Search results for 'Justin Peterson' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Dorrit Billman & Justin Peterson (1989). Critique of Structural Analysis in Modeling Cognition: A Case Study of Jackendoff's Theory. Philosophical Psychology 2 (3):283 – 296.score: 240.0
    Modeling cognition by structural analysis of representation leads to systematic difficulties which are not resolvable. We analyse the merits and limits of a representation-based methodology to modeling cognition by treating Jackendoff's Consciousness and the Computational Mind as a good case study. We note the effects this choice of methodology has on the view of consciousness he proposes, as well as a more detailed consideration of the computational mind. The fundamental difficulty we identify is the conflict between the desire for modular (...)
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  2. Phil Peterson & Noam Chomsky (1995). Correspondance Peterson-Chomsky (29 juin - 8 novembre 1993). Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 185 (1):83 - 96.score: 180.0
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  3. W. Peterson (1893). Principal Peterson's Indebtedness to Professor Frieze: A Reply. The Classical Review 7 (03):136-139.score: 180.0
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  4. R. G. Justin (2000). Compassionate Physicians-Renate G. Justin Replies. Hastings Center Report 30 (6):4-4.score: 180.0
     
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  5. Irenaeus Justin (2009). Early Christian Philosophers: Justin, Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian Eric Osborn1. In Graham Robert Oppy & Nick Trakakis (eds.), The History of Western Philosophy of Religion. Oxford University Press. 3--187.score: 180.0
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  6. Gregory R. Peterson (2014). On McCauley's Why Religion is Natural and Science is Not: Some Further Observations. Zygon 49 (3):716-727.score: 180.0
    Robert McCauley's Why Religion Is Natural and Science Is Not provides a summary interpretive statement of the standard model in cognitive science of religion, what I have previously called the HADD + ToM + Cultural Epidemiology model, along with a more general argument comparing religious cognition to scientific thinking and a novel framework for understanding both in terms of the concept of the maturationally natural. I here follow up on some observations made in a previous paper, developing them in light (...)
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  7. Martin Peterson (2004). Transformative Decision Rules, Permutability, and Non-Sequential Framing of Decision Problems. Synthese 139 (3):387-403.score: 120.0
    The concept of transformative decision rules provides auseful tool for analyzing what is often referred to as the`framing', or `problem specification', or `editing' phase ofdecision making. In the present study we analyze a fundamentalaspect of transformative decision rules, viz. permutability. A setof transformative decision rules is, roughly put, permutable justin case it does not matter in which order the rules are applied.It is argued that in order to be normatively reasonable, sets oftransformative decision rules have to satisfy a number (...)
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  8. Michael L. Peterson (1998). God and Evil: An Introduction to the Issues. Westview Press.score: 60.0
    This concise, well-structured survey examines the problem of evil in the context of the philosophy of religion. One of the core topics in that field, the problem of evil is an enduring challenge that Western philosophers have pondered for almost two thousand years. The main problem of evil consists in reconciling belief in a just and loving God with the evil and suffering in the world. Michael Peterson frames this issue by working through questions such as the following: What (...)
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  9. Evan Selinger, Don Ihde, Ibo Poel, Martin Peterson & Peter-Paul Verbeek (2012). Erratum To: Book Symposium on Peter Paul Verbeek's Moralizing Technology: Understanding and Designing the Morality of Things. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Technology 25 (4):605-631.score: 60.0
    Erratum to: Book Symposium on Peter Paul Verbeek’s Moralizing Technology: Understanding and Designing the Morality of Things . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011 Content Type Journal Article Category Erratum Pages 1-27 DOI 10.1007/s13347-011-0058-z Authors Evan Selinger, Dept. Philosophy, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY, USA Don Ihde, Dept. Philosophy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA Ibo van de Poel, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands Martin Peterson, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands Peter-Paul Verbeek, Dept. (...)
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  10. Anna Peterson (2012). Kathy Rudy: Loving Animals: Toward a New Animal Advocacy. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 25 (5):787-790.score: 60.0
    Kathy Rudy: Loving Animals: Toward a New Animal Advocacy Content Type Journal Article Category Book Review Pages 1-4 DOI 10.1007/s10806-011-9354-y Authors Anna Peterson, Department of Relilgion, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Journal Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics Online ISSN 1573-322X Print ISSN 1187-7863.
