphro Dilemma. Journal of Religious Ethics 30 (1):49-75.score: 30.0
    It is widely believed that the Divine Command Theory is untenable due to the Euthyphro Dilemma. This article first examines the Platonic dialogue of that name, and shows that Socrates’s reasoning is faulty. Second, the dilemma in the form in which many contemporary philosophers accept it is examined in detail, and this reasoning is also shown to be deficient. This is not to say, however, that the Divine Command Theory is true—merely that one popular argument for rejecting it is unsound. (...)
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  8. Richard Joyce, “Ethics After Darwin”.score: 30.0
    Through most of the 20th Century, the influence of Darwin on the philosophical field of ethics was negligible. Things changed noticeably in the last couple of decades or so of that century, and now “evolutionary ethics”—which had lain dormant since Darwin’s contemporary Herbert Spencer—is a lively and hotly debated topic. There are several Darwinian theses that might have bearing on moral philosophy.
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  9. Richard Joyce (2011). The Error In 'The Error In The Error Theory'. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 89 (3):519-534.score: 30.0
    In his paper ?The Error in the Error Theory?[this journal, 2008], Stephen Finlay attempts to show that the moral error theorist has not only failed to prove his case, but that the error theory is in fact false. This paper rebuts Finlay's arguments, criticizes his positive theory, and clarifies the error-theoretic position.
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  10. James M. Joyce (1998). A Nonpragmatic Vindication of Probabilism. Philosophy of Science 65 (4):575-603.score: 30.0
    The pragmatic character of the Dutch book argument makes it unsuitable as an "epistemic" justification for the fundamental probabilist dogma that rational partial beliefs must conform to the axioms of probability. To secure an appropriately epistemic justification for this conclusion, one must explain what it means for a system of partial beliefs to accurately represent the state of the world, and then show that partial beliefs that violate the laws of probability are invariably less accurate than they could be otherwise. (...)
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  11. Richard Joyce (2008). Précis of The Evolution of Morality. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 77 (1):213-218.score: 30.0
    The Evolution of Morality attempts to accomplish two tasks. The first is to clarify and provisionally advocate the thesis that human morality is a distinct adaptation wrought by biological natural selection. The second is to inquire whether this empirical thesis would, if true, have any metaethical implications.
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  12. Richard Joyce (2011). Moral Fictionalism. Philosophy Now 82:14-17.score: 30.0
    Were I not afraid of appearing too philosophical, I should remind my reader of that famous doctrine, supposed to be fully proved in modern times, “That tastes and colours, and all other sensible qualities, lie not in the bodies, but merely in the senses.” The case is the same with beauty and deformity, virtue and vice. This doctrine, however, takes off no more from the reality of the latter qualities, than from that of the former; nor need it give any (...)
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  13. Richard Joyce (2009). Is Moral Projectivism Empirically Tractable? Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 12 (1):53 - 75.score: 30.0
    Different versions of moral projectivism are delineated: minimal, metaphysical, nihilistic, and noncognitivist. Minimal projectivism (the focus of this paper) is the conjunction of two subtheses: (1) that we experience morality as an objective aspect of the world and (2) that this experience has its origin in an affective attitude (e.g., an emotion) rather than in perceptual faculties. Both are empirical claims and must be tested as such. This paper does not offer ideas on any specific test procedures, but rather undertakes (...)
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  14. Richard Joyce, Moral Anti-Realism.score: 30.0
    It might be expected that it would suffice for the entry for “moral anti-realism” to contain only some links to other entries in this encyclopedia. It could contain a link to “moral realism” and stipulate the negation of the view there described. Alternatively, it could have links to the entries “anti-realism” and “morality” and could stipulate the conjunction of the materials contained therein. The fact that neither of these approaches would be adequate—and, more strikingly, that following the two procedures would (...)
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  15. Alan Hájek & James M. Joyce, Confirmation.score: 30.0
    I.1. Introduction Confirmation theory is intended to codify the evidential bearing of observations on hypotheses, characterizing relations of inductive “support” and “counter­support” in full generality. The central task is to understand what it means to say that datum E confirms or supports a hypothesis H when E does not logically entail H.
