Search results for 'Just war' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Augustine Defines Just War (2006). " In Vain Have I Smitten Your Children. In R. Joseph Hoffmann (ed.), The Just War and Jihad. Prometheus Press.score: 540.0
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  2. Jewish Holy War (2006). Who Broke Their Vow First? In R. Joseph Hoffmann (ed.), The Just War and Jihad. Prometheus Press.score: 360.0
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  3. Leonard Kahn (2013). Just War Theory and Cyber-Attacks. In Fritz Alhoff, Nicholas Evans & Adam Henschke (eds.), Not Just Wars. Routledge.score: 254.0
    In this chapter, I take up the question of whether one of the central principles of jus ad bellum – just cause – is relevant in a world in which cyberattacks occur. I argue that this principle is just as relevant as ever, though it needs modification in light of recent developments. In particular, I argue, contrary to many traditional just war theorists, that just cause should not be limited to physical attacks. In the process, I (...)
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  4. Igor Primoratz (2002). Michael Walzer's Just War Theory: Some Issues of Responsibility. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 5 (2):221-243.score: 240.0
    In his widely influential statement of just war theory, Michael Walzer exempts conscripted soldiers from all responsibility for taking part in war, whether just or unjust (the thesis of the moral equality of soldiers). He endows the overwhelming majority of civilians with almost absolute immunity from military attack on the ground that they aren't responsible for the war their country is waging, whether just or unjust. I argue that Walzer is much too lenient on both soldiers and (...)
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  5. John W. Lango (2005). Preventive Wars, Just War Principles, and the United Nations. Journal of Ethics 9 (1-2):247 - 268.score: 240.0
    This paper explores the question of whether the United Nations should engage in preventive military actions. Correlatively, it asks whether UN preventive military actions could satisfy just war principles. Rather than from the standpoint of the individual nation state, the ethics of preventive war is discussed from the standpoint of the UN. For the sake of brevity, only the legitimate authority, just cause, last resort, and proportionality principles are considered. Since there has been disagreement about the specific content (...)
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  6. Laurie Calhoun (2001). The Metaethical Paradox of Just War Theory. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 4 (1):41-58.score: 240.0
    The traditional requirements upon the waging of a just war are ostensibly independent, but in actual practice each tenet is subject ultimately to the interpretation of a legitimate authority, whose declaration becomes the necessary and sufficient condition. While just war theory presupposes that some acts are absolutely wrong, it also implies that the killing of innocents can be rendered permissible through human decree. Nations are conventionally delimited, and leaders are conventionally appointed. Any group of people could band together (...)
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  7. Christopher Toner (2010). The Logical Structure of Just War Theory. Journal of Ethics 14 (2):81-102.score: 240.0
    A survey of just war theory literature reveals the existence of quite different lists of principles. This apparent arbitrariness raises a number of questions: What is the relation between ad bellum and in bello principles? Why are there so many of the former and so few of the latter? What order is there among the various principles? To answer these questions, I first draw on some recent work by Jeff McMahan to show that ad bellum and in bello principles (...)
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  8. John Forge (2009). Proportionality, Just War Theory and Weapons Innovation. Science and Engineering Ethics 15 (1):25-38.score: 240.0
    Just wars are supposed to be proportional responses to aggression: the costs of war must not greatly exceed the benefits. This proportionality principle raises a corresponding ‘interpretation problem’: what are the costs and benefits of war, how are they to be determined, and a ‘measurement problem’: how are costs and benefits to be balanced? And it raises a problem about scope: how far into the future do the states of affairs to be measured stretch? It is argued here that (...)
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  9. Aaron Fichtelberg (2006). Applying the Rules of Just War Theory to Engineers in the Arms Industry. Science and Engineering Ethics 12 (4):685-700.score: 240.0
    Given the close relationship between the modern arms industry and the military, engineers and other professionals who work in the arms industry should be held accountable to the principles of just war theory. While they do not deploy weapons on the battlefield and are not in the military chain of command, technical professionals nonetheless have a moral duty to abide by principles of jus ad bellum and jus in bello. They are morally responsible both for choosing the companies that (...)
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  10. John W. Lango (2010). Nonlethal Weapons, Noncombatant Immunity, and Combatant Nonimmunity: A Study of Just War Theory. [REVIEW] Philosophia 38 (3):475-497.score: 240.0
    Frequently, the just war principle of noncombatant immunity is interpreted as morally prohibiting the intentional targeting of noncombatants. Apparently, many just war theorists assume that to target means to (intend to) kill. Now that effective nonlethal weapons have been envisaged, it should be evident that there is no conceptual connection between intentionally targeting and intentionally killing. For, using nonlethal weapons, there could be intentional targeting without intentional killing. This paper explores the question of whether the noncombatant immunity principle (...)
