Search results for 'K. O'N' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. D. S. Colman (1948). School Books Alston Hurd Chase and Henry Phillips Jr.: A New Introduction to Greek. Pp. 128. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press (London: Oxford University Press), 1946. Paper, 10s. F. Kinchin Smith and T. W. Melluish: Teach Yourself Greek. Pp. 331. London: Hodder and Stoughton (for the English Universities Press), 1947. Cloth, 4s. 6d. K. C. Masterman: A Latin Word-List. Pp. 3. Melbourne: Macmillan, 1945. Paper, 2s. 6d. K. D. Robinson and R. L. Chambers: The Latin Way. Pp. Xxviii+380 (Many Drawings by Hilary M. Crosse). London: Christophers, 1947. Cloth, 6s. 6d. O. N. Jones: Faciliora Reddenda. Pp. 96. London and Glasgow: Blackie, 1947. Cloth, 2s. I. Williamson: The Friday Afternoon Latin Book. Pp. 79 (Illustrated by Drawings). London and Glasgow: Blackie, 1947. Cloth, 2s. 3d. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 62 (3-4):158-159.score: 435.0
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  2. Maxime Crochemore & Ely Porat (2008). Computing a Longest Increasing Subsequence of Length $ K $ in Time $ O (N\ Log\ Log K) $. In Erol Gelenbe, Samson Abramsky & Vladimiro Sassone (eds.), Visions of Computer Science. British Computer Society. 69--74.score: 435.0
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  3. Duane Isely (1982). A Legume Encyclopedia The Leguminosae: A Source Book of Characteristics, Uses, and Nodulation O. N. Allen Ethel K. Allen. [REVIEW] BioScience 32 (4):289-289.score: 435.0
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  4. Zenon Pylyshyn, Se E I N G a N D V I S U a L I Z I N G : I T ' S N O T W H a T y O U T H I N K.score: 405.0
    <span class='Hi'>span>6<span class='Hi'>span>. <span class='Hi'>span>Seeing<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>With<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi (...)'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Mind<span class='Hi'>span>’<span class='Hi'>span>s<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Eye<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>1<span class='Hi'>span>: <span class='Hi'>span>The<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Puzzle<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Mental<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Imagery<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>6<span class='Hi'>span>.<span class='Hi'>span>1<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>What<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>puzzle<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>about<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>mental<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>imagery<span class='Hi'>span>? <span class='Hi'>span>6<span class='Hi'>span>.<span class='Hi'>span>2<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>Content<span class='Hi'>span>, <span class='Hi'>span>form<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>and<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>substance<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>representations<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>6<span class='Hi'>span>.<span class='Hi'>span>3<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>What<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>is<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>responsible<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>for<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>the<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>pattern<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>of<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>results<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>obtained<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>in<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>imagery<span class='Hi'>span> <span class='Hi'>span>studies<span class='Hi'>span>? (shrink)
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  5. Diane Bolger (2005). Cypriot Antiquities V. Karageorghis: Ancient Cypriote Art in the National Archaeological Museum of Athens . Pp. 152, Colour Map, Colour Ills. Athens: A. G. Leventis Foundation, 2003. Paper, Cyp£15. ISBN: 960-7037-41-3. V. Karageorghis: Cypriote Antiquities in the Royal Ontario Museum . In Collaboration with P. Denis, N. Leipen, A. H. Easson, D. Papanikola-Bakirtzis, and E. A. Knox. Pp. Xii + 150, Colour Map, Colour Ills. Nicosia: A. G. Leventis Foundation/Royal Ontario Museum, 2003. Paper, €36. ISBN: 9963-560-56-3. V. Karageorghis: The Cyprus Collections in the Medelhavsmuseet . In Collaboration with S. Houby-Nielsen, K. Slej, M.-L. Winbladh, S. N. Fischer, and O. Kaneberg. With Contributions From P. Åström, D. Collon, H. Nilsson, K. Nys, D. Papanikola-Bakirtzis, E. Poyiadji, E. Rystedt, and L. Söderhjelm. Pp. Xiv + 367, Colour Map, B/W and Colour Ills. Nicosia: A. G. Leventis Foundation/Medelhavsmuseet, Stockholm, 2003. Paper, Cyp£30. ISBN: 9963-560-55-5. V. Karageorghis: Ancient Art. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 55 (1):331.score: 405.0