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  11. Martin Peterson (2013). The Dimensions of Consequentialism. Cambridge University Press.score: 60.0
    Consequentialism, one of the major theories of normative ethics, maintains that the moral rightness of an act is determined solely by the act's consequences and its alternatives. The traditional form of consequentialism is one-dimensional, in that the rightness of an act is a function of a single moral aspect, such as the sum total of wellbeing it produces. In this book Martin Peterson introduces a new type of consequentialist theory: multidimensional consequentialism. According to this theory, an act's moral rightness (...)
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  12. Martin Peterson & Sven Ove Hansson (2005). Order-Independent Transformative Decision Rules. Synthese 147 (2):323-342.score: 60.0
    A transformative decision rule alters the representation of a decision problem, either by changing the set of alternative acts or the set of states of the world taken into consideration, or by modifying the probability or value assignments. A set of transformative decision rules is order-independent in case the order in which the rules are applied is irrelevant. The main result of this paper is an axiomatic characterization of order-independent transformative decision rules, based on a single axiom. It is shown (...)
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  13. Philip L. Peterson (1991). Complexly Fractionated Syllogistic Quantifiers. Journal of Philosophical Logic 20 (3):287 - 313.score: 60.0
    Consider syllogisms in which fraction (percentage) quantifiers are permitted in addition to universal and particular quantificrs, and then include further quantifiers which are modifications of such fractions (such as "almost ½ the S are P" and "Much more than ½ the S are P"). Could a syllogistic system containing such additional categorical forms be coherent? Thompson's attempt (1986) to give rules for determining validity of such syllogisms has failed; cf. Carnes & Peterson (forthcoming) for proofs of the unsoundness and (...)
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  14. Clayton Peterson (2012). From a Geometrical Point of View: A Study of the History and Philosophy of Category Theory Jean-Pierre Marquis Springer Series, Logic, Epistemology and the Unity of Science 14, 2009, 310 Pp., $219.00 Cloth. [REVIEW] Dialogue 51 (2):333-335.score: 60.0
    Book Reviews Clayton peterson, Dialogue: Canadian Philosophical Review/Revue canadienne de philosophie , FirstView Article.
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  15. Donald Peterson, Autism, Dilogic and Persons.score: 60.0
    The syndrome of autism was first systematically identified in the 1940's (Kanner 1943), and has been the focus of a broad range of work since that time (Rutter 1999). Its symptomatology is seemingly diverse, and involves a rough division between 'personal' and 'nonpersonal' tendencies. In the personal category are difficulties in understanding and interacting with other persons, socialisation, empathy and communication. In the non-personal category are difficulties in adaptability, occasional special abilities, and a wide range of peculiarities in learning, generalisation, (...)
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  16. Christian Barry & Matthew Peterson (2010). Dealing Fairly with the Costs to the Poor of the Global Financial Crisis. In Iain MacNeil & Justin O'Brien (eds.), The Future of Financial Regulation. Hart.score: 30.0
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  17. Daniel Peterson & Michael Silberstein (2010). Relativity of Simultaneity and Eternalism: In Defense of Blockworld. In Vesselin Petkov (ed.), Space, Time, and Spacetime: Physical and Philosophical Implications of Minkowski's Unification of Space and Time. Springer.score: 30.0
    Ever since the now infamous comments made by Hermann Minkowski in 1908 concerning the proper way to view space-time, the debate has raged as to whether or not the universe should be viewed as a four-dimensional, unified whole wherein the past, present, and future are equally real or whether the views espoused by the possibilists, historicists, and presentists regarding the unreality of the future (and, for presentists, the past) are best. Now, a century after Minkowski’s proposed blockworld first sparked debate, (...)
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  18. Gregory R. Peterson (2003). Being Conscious of Marc Bekoff: Thinking of Animal Self-Consciousness. Zygon 38 (2):247-256.score: 30.0
    The preceding article by Marc Bekoff reveals much about our current understanding of animal self-consciousness and its implications. It also reveals how much more there is to be said and considered. This response briefly examines animal self-consciousness from scientific, moral, and theological perspectives. As Bekoff emphasizes, self-consciousness is not one thing but many. Consequently, our moral relationship to animals is not simply one based on a graded hierarchy of abilities. Furthermore, the complexity of animal self-awareness can serve as stimulus for (...)
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  19. Gregory R. Peterson (2010). Are Evolutionary/Cognitive Theories of Religion Relevant for Philosophy of Religion? Zygon 45 (3):545-557.score: 30.0
    Biological theories of religious belief are sometimes understood to undermine the very beliefs they are describing, proposing an alternative explanation for the causes of belief different from that given by religious believers themselves. This article surveys three categories of biological theorizing derived from evolutionary biology, cognitive science of religion, and neuroscience. Although each field raises important issues and in some cases potential challenges to the legitimacy of religious belief, in most cases the significance of these theories for the holding of (...)