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  16. Richard Joyce (2006). Metaethics and the Empirical Sciences. Philosophical Explorations 9 (1):133 – 148.score: 30.0
    What contribution can the empirical sciences make to metaethics? This paper outlines an argument to a particular metaethical conclusion - that moral judgments are epistemically unjustified - that depends in large part on a posteriori premises.
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  17. James M. Joyce (2005). How Probabilities Reflect Evidence. Philosophical Perspectives 19 (1):153–178.score: 30.0
  18. James M. Joyce (2010). Causal Reasoning and Backtracking. Philosophical Studies 147 (1):139 - 154.score: 30.0
    I argue that one central aspect of the epistemology of causation, the use of causes as evidence for their effects, is largely independent of the metaphysics of causation. In particular, I use the formalism of Bayesian causal graphs to factor the incremental evidential impact of a cause for its effect into a direct cause-to-effect component and a backtracking component. While the “backtracking” evidence that causes provide about earlier events often obscures things, once we our restrict attention to the cause-to-effect component (...)
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  19. Richard Joyce (2002). Moral Realism and Teleosemantics. Biology and Philosophy 16 (5):723-31.score: 30.0
    In a recent article, William F. Harms (2000) argues in a novel way for a form of moral realism. He does not actually argue that moral realism is true, but rather that if morality is the product of natural selection.
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  20. James M. Joyce (2010). A Defense of Imprecise Credences in Inference and Decision Making1. Philosophical Perspectives 24 (1):281-323.score: 30.0
  21. James M. Joyce (2012). Regret and Instability in Causal Decision Theory. Synthese 187 (1):123-145.score: 30.0
    Andy Egan has recently produced a set of alleged counterexamples to causal decision theory (CDT) in which agents are forced to decide among causally unratifiable options, thereby making choices they know they will regret. I show that, far from being counterexamples, CDT gets Egan's cases exactly right. Egan thinks otherwise because he has misapplied CDT by requiring agents to make binding choices before they have processed all available information about the causal consequences of their acts. I elucidate CDT in a (...)
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  22. James M. Joyce (2007). Are Newcomb Problems Really Decisions? Synthese 156 (3):537 - 562.score: 30.0
    Richard Jeffrey long held that decision theory should be formulated without recourse to explicitly causal notions. Newcomb problems stand out as putative counterexamples to this ‘evidential’ decision theory. Jeffrey initially sought to defuse Newcomb problems via recourse to the doctrine of ratificationism, but later came to see this as problematic. We will see that Jeffrey’s worries about ratificationism were not compelling, but that valid ratificationist arguments implicitly presuppose causal decision theory. In later work, Jeffrey argued that Newcomb problems are not (...)
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  23. Richard Joyce (2002). Expressivism and Motivation Internalism. Analysis 62 (4):336–344.score: 30.0
    The task of this paper is to argue that expressivism [the thesis that moral judgements function to express desires, emotions, or pro/con attitudes] neither implies, nor is implied by, [motivational internalism].
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  24. Richard Joyce (2009). The Skeptick's Tale. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 78 (1):213 - 221.score: 30.0
    Any metaethicist tempted to dismiss a defense of moral intuitionism as too flaky to merit serious attention should think twice. Ethical Intuitionism is a forceful, clear, original, and intelligent piece of philosophy, and Michael Huemer can be proud of his efforts. He proceeds by identifying an exhaustive list of five possible metaethical positions, then knocks down four until only his favored intuitionism remains. One of the advantages of any such “last man standing” strategy is that even the most hardened opponent (...)