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  6. Gabriel Cercel, Paul Marinescu, Andrei Timotin, Delia Popa, Cristian Ciocan, Victor Popescu, Radu M. Oancea, Paul Balogh, Bogdan Mincă, Roxana Albu & Anca Dumitru (2002). Gabriel Cercel: Hans-Georg Gadamer, Hermeneutische Entwürfe. Vorträge Und AufsätzePaul Marinescu: Pascal Michon, Poétique D'Une Anti-Anthropologie: L'Herméneutique de GadamerPaul Marinescu: Robert J. Dostal (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to GadamerAndrei Timotin: Denis Seron, Le Problème de la Métaphysique. Recherches Sur L'Interprétation Heideggerienne de Platon Et D'AristoteDelia Popa: Henry Maldiney, Ouvrir le Rien. L'Art nuCristian Ciocan: Dominique Janicaud, Heidegger En France, I. Récit; II. EntretiensVictor Popescu: Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Fenomenologia percepţieiRadu M. Oancea: Trish Glazebrook, Heidegger's Philosophy of SciencePaul Balogh: Richard Wolin, Heidegger's Children. Hannah Arendt, Karl Löwith, Hans Jonas and Herbert MarcuseBogdan Mincă: Ivo De Gennaro, Logos - Heidegger Liest HeraklitRoxana Albu: O. K. Wiegand, R. J. Dostal, L. Embree, J. Kockelmans and J. N. Mohanty (Eds.), Phenomenology on Kant, German Idealism, Hermeneutics and LogicAnca Dumitru: James Faulconer an. [REVIEW] Studia Phaenomenologica 2 (1):261-313.score: 405.0
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  7. Frédéric Cossutta (2004). Pour une critique sceptique de la pragmatique transcendantale de K. O. Apel. Methodos 3.score: 297.0
    Parmi les philosophies qui tentent de faire face à la crise de la rationalité, certaines, plus radicales que dautres, en proposent une fondation reposant sur des (...)principes qui se veulent exempts de toute présupposition. Ainsi K. O. Apel entend opérer une refondation de la rationalité éthique et cognitive en considérant les activités communicationnelles et argumentatives. Il sagit délaborer une «pragmatique transcendantale» dont le processus détayage auto-réflexif sappuie sur la «contradiction pragmatique» dans laquelle tombent ses éventuels contradicteurs. Une telle prétention nest-elle pas exorbitante ? Les sceptiques grecs ont élaboré une approche pragmatique du sens qui leur permet déviter la disqualification de leur énonciation, ce qui permet, en transposant leurs conceptions à la lumière des théories contemporaines du langage, déchapper à la critique de Apel. On peut dès lors reconnaître le caractère constitutif de lactivité communicationnelle, sans prétendre en proposer une fondation ultime de type transcendantal, ni préjuger de son orientation éthique. Resterait à se demander sil est possible de reconstruire une rationalité minimale compatible avec la posture sceptique. (shrink)
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  8. K. J. Dover (1974). N. P. Hionides, Συμβολ ε ς τ ν Στεμματικ ν κα τ ν ΤαΞινóμηςιν τ ν Χειρογρ φων το ριστοφ νους. Pp. 62; 2 figs. Ioannina: ταιρε α Ἠπειρωτικ ν Μελετ ν, 1971. Paper. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 24 (02):290-.score: 189.0
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  9. K. W. Arafat (1997). Corpus Vasopum (Bis) N. Sidorova: Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum: Russia: Pushkin State Museum: Attic Black-Figure Vases. (in Collaboration with O. Tugusheva). (Pushkin State Museum, Fascicule 1; Russia, Fascicule 1.) Pp. 64, 66 Pls. Rome: 'L'Erma' di Bretschneider. Union Académique Internationale, 1996. ISBN: 88-7062-937-6. H. A. G. Baijder: Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum: The Netherlands: Allard Pierson Museum, University of Amsterdam: Attic Black-Figure Drinking-Cups (in Collaboration with P. Heesen, J. T. Smit-Lub, O. E. Borgers). (Amsterdam, Fascicule 2; The Netherlands, Fascicule 8.) Pp. Xil + 146, 78 Pls, 61 Figs. Amsterdam: Union Académique Internationale, 1996. ISBN: 90-71211-25-8. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 47 (02):395-397.score: 189.0
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  10. K. D. Kendrick (2000). Mason J, Eccles M, Freemantle N, Drummond M, NICEly Does It: Economic Analysis Within Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines Talfryn H, Davis O, Mannion R, Clinicl Governance: Striking a Balance Between Checking and Trusting. Nursing Ethics 7 (2):174-174.score: 189.0
     
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  11. Gunther Teubner (2010). Justicia autosubversiva: ¿Fórmula de contingencia O de trascendencia Del derecho? Anales de la Cátedra Francisco Suárez 44:217-248.score: 132.0
    E n est e a r tícul o e l auto r s e pr e gunt a s i l a teorí a socia l de (...)
