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Profile: Julian Reiss (Durham University)
  1. Roman Frigg & Julian Reiss (forthcoming). A Critical Look at the Philosophy of Simulation. Synthese.
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  2. Julian Reiss (forthcoming). Causation Isn't Contrastive, It's Contextual. Philosophy Compass.
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  3. Julian Reiss (forthcoming). The Philosophy of Medicine Roundtable 2009. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics.
     
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  4. Julian Reiss (2014). Causation in the Sciences: An Inferentialist Approach. Routledge.
    In this book, Reiss argues in favour of a tight fit between evidence, concept and purpose in our causal investigations in the sciences. There is no doubt that the sciences employ a vast array of techniques to address causal questions such as controlled experiments, randomized trials, statistical and econometric tools, causal modeling and thought experiments. But how do these different methods relate to each other and to the causal inquiry at hand? Reiss argues that there is no "gold standard" in (...)
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  5. Julian Reiss (2013). Contextualising Causation Part I. Philosophy Compass 8 (11):1066-1075.
    This is the first instalment of a two-part paper on the counterfactual theory of causation. It is well known that this theory is ridden with counterexamples. Specifically, the following four features of the theory suffer from problems: it understands causation as a relation between events; counterfactual dependence is understood using a metric of similarity among possible worlds; it defines a non-discriminatory concept of causation; and it understands causation as transitive. A number of philosophers have recently proposed that causation is contrastive (...)
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  6. Julian Reiss (2013). Contextualising Causation Part II. Philosophy Compass 8 (11):1076-1090.
    In recent years, a number of philosophers have attempted to fix paradoxes of the counterfactual account of causation by making causation contrastive. In this framework, causation is understood to be not a two-place relationship between a cause and an effect but a three or four-place relationship between a cause, an effect and a contrast on the side of the cause, the effect or both. I argue that contrasting helps resolving certain paradoxes only if an account of admissibility of the chosen (...)
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  7. Julian Reiss (2013). Philosophy of Economics: A Contemporary Introduction. Routledge.
    Philosophy of Economics: A Contemporary Introduction is the first systematic textbook in the philosophy of economics. It introduces the epistemological, metaphysical and ethical problems that arise in economics, and presents detailed discussions of the solutions that have been offered. Throughout, philosophical issues are illustrated by and analysed in the context of concrete cases drawn from contemporary economics, the history of economic ideas, and actual economic events. This demonstrates the relevance of philosophy of economics both for the science of economics and (...)
     
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  8. Julian Reiss (2013). The Explanation Paradox Redux. Journal of Economic Methodology 20 (3):280 - 292.
    I respond to some challenges raised by my critics. In particular, I argue in favour of six claims. First, against Alexandrova and Northcott, I point out that to deny the explanatoriness of economic models by assuming an ontic (specifically, causal) conception of explanation is to beg the question. Second, against defences of causal realism (by Hausman, Mäki, Rol and Grüne-Yanoff) I point out that they have provided no criterion to distinguish those claims a model makes that can be interpreted realistically (...)
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  9. Phyllis Illari, Julian Reiss & Federica Russo (2012). Introduction. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 43 (4):758-760.
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  10. Julian Reiss (2012). Counterfactuals. In Harold Kincaid (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Social Science. Oxford University Press.
  11. Julian Reiss (2012). Contrefactuels, expériences de pensée, et conception singulariste de la relation causale en histoire. Labyrinthe 39:113-127.
    L’analyse singulariste de la relation causale Dans l’un de ses textes les plus souvent lus, « Possibilité objective et causalité adéquate en histoire », Max Weber introduit ainsi la procédure de base de l’analyse singulariste des relations causales : L’attribution des effets aux causes prend place à travers un processus de pensée qui inclut une série d’abstractions. La première et la plus décisive a lieu quand nous concevons que l’une ou plusieurs des composantes causales sont modifiées dans ..
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  12. Julian Reiss (2012). Causation in the Sciences: An Inferentialist Account. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 43 (4):769-777.
