Search results for 'Jun Otsuka' (try it on Scholar)

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Profile: Jun Otsuka (Indiana University, Bloomington)
Profile: Jun Otsuka (University of California, Davis)
  1. Jun Otsuka, Trin Turner, Colin Allen & Elisabeth Lloyd (2011). Why the Causal View of Fitness Survives. Philosophy of Science 78 (2):209-224.score: 240.0
    We critically examine Denis Walsh’s latest attack on the causalist view of fitness. Relying on Judea Pearl’s Sure-Thing Principle and geneticist John Gillespie’s model for fitness, Walsh has argued that the causal interpretation of fitness results in a reductio. We show that his conclusion only follows from misuse of the models, that is, (1) the disregard of the real biological bearing of the population-size parameter in Gillespie’s model and (2) the confusion of the distinction between ordinary probability and Pearl’s causal (...)
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  2. Jun Otsuka (forthcoming). Using Causal Models to Integrate Proximate and Ultimate Causation. Biology and Philosophy:1-19.score: 240.0
    Ernst Mayr’s classical work on the nature of causation in biology has had a huge influence on biologists as well as philosophers. Although his distinction between proximate and ultimate causation recently came under criticism from those who emphasize the role of development in evolutionary processes, the formal relationship between these two notions remains elusive. Using causal graph theory, this paper offers a unified framework to systematically translate a given “proximate” causal structure into an “ultimate” evolutionary response, and illustrates evolutionary implications (...)
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  3. Michael Otsuka, Libertarianism.score: 60.0
    Michael Otsuka sets out to vindicate left-libertarianism, a political Michael Otsuka is Lecturer in Philosophy philosophy which combines stringent rights of control over one’s own at University College London. mind, body, and life with egalitarian rights of ownership of the world. Otsuka reclaims the ideas of John Locke from the libertarian right and shows how his Second Treatise of Government provides the theoretical foundations for a left-libertarianism which is both more libertarian and more egalitarian than the Kantian (...)
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  4. Michael Otsuka, Too Much Property.score: 60.0
    Mike Otsukaʼs book aspires to do more than its title discloses. Libertarianism without Inequality (Oxford University Press, 2003) does not merely aim to reconcile liberty and equality (that is handled without remainder in the first chapter) but to draw the outlines of a complete, and distinctly Lockean, political theory. Rather than starting from first principles, Otsuka explores several specific issues only loosely connected to each other, hoping that these might add up to a complete political vision. Though the discussion (...)
     
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  5. Michael Otsuka (2010). A Rejoinder to Fischer and Tognazzini. Journal of Ethics 14 (1):37 - 42.score: 60.0
    In Otsuka ( 1998 ), I endorse an incompatibilist Principle of Avoidable Blame. In this rejoinder to Fischer and Tognazzini ( 2009 ), I defend this principle against their charge that it is vulnerable to Frankfurt-type counterexample.
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  6. Michael Otsuka (2004). Equality, Ambition and Insurance. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 78 (1):151–166.score: 60.0
    [Andrew Williams] It is difficult for prioritarians to explain the degree to which justice requires redress for misfortune in a way that avoids imposing unreasonably high costs on more advantaged individuals whilst also economising on intuitionist appeals to judgment. An appeal to hypothetical insurance may be able to solve the problems of cost and judgment more successfully, and can also be defended from critics who claim that resource egalitarianism is best understood to favour the ex post elimination of envy over (...)
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  7. Michael Otsuka & Alex Voorhoeve (2009). Why It Matters That Some Are Worse Off Than Others: An Argument Against the Priority View. Philosophy and Public Affairs 37 (2):171-199.score: 30.0
  8. Michael Otsuka (2008). Double Effect, Triple Effect and the Trolley Problem: Squaring the Circle in Looping Cases. Utilitas 20 (1):92-110.score: 30.0
    In the Trolley Case (Figure 1), as devised by Philippa Foot and modified by Judith Jarvis Thomson, a runaway trolley (i.e. tram) is headed down a main track and will hit and kill five unless you divert it onto a side track, where it will hit and kill one.