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  12. Bernard A. Anderson (2008). Reals N-Generic Relative to Some Perfect Tree. Journal of Symbolic Logic 73 (2):401 - 411.score: 132.0
    We say that a real X is n-generic relative to a perfect tree T if X is a path through T and for all $\Sigma _{n (...)}^{0}(T)$ sets S, there exists a number k such that either X|kS or for all σT extending X|k we have σS. A real X is n-generic relative to some perfect tree if there exists such a T. We first show that for every number n all but countably many reals are n-generic relative to some perfect tree. Second, we show that proving this statement requires ZFC− + "∃ infinitely many iterates of the power set of ω". Third, we prove that every finite iterate of the hyperjump. ${\cal O}^{(n)}$ , is not 2-generic relative to any perfect tree and for every ordinal α below the least λ such that supβ&lti (βth admissible) = λ, the iterated hyperjump ${\cal O}^{(\alpha)}$ is not 5-generic relative to any perfect tree. Finally, we demonstrate some necessary conditions for reals to be 1-generic relative to some perfect tree. (shrink)
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  13. Ramón Campderrich Bravo (2009). ¿ Derecho internacional O Guerra imperial? Hans Kelsen Y Carl Schmitt Ante la pacificación de las relaciones interestatales Por medio Del derecho. Anales de la Cátedra Francisco Suárez 43:19 - 38.score: 132.0
    Th e mai n idea s o f Han s K else n an d Car l Schmit t abou t w a r an d peac (...)
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  14. Anand Pillay (1994). Definability of Types, and Pairs of o-Minimal Structures. Journal of Symbolic Logic 59 (4):1400-1409.score: 126.0
    Let T be a complete O-minimal theory in a language L. We first give an elementary proof of the result (due to Marker and Steinhorn) that (...)all types over Dedekind complete models of T are definable. Let L * be L together with a unary predicate P. Let T * be the L * -theory of all pairs (N, M), where M is a Dedekind complete model of T and N is an |M| + -saturated elementary extension of N (and M is the interpretation of P). Using the definability of types result, we show that T * is complete and we give a simple set of axioms for T * . We also show that for every L * -formula φ(x) there is an L-formula ψ(x) such that $T^\ast \models (\forall \mathbf{x})(P(\mathbf{x}) \rightarrow (\phi(\mathbf{x}) \mapsto \psi (\mathbf{x}))$ . This yields the following result: Let M be a Dedekind complete model of T. Let φ(x, y) be an L-formula where l(y) = k. Let $\mathbf{X} = \{X \subset M^k$ : for some a in an elementary extension N of M, X = φ (a,y NM k }. Then there is a formula ψ(y, z) of L such that X = {ψ (y, b) M : b in M}. (shrink)
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  15. H. Ganthaler, A. Gehlen, E. Gellner, L. Goldstein, D. Gottlieb, E. Hanslick, G. Harman, N. Hartmann, K. Havlicek & O. Hazay (2006). Nagel, T. 3445 Neumaier, O. 18, 246. In Markus Textor (ed.), The Austrian Contribution to Analytic Philosophy. Routledge. 324.score: 126.0
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  16. Marcus Tressl (2009). Heirs of Box Types in Polynomially Bounded Structures. Journal of Symbolic Logic 74 (4):1225 - 1263.score: 99.0
    A box type is an n-type of an o-minimal structure which is uniquely determined by the projections to the coordinate axes. We characterize heirs of box (...) types of a polynomially bounded o-minimal structure M. From this, we deduce various structure theorems for subsets of $M^k $ , definable in the expansion M of M by all convex subsets of the line. We show that M after naming constants, is model complete provided M is model complete. (shrink)
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  17. D. Rudolph, L. -L. Andersson, R. Bengtsson, J. Ekman, O. Erten, C. Fahlander, E. K. Johansson, I. Ragnarsson, C. Andreoiu, M. A. Bentley, M. P. Carpenter, R. J. Charity, R. M. Clark, P. Fallon, A. O. Macchiavelli, W. Reviol, D. G. Sarantites, D. Seweryniak, C. E. Svensson & S. J. Williams, Isospin and Deformation Studies in the Odd-Odd N = Z Nucleus Co-54.score: 90.0