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  20. Christian Barry & Matt Peterson (2011). Who Should Pay for the Damage of the Global Financial Crisis? In Ned Dobos Christian Barry & Thomas Pogge (eds.), Global Financial Crisis:The Ethical Issues. Palgrave.score: 30.0
  21. Martin Peterson (2009). An Introduction to Decision Theory. Cambridge University Press.score: 30.0
    This up-to-date introduction to decision theory offers comprehensive and accessible discussions of decision-making under ignorance and risk, the foundations of utility theory, the debate over subjective and objective probability, Bayesianism, causal decision theory, game theory, and social choice theory. No mathematical skills are assumed, and all concepts and results are explained in non-technical and intuitive as well as more formal ways. There are over 100 exercises with solutions, and a glossary of key terms and concepts. An emphasis on foundational aspects (...)
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  22. Gregory R. Peterson (2001). The Matter of Religion and Science: Response to Huston Smith. Zygon 36 (2):215-222.score: 30.0
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  23. Barbro Fröding & Martin Peterson (2012). Why Virtual Friendship is No Genuine Friendship. Ethics and Information Technology 14 (3):201-207.score: 30.0
    Based on a modern reading of Aristotle’s theory of friendship, we argue that virtual friendship does not qualify as genuine friendship. By ‘virtual friendship’ we mean the type of friendship that exists on the internet, and seldom or never is combined with real life interaction. A ‘traditional friendship’ is, in contrast, the type of friendship that involves substantial real life interaction, and we claim that only this type can merit the label ‘genuine friendship’ and thus qualify as morally valuable. The (...)
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  24. Martin Peterson (2004). Foreign Aid and the Moral Value of Freedom. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 7 (3):293-307.score: 30.0
    Peter Singer has famously argued that people living in affluent western countries are morally obligated to donate money to famine relief. The central premise in his argument is that, If it is in our power to prevent something bad from happening, without thereby sacrificing anything of comparable moral importance, we ought, morally, to do so. The present paper offers an argument to the effect that affluent people ought to support foreign aid projects based on a much weaker ethical premise. The (...)
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  25. Johan E. Gustafsson & Martin Peterson (2012). A Computer Simulation of the Argument From Disagreement. Synthese 184 (3):387–405.score: 30.0
    In this paper we shed new light on the Argument from Disagreement by putting it to test in a computer simulation. According to this argument widespread and persistent disagreement on ethical issues indicates that our moral opinions are not influenced by any moral facts, either because no such facts exist or because they are epistemically inaccessible or inefficacious for some other reason. Our simulation shows that if our moral opinions were influenced at least a little bit by moral facts, we (...)
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  26. Martin Peterson (2010). A Royal Road to Consequentialism? Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 13 (2):153-169.score: 30.0
    To consequentialise a moral theory means to account for moral phenomena usually described in nonconsequentialist terms, such as rights, duties, and virtues, in a consequentialist framework. This paper seeks to show that all moral theories can be consequentialised. The paper distinguishes between different interpretations of the consequentialiser’s thesis, and emphasises the need for a cardinal ranking of acts. The paper also offers a new answer as to why consequentialising moral theories is important: This yields crucial methodological insights about how to (...)
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  27. Martin Peterson & Barbro Fröding (2012). Virtuous Choice and Parity. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (1):71-82.score: 30.0
    This article seeks to contribute to the discussion on the nature of choice in virtue theory. If several different actions are available to the virtuous agent, they are also likely to vary in their degree of virtue, at least in some situations. Yet, it is widely agreed that once an action is recognised as virtuous there is no higher level of virtue. In this paper we discuss how the virtue theorist could accommodate both these seemingly conflicting ideas. We discuss this (...)
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  28. Martin Peterson & Sven Ove Hansson (2005). Equality and Priority. Utilitas 17 (3):299-309.score: 30.0
    This article argues that, contrary to the received view, prioritarianism and egalitarianism are not jointly incompatible theories in normative ethics. By introducing a distinction between weighing and aggregating, the authors show that the seemingly conflicting intuitions underlying prioritarianism and egalitarianism are consistent. The upshot is a combined position, equality-prioritarianism, which takes both prioritarian and egalitarian considerations into account in a technically precise manner. On this view, the moral value of a distribution of well-being is a product of two factors: the (...)
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  29. Martin Peterson (2003). From Consequentialism to Utilitarianism. Journal of Philosophy 100 (8):403-415.score: 30.0
    In this article, we show that total act utilitarianism can be derived from a set of axioms that are (or ought to be) acceptable for anyone subscribing to the basic ideals of consequentialism.