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  9. Michael Otsuka (1994). Killing the Innocent in Self-Defense. Philosophy and Public Affairs 23 (1):74–94.score: 30.0
    I presented an earlier version of this paper to the Law and Philosophy Discussion Group in Los Angeles, whose members I would like to thank for their comments. In addition, I would also like to thank the following people for reading and providing written or verbal commentary on earlier drafts: Robert Mams, Rogers Albritton, G. A. Cohen, David Copp, Matthew Hanser, Craig Ihara, Brian Lee, Marc Lange, Derk Pereboom, Carol Voeller, and the Editors of Philosophy & Public Affairs. I owe (...)
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  10. Michael Otsuka, Double-Effect, Triple-Effect, and the Trolley Problem.score: 30.0
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  11. Peter Vallentyne, Hillel Steiner & And Michael Otsuka (2005). Why Left-Libertarianism is Not Incoherent, Indeterminate, or Irrelevant: A Reply to Fried. Philosophy and Public Affairs 33 (2):201–215.score: 30.0
    Over the past few decades, there has been increasing interest in left-libertarianism, which holds (roughly) that agents fully own themselves and that natural resources (land, minerals, air, etc.) belong to everyone in some egalitarian sense. Left-libertarianism agrees with the more familiar right-libertarianism about self-ownership, but radically disagrees with it about the power to acquire ownership of natural resources. Merely being the first person to claim, discover, or mix labor with an unappropriated natural resource does not—left-libertarianism insists—generate a full private property (...)
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  12. Michael Otsuka (2010). Justice as Fairness: Luck Egalitarian, Not Rawlsian. [REVIEW] Journal of Ethics 14 (3-4):217-230.score: 30.0
    I assess G. A. Cohen's claim, which is central to his luck egalitarian account of distributive justice, that forcing others to pay for people's expensive indulgence is inegalitarian because it amounts to their exploitation. I argue that the forced subsidy of such indulgence may well be unfair, but any such unfairness fails to ground an egalitarian complaint. I conclude that Cohen's account of distributive justice has a non-egalitarian as well as an egalitarian aspect. Each impulse arises from an underlying commitment (...)
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  13. Michael Otsuka, Why Left-Libertarianism Is.score: 30.0
    For insightful comments, we thank G. A. Cohen, Barbara Fried, Leif Wenar, Andrew Williams, Jonathan Wolff, and the Editors of Philosophy & Public Affairs. 1. Barbara Fried, “Left-Libertarianism: A Review Essay,” Philosophy & Public Affairs 32 (2004): 66–92. This is a review of The Origins of Left-Libertarianism: An Anthology of His- torical Writings and Left-Libertarianism and Its Critics: The Contemporary Debate, both edited by Peter Vallentyne and Hillel Steiner (New York: Palgrave Publishers Ltd., 2000).
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  14. Michael Otsuka (2009). The Kantian Argument for Consequentialism. Ratio 22 (1):41-58.score: 30.0
    A critical examination of Parfit's attempt to reconcile Kantian contractualism with consequentialism, which disputes his contention that the contracting parties would lack decisive reasons to choose principles that ground prohibitions against harming of the sort to which non-consequentialists have been attracted. 1.
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  15. Peter Vallentyne, Hillel Steiner & Michael Otsuka (2009). Left-Libertarianism and Liberty Forthcoming in Debates in Political Philosophy. In Thomas Christiano & John Christman (eds.), Debates in Political Philosophy. Blackwell Publishers.score: 30.0
    I shall formulate and motivate a left-libertarian theory of justice. Like the more familiar rightlibertarianism, it holds that agents initially fully own themselves. Unlike right-libertarianism, it holds that natural resources belong to everyone in some egalitarian manner. Left-libertarianism is, I claim, a plausible version of liberal egalitarianism because it is suitably sensitive to considerations of liberty, security, and equality.