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  25. Thomas J. Rankin & Nicholas R. Joyce (2011). The Lessons of the Development of the First APA Ethics Code: Blending Science, Practice, and Politics. Ethics and Behavior 20 (6):466-481.score: 30.0
  26. Richard Joyce (2012). Review of Kalderon, M.E., Moral Fictionalism. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 85 (1):161-173.score: 30.0
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  27. James M. Joyce (2007). Epistemic Deference: The Case of Chance. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 107 (2):187 - 206.score: 30.0
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  28. James M. Joyce (2000). Why We Still Need the Logic of Decision. Philosophy of Science 67 (3):13.score: 30.0
    In The Logic of Decision Richard Jeffrey defends a version of expected utility theory that advises agents to choose acts with an eye to securing evidence for thinking that desirable results will ensue. Proponents of "causal" decision theory have argued that Jeffrey's account is inadequate because it fails to properly discriminate the causal features of acts from their merely evidential properties. Jeffrey's approach has also been criticized on the grounds that it makes it impossible to extract a unique probability/utility representation (...)
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  29. Richard Joyce, Is Human Morality Innate?score: 30.0
    The first objective of this chapter is to clarify what might be meant by the claim that human morality is innate. The second is to argue that if human morality is indeed innate an explanation may be provided that does not resort to an appeal to group selection, but invokes only individual selection and so-called “reciprocal altruism” in particular. This second task is not motivated by any theoretical or methodological prejudice against group selection; I willingly concede that group selection is (...)
     
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  30. R. Joyce (2000). Rational Fear of Monsters. British Journal of Aesthetics 40 (2):209-224.score: 30.0
    Colin Radford must weary of defending his thesis that the emotional reactions we have towards fictional characters, events, and states of affairs are irrational.1 Yet, for all the discussion, the issue has not, to my mind, been properly settled—or at least not settled in the manner I should prefer—and so this paper attempts once more to debunk Radford’s defiance of common sense. For some, the question of whether our emotional responses to fiction are rational does not arise, for they are (...)
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  31. Richard Joyce, What Neuroscience Can (and Cannot) Contribute to Metaethics.score: 30.0
    Suppose there are two people having a moral disagreement about, say, abortion. They argue in a familiar way about whether fetuses have rights, whether a woman’s right to autonomy over her body overrides the fetus’s welfare, and so on. But then suppose one of the people says “Oh, it’s all just a matter of opinion; there’s no objective fact about whether fetuses have rights. When we say that something is morally forbidden, all we’re really doing is expressing our disapproval of (...)
     
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  32. R. Joyce (2013). Unfit for the Future: The Need for Moral EnhancementBy Ingmar Persson And Julian Savulescu. Analysis 73 (3):587-589.score: 30.0
  33. Richard Joyce (2010). Expressivism, Motivation Internalism, and Hume. In Charles R. Pigden (ed.), Hume on Motivation and Virtue. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 30.0
    As a metaethicist, I am interested in whether expressivism is true, and thus interested in whether the argument that people think they find in Hume is a sound one. Not being a Hume scholar (but merely a devoted fan), I am less interested in whether Hume really was an expressivist or whether he really did present an argument in its favor. Hume’s metaethical views are very difficult to nail down, and by a careful selection of quotes one can present him (...)
     
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  34. R. Joyce (2009). Review: Jesse J. Prinz: The Emotional Construction of Morals. [REVIEW] Mind 118 (470):508-518.score: 30.0
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  35. P. Joyce (2003). Imagining Experiences Correctly. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 103 (3):361-370.score: 30.0
    According to Mellor, we know what an experience is like if we can imagine it correctly, and we will do so if we recognise the experience as it is imagined. This paper identifies a constraint on adequate accounts of how we ordinarily imagine experiences correctly: the capacities to imagine and to recognise the experience must be jointly operative at the point of forming an intention to imagine the experience. The paper develops an account of imagining experiences correctly that meets this (...)
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  36. Richard Joyce & Simon Kirchin (2007). Introduction. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 10 (5):421-425.score: 30.0
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  37. Richard Joyce (2004). Why Humans Judge Things to Be Good. Biology and Philosophy 19 (5):809-817.score: 30.0
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  38. Jim Joyce (2004). Williamson on Evidence and Knowledge. Philosophical Books 45 (4):296-305.score: 30.0
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  39. James Joyce, Bayes' Theorem. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 30.0
    Bayes' Theorem is a simple mathematical formula used for calculating conditional probabilities. It figures prominently in subjectivist or Bayesian approaches to epistemology, statistics, and inductive logic. Subjectivists, who maintain that rational belief is governed by the laws of probability, lean heavily on conditional probabilities in their theories of evidence and their models of empirical learning. Bayes' Theorem is central to these enterprises both because it simplifies the calculation of conditional probabilities and because it clarifies significant features of subjectivist position. Indeed, (...)