    High-spin states in the odd-odd N = Z nucleus Co-54 have been investigated by the fusion-evaporation reaction Si-28(S-32,1 alpha 1p1n)Co-54. Gamma- (...)ray information gathered with the Ge detector array Gammasphere was correlated with evaporated particles detected in the charged particle detector system Microball and a 1 pi neutron detector array. A significantly extended excitation scheme of Co-54 is presented, which includes a candidate for the isospin T = 1, 6(+) state of the 1f(7/2)(-2) multiplet. The results are compared to large-scale shell-model calculations in the fp shell. Effective interactions with and without isospin-breaking terms have been used to probe isospin symmetry and isospin mixing. A quest for deformed high-spin rotational cascades proved negative. This feature is discussed by means of cranking calculations. (shrink)
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  18. Anton Charles Pegis & J. Reginald O'Donnell (eds.) (1974). Essays in Honour of Anton Charles Pegis. Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies.score: 90.0
    O'Donnell, J. R. Anton Charles Pegis on the occasion of his retirement.--Conlan, W. J. The definition of faith according to a question of MS. Assisi 138 (...): study and edition of text.--Spade, P. V. Five logical tracts by Richard Lavenham.--Maurer, A. Henry of Harclay's disputed question on the plurality of forms.--Brown, V. Giovanni Argiropulo on the agent intellect: an edition of Ms. Magliabecchi V 42.--Synan, E. A. The Exortacio against Peter Abelard's Dialogus inter philosophum, Iudaeum et Christianum.--Fitzgerald, W. Nugae Hyginianae.--Sheehan, M. M. Marriage and family in English conciliar and synodal legislation.--Shook, L. K. Riddles relating to the Anglo-Saxon scriptorium.--Boyle, L. E. The De regno and the two powers.--Colledge, E. A Middle English Christological poem.--Gough, M. R. E. Three forgotten martyrs of Anazarbus in Cilicia.--Häring, N. Chartres and Paris revisited.--Hayes, W. Greek recentiores, (Ps.) Basil, Adversus eunomium, IV-V.--Owens, J. The physical world of Parmenides. (shrink)
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  19. Dagfinn Føllesdal (1969). Husserl's Notion of Noema. Journal of Philosophy 66 (20):680-687.score: 87.0
    Darstellung des Noema in 12 Thesen.\nverwendete Textstellen: Ideen 1: S. 203, 22-23; S. 204, 20-21; S. 357, 19-20: Handlungen sind zielgerichtet. Dabei bedarf eines (...)keines physischen Objekts. Husserl setzt and diese Stelle das Noema. Somit wird auch zielgerichtetes Handeln aufgrund einer Halluzination m{ö}glich, Zielgerichtet zu sein bedeutet ein Noema zu haben.\n1. Follesdal´sche These: Noema ist eine intensionale Entit{ä}t, eine Generalisierung des Begriffs Sinn/Bedeutung.\n2. These: Das Noema hat zwei Bestandteile, a) der noematische Sinn, der allen thetischen Handlungen (erinnern, sich vorstellen usw.) gem{ä}{ß} desselben Objekts mit denselben Eigenschaften in derselben Gerichtetheit gemeinsam ist und b) die Gegebenheitsweise (hat auch Sinncharakter), die sich unterscheidet in Handlungen mit verschiedenem thetischen Charakter.\n3. These: Der noematische Sinn ergibt sich aus der Art und Weise, wie Bewu{ß}tsein zum Objekt in Relation steht.\n!! 4. These: Das Noema einer Handlung ist nicht das Objekt dieser Handlung\n5. These: Das Objekt einer Handlung ist eine Funktion des noematischen Sinns, d.h. mit einem bestimmten Noema kann nur ein Objekt korrespondieren.\n6. These: Jedoch k{ö}nnen mit einem bestimmten Objekt verschiedene Noemata korrespondieren. (z.B. kann ein Objekt das Ziel verschiedener thetischer Handlunge sein, etwa erinnern, wahrnehmen, daher:)\n6. These a): Mit einem bestimmten Objekt korrespondieren verschiedene noematische Sinne.\n7. These: Jede Handlung besteht aus nur einem Noema. Sie wird durch dieses Noema charakterisiert. (Umgekehrt trifft dies nicht zu.)