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  30. Jay L. Garfield, Candida C. Peterson & Tricia Perry (2001). Social Cognition, Language Acquisition and the Development of the Theory of Mind. Mind and Language 16 (5):494–541.score: 30.0
  31. Jonathan Peterson (2008). Enlightenment and Freedom. Journal of the History of Philosophy 46 (2):pp. 223-244.score: 30.0
    Kant’s main concern in his famous essay on enlightenment is the relation between enlightenment and the political order. His account of this relation turns on the idea of the freedom of public reason. This paper develops a new interpretation of Kant’s concept of public reason. First, it argues that Kant conceives of public reasoning as a matter of speaking in one’s own name to the commonwealth of the public. Second, it draws on Kant’s republican conception of freedom in order to (...)
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  32. Daniel Peterson (2011). Qeauty and the Books: A Response to Lewis's Quantum Sleeping Beauty Problem. Synthese 181 (3):367-374.score: 30.0
    In his 2007 paper “Quantum Sleeping Beauty”, Peter Lewis poses a problem for the supporters’ of the Everett interpretation of quantum mechanics appeal to subjective probability. Lewis’s argument hinges on parallels between the traditional “sleeping beauty” problem in epistemology and a quantum variant. These two cases, Lewis argues, advocate different treatments of credences even though they share important epistemic similarities, leading to a tension between the traditional solution to the sleeping beauty problem (typically called the “thirder” solution) and Everettian quantum (...)
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  33. Gregory R. Peterson (2009). A Hard Problem Indeed. Zygon 44 (1):19-29.score: 30.0
    Owen Flanagan's The Really Hard Problem provides a rich source of reflection on the question of meaning and ethics within the context of philosophical naturalism. I affirm the title's claim that the quest to find meaning in a purely physical universe is indeed a hard problem by addressing three issues: Flanagan's claim that there can be a scientific/empirical theory of ethics (eudaimonics), that ethics requires moral glue, and whether, in the end, Flanagan solves the hard problem. I suggest that he (...)
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  34. Azim F. Shariff & Jordan B. Peterson (2005). Anticipatory Consciousness, Libet's Veto and a Close-Enough Theory of Free Will. In Ralph D. Ellis & Natika Newton (eds.), Consciousness & Emotion: Agency, Conscious Choice, and Selective Perception. John Benjamins.score: 30.0
  35. Gregory R. Peterson (2000). Going Public: Science-and-Religion at a Crossroads. Zygon 35 (1):13-24.score: 30.0
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  36. Rosemary Lowry & Martin Peterson (2012). Cost-Benefit Analysis and Non-Utilitarian Ethics. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 11 (3):1470594-11416767.score: 30.0
    Cost-benefit analysis is commonly understood to be intimately connected with utilitarianism and incompatible with other moral theories, particularly those that focus on deontological concepts such as rights. We reject this claim and argue that cost-benefit analysis can take moral rights as well as other non-utilitarian moral considerations into account in a systematic manner. We discuss three ways of doing this, and claim that two of them (output filters and input filters) can account for a wide range of rights-based moral theories, (...)
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  37. Gregory R. Peterson (2011). God Soul Mind Brain: A Neuroscientist's Reflections on the Spirit World by Michael S.A. Graziano. Zygon 46 (2):503-504.score: 30.0
  38. Sandra Peterson (2011). Socrates and Philosophy in the Dialogues of Plato. Cambridge University Press.score: 30.0
    Machine generated contents note: Acknowledgments; 1. Opposed hypotheses about Plato's dialogues; 2. Socrates in the Apology; 3. Socrates in the digression of the Theaetetus: extraction by declaration; 4. Socrates in the Republic, part I: speech and counter-speech; 5. Socrates in the Republic, part II: philosophers, forms, Glaucon and Adeimantus; 6. Socrates in the Phaedo: another persuasion assignment; 7. Others' conceptions of philosophy in Euthydemus, Lovers, and Sophist; 8. Socrates and Plato in Plato's dialogues; 9. Socrates and philosophy; Bibliography.
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  39. Martin Peterson (2010). Some Versions of the Number Problem Have No Solution. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 13 (4):439-451.score: 30.0
    This article addresses Taruek’s much discussed Number Problem from a non-consequentialist point of view. I argue that some versions of the Number Problem have no solution, meaning that no alternative is at least as choice-worthy as the others, and that the best way to behave in light of such moral indeterminacy is to let chance make the decision. I contrast my proposal with F M <span class='Hi'>Kamm</span>’s nonconsequentialist argument for saving the greatest number, the Argument for Best Outcomes, which I (...)