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  11. James Pattison (2013). When Is It Right to Fight? Just War Theory and the Individual-Centric Approach. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (1):35-54.score: 240.0
    Recent work in the ethics of war has done much to challenge the collectivism of the convention-based, Walzerian just war theory. In doing so, it raises the question of when it is permissible for soldiers to resort to force. This article considers this issue and, in doing so, argues that the rejection of collectivism in just war should go further still. More specifically, it defends the ‘Individual-Centric Approach’ to the deep morality of war, which asserts that the justifiability (...)
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  12. Gregory M. Reichberg (2010). Thomas Aquinas Between Just War and Pacifism. Journal of Religious Ethics 38 (2):219-241.score: 240.0
    Some recent authors have argued that Aquinas deliberately integrated a pacifist outlook into his just war theory. Others, by contrast, have maintained that his rejection of pacifism was unequivocal. The present article attempts to set the historical record straight by an examination of Aquinas's writings on this topic. In addition to Q. 40, A. 1 of Summa theologiae II–II, the text usually cited in this connection, this article considers the biblical commentaries where Aquinas explains how the Gospel “precepts of (...)
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  13. Darrell Cole (2012). Torture and Just War. Journal of Religious Ethics 40 (1):26-51.score: 240.0
    I offer an argument for why torture, as an act of state-sponsored force to gain information crucial to the well-being of the common good, should be considered as a tactic of war, and therefore scrutinized in terms of just war theory. I argue that, for those committed to the justifiability of the use of force, most of the popular arguments against all acts of torture are unpersuasive because the logic behind them would forbid equally any act of mutilating or (...)
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  14. Helmut David Baer & Joseph E. Capizzi (2005). Just War Theories Reconsidered: Problems with Prima Facie Duties and the Need for a Political Ethic. Journal of Religious Ethics 33 (1):119-137.score: 240.0
    This essay challenges a "meta-theory" in just war analysis that purports to bridge the divide between just war and pacifism. According to the meta-theory, just war and pacifism share a common presumption against killing that can be overridden only under conditions stipulated by the just war criteria. Proponents of this meta-theory purport that their interpretation leads to ecumenical consensus between "just warriors" and pacifists, and makes the just war theory more effective in reducing recourse (...)
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  15. Nick Fotion (2006). Two Theories of Just War. Philosophia 34 (1):53-64.score: 240.0
    As it is traditionally conceived, Just War Theory is not well suited for dealing with nation vs non-nation wars. It thus makes sense to create a second Just War Theory to deal with these wars. This article explores the differences and similarities between the two theories.
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  16. James Turner Johnson (2008). The Idea of Defense in Historical and Contemporary Thinking About Just War. Journal of Religious Ethics 36 (4):543-556.score: 240.0
    What is, or should be, the role of defense in thinking about the justification of use of armed force? Contemporary just war thinking prioritizes defense as the principal, and perhaps the only, just cause for resorting to armed force. By contrast, classic just war tradition, while recognizing defense as justification for use of force by private persons, did not reason from self-defense to the justification of the use of force on behalf of the political community, but instead (...)
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  17. Graham Parsons (2012). The Incoherence of Walzer's Just War Theory. Social Theory and Practice 38 (4):663-88.score: 240.0
    In his Just and Unjust Wars, Michael Walzer claims that his theory of just war is based on the rights of individuals to life and liberty. This is not the case. Walzer in fact bases his theory of jus ad bellum on the supreme rights of supra-individual political communities. According to his theory of jus ad bellum, the rights of political communities are of utmost importance, and individuals can be sacrificed for the sake of these communal rights. At (...)
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  18. Peter L. P. Simpson (2011). Transcending Justice: Pope John Paul II and Just War. Journal of Religious Ethics 39 (2):286-298.score: 240.0
    Pope John Paul II's opposition to the Iraq War was not that it failed to meet the conditions of Just War Theory. Indeed, we cannot tell from what he publicly said whether he thought it met those conditions or not, for he would have opposed it in any case. His thinking was rather that even just and necessary wars always come, as it were, too late, and are never able to solve the problems that made wars just (...)