\n8. These: Noemata sind abstrakte Entit{ä}ten. (Sinne sind nicht real. Sie sind bezogen auf Handlungen in tempor{ä}ren Intervallen.)\n9. These: Noemata werden nicht durch unsere Sinnesorgane wahrgenommen.\n10. These: Noemata gelangen durch ph{ä}nomenologische Reflektion ins Bewu{ß}tsein.\n11. These: Eine ph{ä}nomenologische Reflektion kann iterativ geschehen (ann{ä}herungsweise; in Schritte gegliedert). Dies ist so, weil schon die Korrespondenz zwischen Sinn und Objekt wieder ein Objekt ergibt. Es folgt ein unendlicher Regress.\nPhysische Objekte sind transzendent in dem Sinne, dass sie unendlich viele Noemata haben. Sinn kann sie nie ersch{ö}pfend erfassen.\nNoemata k{ö}nnen andererseits ein physisches Objekt repr{ä}sentieren in der Form, dass mehr intendiert wird als gesehen wird. So denkt man sich etwa bei einem Stuhl, von dem man nur zwei Beine sieht, die beiden {ü}brigen hinzu.\n12. These: Diese Muster der Vorherbestimmung bilden zusammen mit den Gegebenheitsweisen das Noema (s. These 2). (shrink)
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  20. Oleg Pikhurko & Oleg Verbitsky (2005). Descriptive Complexity of Finite Structures: Saving the Quantifier Rank. Journal of Symbolic Logic 70 (2):419-450.score: 87.0
    We say that a first order formula Φ distinguishes a structure M over a vocabulary L from another structure M' over the same vocabulary if Φ is (...)
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  21. Marina Gascón Abellán (2010). Prueba científica: Mitos Y paradigmas. Anales de la Cátedra Francisco Suárez 44:81-103.score: 87.0
    Th e basi c pu r pos e o f thi s w or k consist s o f eliminatin g som e o f th e (...)
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  22. Klaus Barner (2007). Negative Größen Bei Diophant? Teil I. NTM International Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology and Medicine 15 (1):18-49.score: 87.0
    In this paper which consists of two parts (Teil I and Teil II) we champion Diophantus of Alexandria and Isabella BaÅ¡makova against Norbert Schappacher. In two (...)publications ([Schappacher 1998a] and [Schappacher 1998b]) he puts forward inter alia two propositions: Questioning Diophantus’ originality he considers affirmatively the possibility that the Arithmetica are the joint work of a team of authors like Bourbaki. And he calls BaÅ¡makova’s claim (in [BaÅ¡makova 1972]) that Diophantus uses negative numbers, a nonsense , reproaching her for her thoughtlessness . Teil I: First, we disprove Schappacher’s Bourbaki thesis. Second, we investigate the semantic meaning and historical significance of Diophantus’ keywords $ λvarepsilon tildeιψιζ and ὕπαρξιζ. Next, we discuss Schappacher’s epistemology of the history of mathematics and defend BaÅ¡makova’s methods. Finally we analyse in detail three problems from Diophantus’ Arithmetica (and their solutions) given by Thomas Heath and Helmuth Gericke as proof of the their claim that Diophantus did not use negative numbers. Teil II: In this Part, we give 33 places where Diophantus uses negative quantities as intermediate results; they appear as differences a − b of positive rational numbers, the subtrahend b being bigger than the minuend a; they each represent the (negative) basis ( πλvarepsilonυρacuteα ) of a square number ( τvarepsilonτρacuteαγω ν o ζ ), which is afterwards computed by the formula (a - b) 2 = a 2 + b 2 - 2ab $ . Finally, we report how the topic Diophantus and the negative numbers has been dealt with by translators and commentators from Maximus Planudes onwards. Und er kommt zu dem Ergebnis: ≪Nur ein Traum war das Erlebnis. Weil≫, so schlieβt er messerscharf, ≪nicht sein k a n n, was nicht sein d a r f.≫ CHRISTIAN MORGENSTERN: Palmstrm. (shrink)
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  23. Harvey Friedman & Chris Miller, A Big Difference Between Interpretability and Definability in an Expansion of the Real Field.score: 87.0
    We say that E is R-sparse if f(Ek) has no interior, for each k 2 N and f : Rk ! R de nable in R. (Throughout, (...)