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  40. R. Joyce (2000). Darwinian Ethics and Error. Biology and Philosophy 15 (5):713-732.score: 30.0
    Suppose that the human tendency to think of certain actions andomissions as morally required – a notion that surely lies at the heart of moral discourse – is a trait that has been naturallyselected for. Many have thought that from this premise we canjustify or vindicate moral concepts. I argue that this is mistaken, and defend Michael Ruse''s view that the moreplausible implication is an error theory – the idea thatmorality is an illusion foisted upon us by evolution. Thenaturalistic fallacy (...)
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  41. Richard Joyce (2008). Replies. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 77 (1):245-267.score: 30.0
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  42. Richard Joyce (2008). Morality, Schmorality. In Paul Bloomfield (ed.), Morality and Self-Interest. Oxford University Press.score: 30.0
    In his contribution to this volume, Paul Bloomfield analyzes and attempts to answer the question “Why is it bad to be bad?” I too will use this question as my point of departure; in particular I want to approach the matter from the perspective of a moral error theorist. This discussion will preface one of the principal topics of this paper: the relationship between morality and self-interest. Again, my main goal is to clarify what the moral error theorist might say (...)
     
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  43. James Joyce (1999). The Foundations of Causal Decision Theory. Cambridge University Press.score: 30.0
  44. Richard Joyce (2000). The Fugitive Thought. Journal of Value Inquiry 34 (4):463-478.score: 30.0
    Moral imperatives are claimed to be inescapable. The moral felon who convinces us that he desired to commit his crimes, that he had no desires that the actions thwarted, does not incline us to withdraw our judgment that he did what he ought not to have done. We do not permit him to evade his moral culpability by citing unusual desires or interests. This thesis of moral inescapability seems familiar and yet is notoriously difficult to make sense of. Philippa Foot (...)
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  45. James M. Joyce (2002). Levi on Causal Decision Theory and the Possibility of Predicting One's Own Actions. Philosophical Studies 110 (1):69 - 102.score: 30.0
    Isaac Levi has long criticized causal decisiontheory on the grounds that it requiresdeliberating agents to make predictions abouttheir own actions. A rational agent cannot, heclaims, see herself as free to choose an actwhile simultaneously making a prediction abouther likelihood of performing it. Levi is wrongon both points. First, nothing in causaldecision theory forces agents to makepredictions about their own acts. Second,Levi's arguments for the ``deliberation crowdsout prediction thesis'' rely on a flawed modelof the measurement of belief. Moreover, theability of agents (...)
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  46. Christina M. Rummell & Nicholas R. Joyce (2011). “So Wat Do U Want to Wrk on 2day?”: The Ethical Implications of Online Counseling. Ethics and Behavior 20 (6):482-496.score: 30.0
    Internet counseling is an area of rapid expansion in the field of applied psychology. Internet counseling or psychotherapy involves a variety of activities such as psychoeducation, individual therapy, and automated self-help interventions delivered via the Internet. Although other professional societies such as the National Association of Social Workers, the American Counseling Association, and the National Board of Certified Counselors have tackled the issues of Internet counseling ethics head on, the American Psychological Association has been conspicuously absent from this debate. Yet (...)
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  47. Richard Joyce (1997). Cartesian Memory. Journal of the History of Philosophy 35 (3):375-393.score: 30.0
    Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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  48. Richard Joyce (2014). Taking Moral Skepticism Seriously. Philosophical Studies 168 (3):843-851.score: 30.0
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  49. Richard Joyce (2003). Cultural Treasures and Slippery Slopes. Public Affairs Quarterly 17 (1):1-16.score: 30.0
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  50. Richard Joyce (2013). Psychological Fictionalism, and the Threat of Fictionalist Suicide. The Monist 96 (4):517-538.score: 30.0
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