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  19. Aleksandar Jokic (2012). What's A Just War Theorist? Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Criminology 4 (2):91-114.score: 240.0
    The article provides an account of the unlikely revival of the medieval Just War Theory, due in large part to the efforts of Michael Walzer. Its purpose is to address the question: What is a just war theorist? By exploring contrasts between scholarly activity and forms of international activism, the paper argues that just war theorists appear to be just war criminals, both on the count of aiding and abetting aggression and on the count of inciting (...)
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  20. Cheyney Ryan (2013). Pacifism, Just War, and Self-Defense. Philosophia 41 (4):1-29.score: 240.0
    This essay distinguishes two main forms of pacifism, personal pacifism and political pacifism. It then contrasts the views on self-defense of political pacifism and just war theory, paying special attention to notions of the state and sovereignty.
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  21. Henrik Syse (2010). The Platonic Roots of Just War Doctrine: A Reading of Plato’s Republic. Diametros 23:104-123.score: 240.0
    Plato arguably stands as one of the precursors to what we today know as the Just War Tradition, and he has more to say about ethics and the use of force than what is often acknowledged. In this article I try to show, by analyzing selected passages and perspectives from the Republic, that Plato regards the role of military ethics as crucial in the construction of the ideal city, and he sees limitation of brutality and more generally a philosophical (...)
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  22. Shawn Kaplan (2012). Just War Theory: What Is It Good For? Philosophy in the Contemporary World 19 (2):4-14.score: 240.0
    The usefulness of Just War Theory (JWT) has been called into question in recent years for two key reasons. First, military conflicts today less frequently fit the model traditionally assumed by JWT of interstate wars between regular armies. Second, there is a perception that JWT has lost its critical edge after its categories and principles have been co-opted by bellicose political leaders. This paper critically examines two responses to these concerns which shift the locus of responsibility for wars towards (...)
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  23. Ineke Malsch (2013). The Just War Theory and the Ethical Governance of Research. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (2):461-486.score: 240.0
    This article analyses current trends in and future expectations of nanotechnology and other key enabling technologies for security as well as dual use nanotechnology from the perspective of the ethical Just War Theory (JWT), interpreted as an instrument to increase the threshold for using armed force for solving conflicts. The aim is to investigate the relevance of the JWT to the ethical governance of research. The analysis gives rise to the following results. From the perspective of the JWT, military (...)
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  24. Andrew Sola (2009). The Enlightened Grunt? Invincible Ignorance in the Just War Tradition. Journal of Military Ethics 8 (1):48-65.score: 240.0
    This essay addresses one of the central questions in the ongoing debate about just war theory: are soldiers morally responsible for serving in unjust wars? Francisco de Vitoria addressed this question in the sixteenth century using the concepts of invincible and vincible ignorance. He excused soldiers serving in unjust wars, if they did not know the war was unjust and if they did not have the means to overcome their ignorance; if they had the means, they were morally culpable. (...)
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  25. Ping-Cheung Lo (2012). The Art of War Corpus and Chinese Just War Ethics Past and Present. Journal of Religious Ethics 40 (3):404-446.score: 240.0
    The idea of “just war” is not alien to Chinese thought. The term “yi zhan” (usually translated as “just war” or “righteous war” in English) is used in Mencius, was renewed by Mao Zedong, and is still being used in China today (zhengyi zhanzheng). The best place to start exploring this Chinese idea is in the enormous Art of War corpus in premodern China, of which the Seven Military Classics is the best representative. This set of treatises served (...)
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  26. Vicente Medina (2013). The Innocent in the Just War Thinking of Vitoria and Suárez: A Challenge Even for Secular Just War Theorists and International Law. Ratio Juris 26 (1):47-64.score: 240.0
    Vitoria and Suárez defend the categorical immunity of the innocent not to be intentionally killed. But they allow for inflicting collective punishment on the innocent and the noninnocent alike during and after a just war. So they allow for deliberately harming them. Inflicting harm on the innocent can often result in their death. Hence, holding both claims seems incoherent. First, the objections against using the term “innocent” are explained. Second, their views on just war are explored. And third, (...)
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  27. Justinas Žilinskas (2012). Just War” Doctrine and its Reflections in Our Times. Jurisprudence 19 (3):1201-1214.score: 240.0
    The present article discusses a well-known religious philosophical and partially legal doctrine of the “Just war”, developed in the Christian tradition by St. Augustine, St. Tomas Aquinas, Francisco de Vittoria, Francisco Suarez, Hugo Grotius and many other thinkers. The main thesis of the doctrine is that war will be just only if it corresponds to certain criteria, such as autoritas principi (waged by the sovereign), justa causa (on just aim) and with recta intentio (animus) or the aim (...)