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  24. Neil Immerman, Jonathan F. Buss & David A. Mix Barrington (2001). Number of Variables is Equivalent to Space. Journal of Symbolic Logic 66 (3):1217-1230.score: 87.0
    We prove that the set of properties describable by a uniform sequence of first-order sentences using at most k + 1 distinct variables is exactly equal to (...)
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  25. Jan Krajíček (2011). A Note on Propositional Proof Complexity of Some Ramsey-Type Statements. Archive for Mathematical Logic 50 (1-2):245-255.score: 87.0
    A Ramsey statement denoted ${n \longrightarrow (k)^2_2}$ says that every undirected graph on n vertices contains either a clique or an independent set of size k. (...)Any such valid statement can be encoded into a valid DNF formula RAM(n, k) of size O(n k ) and with terms of size ${\left(\begin{smallmatrix}k\\2\end{smallmatrix}\right)}$ . Let r k be the minimal n for which the statement holds. We prove that RAM(r k , k) requires exponential size constant depth Frege systems, answering a problem of Krishnamurthy and Moll [15]. As a consequence of Pudláks work in bounded arithmetic [19] it is known that there are quasi-polynomial size constant depth Frege proofs of RAM(4 k , k), but the proof complexity of these formulas in resolution R or in its extension R(log) is unknown. We define two relativizations of the Ramsey statement that still have quasi-polynomial size constant depth Frege proofs but for which we establish exponential lower bound for R. (shrink)
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  26. B. K. Potter, N. O'Reilly, H. Etchegary, H. Howley, I. D. Graham & M. Walker (2009). Obstetricians and Other Healthcare Providers Should Promote Active Decisionmaking About Pre-Natal Testing. Healthcare Providers Should Make Certain That Women Understand They Have a Choice About Whether to Engage in. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 18:446-448.score: 87.0
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  27. Alan K. Bowman, N. Lewis & O. Montevecchi (1976). Papyrus in Classical AntiquityLa Papirologia. Journal of Hellenic Studies 96:265.score: 87.0
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  28. K. O'N. (1964). The Totalitarian Threat. Review of Metaphysics 17 (3):481-481.score: 87.0
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  29. Francis Jeffry Pelletier, Thephilosophyofautomatedtheoremproving.score: 87.0
    Different researchers use "the philosophy of automated theorem p r o v i n g " t o cover d i f f e r e n t (...) concepts, indeed, different levels of concepts. Some w o u l d count such issues as h o w to e f f i c i e n t l y i n d e x databases as part of the philosophy of automated theorem p r o v i n g . Others wonder about whether f o r m u l a s should be represented as strings or as trees or as lists, and call this part of the philosophy of automated theorem p r o v i n g . Yet others concern themselves w i t h what k i n d o f search should b e embodied i n a n y automated theorem prover, or to what degree any automated theorem prover should resemble Prolog. Still others debate whether natural deduction or semantic tableaux or resolution is " b e t t e r " , a n d c a l l t h i s a part of the p h i l o s o p h y of automated theorem p r o v i n g . Some people wonder whether automated theorem p r o v i n g should be " h u m a n oriented" or "machine o r i e n t e d " — sometimes arguing about whether the internal p r o o f methods should be " h u m a n - I i k e " or not, sometimes arguing about whether the generated proof should be output in a f o r m u n d e r s t a n d a b l e by p e o p l e , and sometimes a r g u i n g a b o u t the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f h u m a n intervention in the process of constructing a proof. There are also those w h o ask such questions as whether we s h o u l d even be concerned w i t h completeness or w i t h soundness of a system, or perhaps we should instead look at very efficient (but i n c o m p l e t e ) subsystems or look at methods of generating models w h i c h might nevertheless validate invalid arguments. A n d a l l of these have been v i e w e d as issues in the philosophy of automated theorem proving. Here, I w o u l d l i k e to step back from such i m p l e m e n t - ation issues and ask: " W h a t do we really think we are doing when we w r i t e an automated theorem prover?" My reflections are perhaps idiosyncratic, but I do think that they put the different researchers* efforts into a broader perspective, and give us some k i n d of handle on w h i c h directions we ourselves m i g h t w i s h to pursue when constructing (or extending) an automated theorem proving system. A logic is defined to be (i) a vocabulary and formation rules ( w h i c h tells us w h a t strings of symbols are w e l l - formed formulas in the logic), and ( i i ) a definition of ' p r o o f in that system ( w h i c h tells us the conditions under which an arrangement of formulas in the system constitutes a proof). Historically speaking, definitions of ' p r o o f have been given in various different manners: the most c o m m o n have been H i l b e r t - s t y l e ( a x i o m a t i c ) , Gentzen-style (consecution, or sequent), F i t c h - s t y l e (natural deduction), and Beth-style (tableaux).. (shrink)
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  30. K. Takeda, S. Benkadda, O. Agullo, A. Sen, X. Garbet, P. K. Kaw & N. Bian (2005). Nonlinear Evolution of Magnetic Islands in a Turbulent Plasma. In Alan F. Blackwell & David MacKay (eds.), Power. Cambridge University Press. 5.score: 87.0
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  31. Dolores Morondo Taramundi (2011). Subordiscriminación y discriminación interseccional: elementos para una teoría del derecho antidiscriminatorio. Anales de la Cátedra Francisco Suárez 45:15 - 42.score: 87.0
    Thi s w or k i s pa r t o f a r e visio n i n p r o g r es s r (...)