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  13. Julian Reiss (2012). Idealization and the Aims of Economics: Three Cheers for Instrumentalism. Economics and Philosophy 28 (3):363-383.
    This paper aims (a) to provide characterizations of realism and instrumentalism that are philosophically interesting and applicable to economics; and (b) to defend instrumentalism against realism as a methodological stance in economics. Starting point is the observation that , which, or so I argue, is difficult to square with the realist's aim of truth, even if the latter is understood as or . The three cheers in favour of instrumentalism are: (1) Once we have usefulness, truth is redundant. (2) There (...)
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  14. Julian Reiss (2012). The Explanation Paradox. Journal of Economic Methodology 19 (1):43-62.
    This paper examines mathematical models in economics and observes that three mutually inconsistent hypotheses concerning models and explanation are widely held: (1) economic models are false; (2) economic models are nevertheless explanatory; and (3) only true accounts explain. Commentators have typically resolved the paradox by rejecting either one of these hypotheses. I will argue that none of the proposed resolutions work and conclude that therefore the paradox is genuine and likely to stay.
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  15. Julian Reiss (2011). Theory, Generalisations From Cases and Methodological Maxims in Evidence-Based Economics: Responses to the Reviews by DiNardo, Guala and Kincaid. Journal of Economic Methodology 18 (01):93-96.
  16. Julian Reiss (2011). Third Time's a Charm: Causation, Science, and Wittgensteinian Pluralism. In Phyllis McKay Illari, Federica Russo & Jon Williamson (eds.), Causality in the Sciences. Oup Oxford.
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  17. Julian Reiss, Miriam Solomon & David Teira (2011). Mechanisms, Continental Approaches, Trials, and Evolutionary Medicine: New Work in the Philosophy of Medicine. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 32 (1):1-4.
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  18. Julian Reiss (2010). Across the Boundaries: Extrapolation in Biology and Social Science, Daniel P. Steel. Oxford University Press, 2007. Xi + 241 Pages. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 26 (03):382-390.
  19. Julian Reiss (2010). In Favour of a Millian Proposal to Reform Biomedical Research. Synthese 177 (3):427 - 447.
    One way to make philosophy of science more socially relevant is to attend to specific scientific practises that affect society to a great extent. One such practise is biomedical research. This paper looks at contemporary U.S. biomedical research in particular and argues that it suffers from important epistemic, moral and socioeconomic failings. It then discusses and criticises existing approaches to improve on the status quo, most prominently by Thomas Pogge (a political philosopher), Joseph Stiglitz (a Nobel-prize winning economist) and James (...)
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  20. Julian Reiss & Philip Kitcher (2010). Biomedical Research, Neglected Diseases, and Well-Ordered Science. Theoria. An International Journal for Theory, History and Foundations of Science 24 (3):263-282.
    In this paper we make a proposal for reforming biomedical research that is aimed to align re-search more closely with the so-called fair-share principle according to which the proportions of global resources as-signed to different diseases should agree with the ratios of human suffering associated with those diseases.
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  21. David Etlin, Maarten Van Dyck, Phil Dowe, Julian Reiss, Thomas Ac Reydon, Sabina Leonelli, Marshall Abrams, William Bechtel, Joshua Filler & Yoichi Ishida (2009). 10. The Problem of Noncounterfactual Conditionals The Problem of Noncounterfactual Conditionals (Pp. 676-688). Philosophy of Science 76 (5).
     
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  22. Roman Frigg & Julian Reiss (2009). The Philosophy of Simulation: Hot New Issues or Same Old Stew? Synthese 169 (3):593 - 613.
    Computer simulations are an exciting tool that plays important roles in many scientific disciplines. This has attracted the attention of a number of philosophers of science. The main tenor in this literature is that computer simulations not only constitute interesting and powerful new science , but that they also raise a host of new philosophical issues. The protagonists in this debate claim no less than that simulations call into question our philosophical understanding of scientific ontology, the epistemology and semantics of (...)
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  23. Julian Reiss (2009). Causation in the Social Sciences: Evidence, Inference, and Purpose. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 39 (1):20-40.