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  28. War Crimes & Just War (2007). Best in Scholarship. Philosophy and Public Affairs 942:660.score: 240.0
  29. Jean Bethke Elshtain (ed.) (1992). Just War Theory. New York University Press.score: 240.0
    Available Again! Long before the "shock and awe" campaign against Iraq in March 2003, debates swarmed around the justifications of the U.S.-led war to depose Saddam Hussein. While George W. Bush's administration declared a just war of necessity, opponents charged that it was a war of choice, and even opportunism. Behind the rhetoric lie vital questions: when is war just, and what means are acceptable even in the course of a just war? Originally published in 1991, in (...)
     
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  30. N. Fotion (2007). War and Ethics: A New Just War Theory. Continuum.score: 240.0
    Introduction -- Just war theory -- Objections to just war theory -- Easy cases : Germany, Japan, Korea -- Harder cases : Serbia, Russia, Kosovo, Iraq -- Multiple reasons -- More problems with just war theory -- Prevention : Sri Lanka, Thailand -- Two just war theories -- Problems with just war theory I -- Problems for just war theory II -- Closing thoughts.
     
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  31. Juha Räikkä (2014). Redistributive Wars and Just War Principles. Ratio.Ru 12:4-26.score: 234.0
    The topic of the paper is the justness of the so-called global redistributive wars — wars whose prime purpose would be the correction of global economic and power structures that are said to cause suffering in poor countries. My aim is to comment on Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen’s argument concerning the implications of Thomas Pogge’s theory of global poverty. Pogge has argued that affluent coun-tries uphold global institutional structures that have a significant causal role in leading to the poverty-related deaths of millions (...)
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  32. John J. Davenport (2011). Just War Theory, Humanitarian Intervention, and the Need for a Democratic Federation. Journal of Religious Ethics 39 (3):493-555.score: 228.0
    The primary purpose of government is to secure public goods that cannot be achieved by free markets. The Coordination Principle tells us to consolidate sovereign power in a single institution to overcome collective action problems that otherwise prevent secure provision of the relevant public goods. There are several public goods that require such coordination at the global level, chief among them being basic human rights. The claim that human rights require global coordination is supported in three main steps. First, I (...)
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  33. David R. Haws (2006). Engineering the Just War: Examination of an Approach to Teaching Engineering Ethics. Science and Engineering Ethics 12 (2):365-372.score: 216.0
    The efficiency of engineering applied to civilian projects sometimes threatens to run away with the social agenda, but in military applications, engineering often adds a devastating sleekness to the inevitable destruction of life. The relative crudeness of terrorism (e.g., 9/11) leaves a stark after-image, which belies the comparative insignificance of random (as opposed to orchestrated) belligerence. Just as engineering dwarfs the bricolage of vernacular design—moving us past the appreciation of brush-strokes, so to speak—the scale of engineered destruction makes it (...)
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  34. Wim Smit (ed.) (2005). Just War and Terrorism: The End of the Just War Concept? Peeters.score: 210.0
    With its interesting spectrum of viewpoints on some very actual and challenging themes, this book attempts to challenge the personal opinion of scholars and ...
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  35. Joseph M. Schwartz (2004). Misreading Islamist Terrorism: The "War Against Terrorism" and Just-War Theory. Metaphilosophy 35 (3):273-302.score: 210.0
  36. Lawrence Masek (2002). All's Not Fair in War: How Kant's Just War Theory Refutes War Realism. Public Affairs Quarterly 16 (2):143-154.score: 210.0
  37. Mehdi Faridzadeh (ed.) (2004). Philosophies of Peace and Just War in Greek Philosophy and Religions of Abraham: Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Global Scholarly Publications.score: 210.0
    Introduction By Charles Randall Paul Thank you very much. Thank you very much Reverend Kowalski. I will now introduce our panel. I'll make my own remarks I ...