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  32. Kit Fine (2003). The Problem of Possibilia. In Michael J. Loux & Dean W. Zimmerman (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Metaphysics. Oxford University Press.score: 81.0
    Are there, in addition to the various actual objects that make up the world, various possible objects? Are there merely possible people, for example, or merely possible (...)
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  33. David Keyt (1985). Distributive Justice in Aristotle's Ethics and Politics. Topoi 4 (1):23-45.score: 81.0
    The symbolism introduced earlier provides a convenient vehicle for examining the status and consistency of Aristotle's three diverse justifications and for explaining how he means to (...)avoid Protagorean relativism without embracing Platonic absolutism. When the variablesxandyare allowed to range over the groups of free men in a given polis as well as over individual free men, the formula for the Aristotelian conception of justice expresses the major premiss of Aristotle's three justifications: (1) (∀ x )(∀ y ) (P(xW(x)/P(yW(y)=V(T(x))/V(T(y)))Democracy is justified by adding a minor premiss to the effect that as a group the many ( m ) are superior (>) in virtue and wealth to the few best men ( f ): 85 (2 d ) (P(m) · W(m)) > (P(f) · W(f)) (3 d ) V(T(m))>V(T(f))Absolute kingship is justified when a godlike man ( g ) appears in a polis who is incommensurably superior (≫) in virtue and wealth to all the remaining free men ( r ): (2 k ) (P(g) · W(g)) ≫ (P(r) · W(r)) (3 k ) V(T(g)) ≫ V(T(r))True aristocracy requires a more complex justification, which was symbolized in Section 4. These justifications are compatible with each other since they apply to different situations. The polises where democracy and true aristocracy are justified contain no godlike men, and the polis in which democracy is justified differs from that in which true aristocracy is justified in containing a large group of free men who individually have little virtue ( Pol. III.11.1281b23-25, 1282a25-26). Each of the justifications is a valid deductive argument. Aristotle affirms the major premiss they share on the basis of a twofold appeal to nature. The principle of distributive justice, the concept as distinguished from the various conceptions of distributive justice, is itself according to nature ( Pol. VII.3.1325b7-10) and so too is one particular standard of worth, the standard of the best polis. Consequently, the question of the status of these three justifications, whether they are purely hypothetical or not, is a question about the minor premiss or premisses of each. In the case of the democratic premiss Aristotle's answer is straightforward: it is sometimes but not always true ( Pol. III.11.1281bl5-21). Hence the justification of democracy is not purely hypothetical. Nor is the justification of absolute kingship. The man who islike a god among men” ( Pol. III.13.1284a10-11) would be a man of heroic virtue (see VII.14.1332bl6-27); and such a man, Aristotle says, israre” ( σπávιoη ) (not nonexistent) ( E.N. VII.1.1145a27-28). The minor premisses of the aristocratic argument describe a situation where all of the free men in a given polis have sufficient wealth for the exercise of the moral and intellectual virtues and where all of the older free men of the polis are men of practical wisdom. In the Politics Aristotle makes only the modest claim that such a situation is possible: It is not possible for the best constitution to come into being without appropriate equipment [that is, the appropriate quality and quantity of territory and of citizens and noncitizens]. Hence one must presuppose many things as one would wish them to be, though none of them must be impossible ( Pol. VII.4.1325b37-38; see also II.6.1265al7-18). But Aristotle appears to subscribe to the principle that every possibility is realized at some moment of time ( Top. 11.11.115bl7-18, Met. Θ.4.1047b3-6, N.2.1088b23-25). This principle together with the claim that the situation described is possible entails that the situation sometimes occurs. Thus even Aristotle's justification