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  16. Michael Otsuka (2005). Libertarianism Without Inequality. Oxford University Press.score: 30.0
    Libertarianism without Inequality is a book which everyone interested in political theory should read.
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  17. Michael Otsuka (1998). Incompatibilism and the Avoidability of Blame. Ethics 108 (4):685-701.score: 30.0
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  18. Michael Otsuka (2009). Moral Luck: Optional, Not Brute. Philosophical Perspectives 23 (1):373-388.score: 30.0
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  19. Michael Otsuka, Peter Vallentyne & Hillel Steiner (2005). Why Left-Libertarianism Is Not Incoherent, Indeterminate, or Irrelevant: A Reply to Fried. Philosophy and Public Affairs 33 (2):201-215.score: 30.0
    In a recent review essay of a two volume anthology on left-libertarianism (edited by two of us), Barbara Fried has insightfully laid out most of the core issues that confront left-libertarianism. We are each left-libertarians, and we would like to take this opportunity to address some of the general issues that she raises. We shall focus, as Fried does much of the time, on the question of whether left-libertarianism is a well-defined and distinct alternative to existing forms of liberal egalitarianism. (...)
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  20. Michael Otsuka (2001). Is the Personal Political? The Boundary Between the Public and the Private in the Realm of Distributive Justice. Iride 14 (34):609-634.score: 30.0
  21. Michael Otsuka (2000). Scanlon and the Claims of the Many Versus the One. Analysis 60 (3):288–293.score: 30.0
    In "What We Owe to Each Other", T. M. <span class='Hi'>Scanlon</span> argues that one should save the greater number when faced with the choice between saving one life and two or more different lives. It is, <span class='Hi'>Scanlon</span> claims, a virtue of this argument (which is traceable to Frances Kamm) that it does not appeal to the claims of groups of individuals but only to the claims of individuals. I demonstrate that this argument for saving the greater number, indeed, depends, (...)
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  22. Michael Otsuka (1998). Self-Ownership and Equality: A Lockean Reconciliation. Philosophy and Public Affairs 27 (1):65–92.score: 30.0
    I thank the members of the Law and Philosophy Discussion Group in Los Angeles and those who attended a talk sponsored by the philosophy department at New York University, where I presented earlier versions of this paper. I would also like to thank G. A. Cohen, Stephen Munzer, Seana Shiffrin, Peter Vallentyne, Andrew Williams, and the editors of Philosophy & Public Affairs, who read and provided written commentary on earlier drafts.
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  23. Michael Otsuka (2006). Saving Lives, Moral Theory, and the Claims of Individuals. Philosophy and Public Affairs 34 (2):109–135.score: 30.0
    Philosophy & Public Affairs, 34 (2006): 109-35.
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  24. Michael Otsuka (2012). Prioritarianism and the Separateness of Persons. Utilitas 24 (03):365-380.score: 30.0
    For a prioritarian by contrast to a utilitarian, whether a certain quantity of utility falls within the boundary of one person's life or another's makes the following moral difference: the worse the life of a person who could receive a given benefit, the stronger moral reason we have to confer this benefit on this person. It would seem, therefore, that prioritarianism succeeds, where utilitarianism fails, to ‘take seriously the distinction between persons’. Yet I show that, contrary to these appearances, prioritarianism (...)
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  25. M. Otsuka (2011). Licensed to Kill. [REVIEW] Analysis 71 (3):523-532.score: 30.0
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  26. Michael Otsuka & Alex Voorhoeve (2011). Reply to Crisp. Utilitas 23 (1):109-114.score: 30.0
    In 'Why It Matters that Some Are Worse off than Others,' we offer a new critique of the Priority View. In a recent article, Roger Crisp has argued that our critique is flawed. In this reply Crisp, we show that Crisp fails to grapple with, much less defeat, the central claim of our critique. We also show that an example that Crisp offers in support of the Priority View in fact lends support to our critique of that view.