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  40. Steven A. Peterson, Moral Development and Critiques of Anarchism.score: 30.0
    Anarchism, literally, means "without authority," although it is most commonly defined as a system in which social order is maintained voluntaristically, without the presence of a state or any other coercive mechanisms. There are many varieties of anarchism, and it is difficult in just one brief paragraph to specify the central beliefs. Nonetheless, there are some widely shared assertions, among which are (l) the primacy of individual sovereignty; (2) the opposition to coercive authority of any kind impinging upon the individual’s (...)
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  41. Martin Peterson (2011). Pandemic Influenza and Utilitarianism. Bioethics 25 (5):290-291.score: 30.0
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  42. Nicolas Espinoza & Martin Peterson (2012). Risk and Mid-Level Moral Principles. Bioethics 26 (1):8-14.score: 30.0
    We discuss ethical aspects of risk-taking with special focus on principlism and mid-level moral principles. A new distinction between the strength of an obligation and the degree to which it is valid is proposed. We then use this distinction for arguing that, in cases where mid-level moral principles come into conflict, the moral status of the act under consideration may be indeterminate, in a sense rendered precise in the paper. We apply this thought to issues related to pandemic influenza vaccines. (...)
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  43. Michael L. Peterson & Raymond J. VanArragon (eds.) (2004). Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Religion. Blackwell Pub..score: 30.0
    Is evil evidence against belief in God? -- Does divine hiddenness justify atheism? -- Does science discredit religion? -- Is God's existence the best explanation of the universe? -- Does religious experience justify religious belief? -- Is it rational for Christians to believe in the Resurrection? -- Can only one religion be true? -- Does God take risks in governing the world? -- Does God respond to petitionary prayer? -- Is eternal damnation compatible with the Christian concept of God? -- (...)
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  44. Martin Peterson (2011). A New Twist to the St. Petersburg Paradox. Journal of Philosophy 108 (12):697-699.score: 30.0
    In this paper I add a new twist to Colyvan's version of the Petrograd paradox.
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  45. D. K. Peterson (2002). The Relationship Between Unethical Behavior and the Dimensions of the Ethical Climate Questionnaire. Journal of Business Ethics 41 (4):313 - 326.score: 30.0
    This study examined the relationship between unethical employee behavior and the dimensions of the Ethical Climate Questionnaire (ECQ). In order to explore the relationship between the dimensions of the ECQ and unethical behavior, the factor structure of five previously identified empirical models and the hypothesized nine-dimension model for the ECQ was tested with a confirmatory factor analysis. The analysis revealed that the hypothesized nine-dimension model provided as good or even better fit to the data than the five empirically derived models. (...)
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  46. E. Wesley & F. Peterson (1993). Time Preference, the Environment and the Interests of Future Generations. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 6 (2):107-126.score: 30.0
    The behavior of individuals currently living will generally have long-term consequences that affect the well-being of those who will come to live in the future. Intergenerational interdependencies of this nature raise difficult moral issues because only the current generation is in a position to decide on actions that will determine the nature of the world in which future generations will live. Although most are willing to attach some weight to the interests of future generations, many would argue that it is (...)
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  47. Martin Peterson (2010). Theory of Decision Under Uncertainty , Itzak Gilboa. Cambridge University Press, 2009. XIV + 215 Pages. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 26 (2):254-258.score: 30.0
  48. Martin Peterson (2009). The Mixed Solution to the Number Problem. Journal of Moral Philosophy 6 (2):166-177.score: 30.0
    You must either save a group of m people or a group of n people. If there are no morally relevant diff erences among the people, which group should you save? is problem is known as the number problem. e recent discussion has focussed on three proposals: (i) Save the greatest number of people, (ii) Toss a fair coin, or (iii) Set up a weighted lottery, in which the probability of saving m people is m / m + n , (...)
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  49. Gregory R. Peterson (2009). Review of Michael Martin, Ed., the Cambridge Companion to Atheism. [REVIEW] Sophia 48 (4):509-510.score: 30.0
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  50. Sven Diekmann & Martin Peterson (2013). The Role of Non-Epistemic Values in Engineering Models. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (1):207-218.score: 30.0
    We argue that non-epistemic values, including moral ones, play an important role in the construction and choice of models in science and engineering. Our main claim is that non-epistemic values are not only “secondary values” that become important just in case epistemic values leave some issues open. Our point is, on the contrary, that non-epistemic values are as important as epistemic ones when engineers seek to develop the best model of a process or problem. The upshot is that models are (...)
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