    All univocal analyses of causation face counterexamples. An attractive response to this situation is to become a pluralist about causal relationships. "Causal pluralism" is itself, however, a pluralistic notion. In this article, I argue in favor of pluralism about concepts of cause in the social sciences. The article will show that evidence for, inference from, and the purpose of causal claims are very closely linked. Key Words: causation • pluralism • evidence • methodology.
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  24. Julian Reiss (2009). Counterfactuals, Thought Experiments, and Singular Causal Analysis in History. Philosophy of Science 76 (5):712-723.
    Thought experiments are ubiquitous in science and especially prominent in domains in which experimental and observational evidence is scarce. One such domain is the causal analysis of singular events in history. A long‐standing tradition that goes back to Max Weber addresses the issue by means of ‘what‐if’ counterfactuals. In this paper I give a descriptive account of this widely used method and argue that historians following it examine difference makers rather than causes in the philosopher’s sense. While difference making is (...)
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  25. Julian Reiss (2009). Editorial and Interview with Kevin Korb. The Reasoner 3 (2):1-3.
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  26. Julian Reiss (2009). Rejoinder Error in Economics. Towards a More Evidence-Based Methodology , Julian Reiss, Routledge, 2007, XXIV + 246 Pages. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 25 (2):210-215.
  27. Julian Reiss, Explanation.
    Explaining socio-economic phenomena is one important aim of economics. There is very little agreement, however, on what precisely constitutes an adequate economic explanation. Starting from the very influential but defective ‘deductive-nomological model’ of explanation, this article describes and criticizes the major contemporary competitors for such an account (the probabilistic–causal, the mechanistic–causal and the unificationist models) and argues that none of them can by itself capture all aspects of a good explanation. When seeking to explain a socio-economic phenomenon it should therefore (...)
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  28. Julian Reiss, David Teira & Jesús Zamora Bonilla (2008). What's New in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences?: Guest Editors' Introduction. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 38 (3):311-313.
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  29. Julian Reiss (2007). Do We Need Mechanisms in the Social Sciences? Philosophy of the Social Sciences 37 (2):163-184.
    A recent movement in the social sciences and philosophy of the social sciences focuses on mechanisms as a central analytical unit. Starting from a pluralist perspective on the aims of the social sciences, I argue that there are a number of important aims to which knowledge about mechanisms—whatever their virtues relative to other aims—contributes very little at best and that investigating mechanisms is therefore a methodological strategy with fairly limited applicability. Key Words: social science • mechanisms • explanation • critical (...)
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  30. Julian Reiss (2005). Causal Instrumental Variables and Interventions. Philosophy of Science 72 (5):964-976.
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  31. Julian Reiss (2005). La contingencia de las teorías de causación y explicación: comentarios sobre Paul Humphreys. Enrahonar: Quaderns de Filosofía 37:35-44.
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  32. Julian Reiss (2004). Critical Realism and the Mainstream. Journal of Economic Methodology 11 (3):321-327.
  33. Julian Reiss (2004). Evidence-Based Economics: Issues and Some Preliminary Answers. Analyse and Kritik: Zeitschrift Fur Sozialtheorie 26 (2):346-363.
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  34. Julian Reiss (2004). Review of Kevin Hoover's Methodology of Empirical Macroeconomics. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 20 (1):226-233.
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  35. Julian Reiss (2004). The Methodology of Empirical Macroeconomics by Kevin D. Hoover. Cambridge University Press 2001, XII + 186 Pages. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 20 (1):226-233.
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  36. Julian Reiss (2001). Natural Economic Quantities and Their Measurement. Journal of Economic Methodology 8 (2):287-311.
    This paper discusses and develops an important distinction drawn by Jevons, viz . that between natural and fictitious quantities. This distinction provides a basis for a theory of economic concept formation that aims at picking out families of models that are phenomenally adequate, explanatory and exact simultaneously. Essentially, the theory demands of an economic quantity to be natural that (1) it is explained by a causal model, (2) it is measurable and (3) the measurement procedure is justified. The proposed theory (...)
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