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  27. Michael Otsuka (1996). Quinn on Punishment and Using Persons as Means. Law and Philosophy 15 (2):201 - 208.score: 30.0
    In The Right to Threaten and the Right to Punish, Warren Quinn justifies punishment on the ground that it can be derived from the rights of persons to protect themselves against crime. Quinn, however, denies that a right of self-protection justifies the punishment of an aggressor solely on the ground that such punishment deters others from harming the victim of that aggression or others. He believes that punishment so justified would constitute a morally objectionable instance of using the punished individual (...)
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  28. Michael Otsuka (2002). Luck, Insurance, and Equality. Ethics 113 (1):40-54.score: 30.0
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  29. Michael Otsuka (2004). Skepticism About Saving the Greater Number. Philosophy and Public Affairs 32 (4):413–426.score: 30.0
    Suppose that each of the following four conditions obtains: 1. You can save either a greater or a lesser number of innocent people from (equally) serious harm. 2. You can do so at trivial cost to yourself. 3. If you act to save, then the harm you prevent is harm that would not have been prevented if you had done nothing. 4. All other things are equal. A skeptic about saving the greater number rejects the common-sensical claim that you have (...)
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  30. Michael Otsuka (2008). Freedom of Occupational Choice. Ratio 21 (4):440-453.score: 30.0
    Cohen endorses the coercive taxation of the talented at a progressive rate for the sake of realizing equality. By contrast, he denies that it is legitimate for the state to engage in the 'Stalinist forcing' of people into one or another line of work in order to bring about a more egalitarian society. He rejects such occupational conscription on grounds of the invasiveness of the gathering and acting upon information regarding people's preferences for different types of work that would be (...)
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  31. N. J. Jun (2011). Review of Crispin Sartwell's, Against the State: An Introduction to Anarchist Political Theory. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Social Criticism 37 (7):845-847.score: 30.0
  32. Michael Otsuka (1991). The Paradox of Group Beneficence. Philosophy and Public Affairs 20 (2):132-149.score: 30.0
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  33. Michael Otsuka, Wagner Recommendations.score: 30.0
    Although I am neither a Nazi nor an anti-Semite (quite the contrary, in fact), I like the music of Richard Wagner. Why do I like his music? Mainly because I find it intoxicating. Intoxicate: To cause stupefaction, stimulation, or excitement by or as if by use of a chemical substance.) I admit that this is not a very deep reason. But I’m not very deep. (My years as an analytic philosopher would have drained any depths I may once have had.) (...)
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  34. Michael Otsuka, Skepticism About Saving.score: 30.0
    Section II of this article originated as a commentary on Véronique Munoz-Dardé’s “The Distribution of Numbers and the Comprehensiveness of Reasons.” (Her piece is now forthcoming in the Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society.) I have delivered subsequent versions of this article at the University of Reading, UCLA, the University of Bristol, the University of Leeds, and the University of Oxford, and thank all who commented on those occasions. I am also grateful to G. A. Cohen, Iwao Hirose, Véronique Munoz-Dardé, (...)
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  35. Michael Otsuka (2006). Prerogatives to Depart From Equality. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 81 (58):95-.score: 30.0
    Should egalitarian justice be qualified by an agent-relative prerogative to act on a preference for—and thereby in a manner that gives rise to or preserves a greater than equal share of the goods of life for—oneself, one's family, loved ones, or friends as compared with strangers? Although many would reply that the answer to this question must be ‘yes’, I shall argue here that the case for such a prerogative to depart from equality is much less far-reaching than one might (...)
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  36. Michael Otsuka (1997). Kamm on the Morality of Killing:Morality, Mortality, Vol. 2, Rights, Duties, and Status. Frances M. Kamm. Ethics 108 (1):197-.score: 30.0
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  37. Michael Otsuka, How to Be a Libertarian Without Being Inegalitarian.score: 30.0
    Article (English translation of French article in Raisons Politiques).