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  38. Matthijs De Blois (2011). Blessed [Are] the Peacemakers... Grotius on the Just War and Christian Pacifism. Grotiana 32 (1):20-39.score: 210.0
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  39. Jovan Babic (2007). Non-Culpable Ignorance and Just War Theory. Filozofija I Drustvo 18 (3):59-68.score: 210.0
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  40. Duane L. Cady & Richard Werner (eds.) (1991). Just War, Nonviolence, and Nuclear Deterrence: Philosophers on War and Peace. Longwood Academic.score: 210.0
     
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  41. Richard J. Regan (2013). Just War: Principles and Cases. Catholic University of America Press.score: 210.0
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  42. Howard Williams (2012). Kant and the End of War: A Critique of Just War Theory. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 210.0
     
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  43. James Pattison (2008). Just War Theory and the Privatization of Military Force. Ethics and International Affairs 22 (2):143–162.score: 180.0
    The use of private military companies (PMCs) has become increasingly prevalent, with such firms as Blackwater, MPRI, and DynCorp taking over a growing number of roles traditionally performed by the regular military. This article uses the framework of just war theory (JWT) to consider the central normative issues raised by this privatization of military force. In particular, I first examine the claim that private contractors are inappropriate actors to wage war because they contravene the JWT principle of right intention. (...)
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  44. Jeff McMahan, Hobbesian Defenses of Orthodox Just War Theory.score: 180.0
    Most of us accept that all persons have a right not to be killed, unless they forfeit or, perhaps, waive it. According to the currently dominant understanding of the just war, civilians retain the protection of this right in conditions of war but combatants do not. On one view, combatants forfeit the right by posing a threat to others; on another view, they waive it when they accept combatant status, which requires that they identify themselves visually and in other (...)
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  45. Jeff McMahan, I The Traditional Theory of the Just War.score: 180.0
    The traditional theory of the just war comprises two sets of principles, one governing the resort to war (jus ad bellum) and the other governing the conduct (...) of war (jus in bello). One of the central pillars of the traditional theory is that the two set of principles are, in Michael Walzers words, “logically independent. It is perfectly possible for a just war to be fought unjustly and for an unjust war to be fought in strict.. (shrink)
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  46. C. A. J. Coady (1980). The Leaders and the Led: Problems of Just War Theory. Inquiry 23 (3):275 – 291.score: 180.0
    Any attempt to justify war in the fashion of just war theories risks underestimating its morally problematic nature. This becomes clear if we ask how the individual soldier or citizen is supposed to use just war theory in his own thinking. Michael Walzer's recent book, Just and Unjust Wars, illustrates the problem nicely. Walzer's view is that whether a state is justified in going to war is not a matter for the citizen to judge, and with regard (...)
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  47. Brian Orend (2001). A Just-War Critique of Realism and Pacifism. Journal of Philosophical Research 26:435-477.score: 180.0
    The main premise of this article is that contemporary just-war theory offers only a weak response to its two main rivals: realism and pacifism. These alternativeperspectives on the ethics of war and peace are dismissed too readily by just-war theory, often for the wrong reasons. In light of this deficiency, this paper seeksto forward the debate in two ways: 1) by reconstructing realism and pacifism in a rigorous and charitable fashion; and 2) by contending that, even in the (...)
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  48. James Turner Johnson (2006). The Just War Idea: The State of the Question. Social Philosophy and Policy 23 (1):167-195.score: 180.0
    This essay explores the idea of just war in two ways. Part I outlines the formation, early development, and substantive content of just war tradition in its classic form, sketches the subsequent development of this idea in the modern period, and examines three benchmarks in the recovery of just war thinking in American thought over the last four decades. Part II identifies and critiques several prominent themes in contemporary just war discourse, testing them against the context, (...)
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  49. Debra B. Bergoffen (2008). The Just War Tradition: Translating the Ethics of Human Dignity Into Political Practices. Hypatia 23 (2):pp. 72-94.score: 180.0
    This essay argues that the ambiguities of the just war tradition, sifted through a feminist critique, provides the best framework currently available for translating the ethical entitlement to human dignity into concrete feminist political practices. It offers a gendered critique of war that pursues the just war distinction between legitimate and illegitimate targets of wartime violence and provides a gendered analysis of the peace which the just war tradition obliges us to preserve and pursue.
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  50. Michele Acuto (2011). Immoral Authorities: Crusades, Jihād and Just War Rhetoric. Journal of Global Ethics 6 (1):17-26.score: 180.0
    This paper highlights the relevance of moral authority, and the role that egoistic ethical claims have in waging war. This is done, in view of the just war tradition, by drawing a parallel between the crusades in the 'kingdom of heaven' proclaimed in 1095, and the present Islamic jih d , as well as the Bush administration's declaration of a war on terror. It maintains that the role of self-legitimized leaders is crucial in shaping the order of the jus (...)
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