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  38. Michael Otsuka (1998). Making the Unjust Provide for the Least Well Off. Journal of Ethics 2 (3):247-259.score: 30.0
    I propose that liberal egalitarians and libertarians can find common ground in support of an unfamiliar means of forcing well off individuals to come to the assistance of the least well off. Such means would not, as is typically the case, involve the taxation of the income of all well off individuals. Rather, assistance would be provided by the taxation of only those well off individuals who have been properly convicted of performing justifiably (...)
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  39. Michael Otsuka (2013). Prioritarianism and the Measure of Utility. Journal of Political Philosophy 22 (4).score: 30.0
  40. Michael Otsuka, Replies.score: 30.0
    All left-libertarians believe that natural resources should be governed by an egalitarian principle of distribution. In my own case, this belief gains its support from what I take to be the most defensible interpretation of the Lockean principle of justice in acquisition, according to which one may privatize land and other worldly resources in a state of nature so long as one leaves enough and as good for others. Axel Gosseries is right to press the question of the moral status (...)
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  41. Nathan J. Jun (2013). Emma Goldman: Political Thinking in the Streets. Contemporary Political Theory 12 (2):e8.score: 30.0
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  42. Michael Otsuka (1997). Review: Kamm on the Morality of Killing. [REVIEW] Ethics 108 (1):197 - 207.score: 30.0
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  43. Ruth Kempson, Ronnie Cann & Masayuki Otsuka, On Left and Right Dislocation: A Dynamic Perspective.score: 30.0
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  44. Michael Otsuka (forthcoming). Can an Incompatibilist Outfox a Compatibilist Hedgehog? Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-14.score: 30.0
    This article raises some incompatibilist challenges for, and queries some of the implications of, Ronald Dworkin’s arguments in his "Justice for Hedgehogs" (2011), that responsibility is compatible with both determinism and epiphenomenalism.
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  45. Michael Otsuka, Commentary on Ronald Dworkin's "Objectivity and Truth: You'd Better Believe It".score: 30.0
    Review of: DWORKIN, R. (1996), "Objectivity and Truth: You'd Better Believe It." Philosophy & Public Affairs, 25: 87–139.
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  46. Michael Otsuka, Commentator.score: 30.0
    he primary aim of Dworkin's essay is to defend the claim that there are objective moral (and aesthetic or otherwise evaluative) truths against a variety of "external" skeptical challenges. These challenges are "external" because they "offer to justify their skeptical claims -- that these [evaluative] domains cannot provide objective truth -- from premises that are not themselves evaluative." (p. 88).
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  47. Hu Jun (2006). The Legitimacy of the Discussions on the “Legitimacy” of “Chinese Philosophy”. Contemporary Chinese Thought 37 (3):62-68.score: 30.0
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  48. Michael Otsuka, Are Deontological Constraints Irrational?score: 30.0
    Most deontologists find bedrock in the Pauline doctrine that it is morally objectionable to do evil in order that good will come of it. Uncontroversially, this doctrine condemns the killing of an innocent person simply in order to maximize the sum total of happiness. It rules out the conscription of a worker to his or her certain death in order to repair a fault that is interfering with the live broadcast of a World Cup match that a billion spectators have (...)
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  49. Michael Otsuka (2004). Liberty, Equality, Envy, and Abstraction. In Ronald Dworkin & Justine Burley (eds.), Dworkin and His Critics: With Replies by Dworkin. Blackwell Pub.. 70--78.score: 30.0
  50. [deleted]Minkyu Ahn, Sangtae Ahn, Jun H. Hong, Hohyun Cho, Kiwoong Kim, Bong S. Kim, Jin W. Chang & Sung C. Jun (2013). Gamma Band Activity Associated with BCI Performance: Simultaneous MEG/EEG Study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 30.0
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