of true aristocracy is not purely hypothetical. The final question is Aristotle's way of avoiding Protagorean relativism without embracing Platonic absolutism. The relativist, along with everyone else ( E.N. V.3.1131a13-14, Pol. III.12.1282bl8), can accept the principle of distributive justice: Q(x)/Q(y) = V(T(x))/V(T(y)) And he can concede that particular instances of this principle, particular conceptions of justice, accurately describe the modes of distributing political authority that appear just to particular polises and to particular philosophers. What he denies is that there is any basis for ranking these various conceptions of justice or for singling one out as the best (Plato, Theaet. 172A-B). Aristotle, following in Plato's track ( Laws X.888D7-890D8), maintains against the relativist that nature provides such a basis. But he departs from Plato in his conception of nature. For Platothe just by nature” ( τó ρυσει δίκ }) ( Rep. VI.501B2) is the Form of justice, an incorporeal entity ( Phdo. 65D4-5, Soph. 246B8) that exists beyond time and space ( Tim. 37C6-38C3, 51E6-52B2), whereas for Aristotle the sensible world is the realm of nature ( Met. A.1.1069a30-b2). Thus in appealing to nature Aristotle does not appeal to a transcendent standard. Nor does he appeal to his main criterion of the natural, namely, happening always or for the most part. Aristotle's theory of justice is anchored to nature by means of the polis described in Politics VII and VIII, and he regards this polis as natural because it fosters the true end of human life and because its social and political structure reflects the natural hierarchy of human beings and the natural stages of life. Thus the nature that Aristotle's theory of justice is ultimately founded on is human nature. (shrink)
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  34. Daniel L. Schacter (1987). Implicit Memory: History and Current Status. Journal of Experimental Psychology 13 (3):501-18.score: 81.0
    Je lui ai associÉ un court extrait d'une revue de questions portant sur le même thème. Implicit memory is revealed when previous experiences facilitate perf on (...)a task that does not require conscious or intentional recollection of those expces. Explicit memory is revealed when perf on a task requires conscious recolelction of previous expces. Il s'agit de defs descriptives qui n'impliquent pas l'existence de deux systs de mÉmo sÉparÉs. Historiquement Descartes est le premier ˆ faire mention de phÉnomènes de mÉmo implicites, Leibniz, Maine de Biran, Bergson en ont Également parlÉ. Korsakoff (1889) avec ses travaux sur les amnÉsiques montre qu'ils sont capables d'utiliser de l'info qu'ils ont acquises dans des Épisodes rÉcents sans pour autant manifester le moindre souvenir de l'Épisode. L'interprÉtation de ces phÉnomènes Était alors que ça renvoyait ˆ des traces en mÉmoire trop tÉnues pour accèder jusqu'au champ de la conscience. Cette interprÉtation va pouvoir être ÉcartÉe par les travaux rÉcents. Thorndike a Également conduit un nbre important de travaux sur MI. Les trauvaux un peu plus rÉcents ont montrÉ qu'un apprentissage antÉrieur pouvait faciliter une perfce sans qu'il y ait ref explicite à l'Épisode d'apprentissage. On a montrÉ aussi l'effet de stimuli subliminaux, qui en tant que tels ne peuvent pas être rappelÉs consciemment, mais qui influencent la conduite ou les jugts ultÉrieurs. Par ex, la prÉsentation de formes sur des temps très courts qui excluent la possibilitÉ d'une perception consciente influence significativement lechoix de formes dans une pÉreuve ultÉrieure de choix forcÉs les sjts doivent indiquer la forme qu'il prÉfère entre deux. Ils choisissent prÉfÉrentiellement celles qui leur ont ÉtÉ prÉsentÉes de manière subliminale. De même Bargh et al. ont montrÉ que des sjts soumis de manière subliminale ˆ des mots hostiles portent ultÉrieurement des jugts plus nÉgatifs sur une personne target. Il ya Également eu des travaux sur l'apprsge ou le condt without awareness en particulier apprsge implicite de règles de grammaire (ie le sjt peut construire de nouvelles phrases conformes ˆ la syntaxe de celles qui lui ont ÉtÉ prÉsentÉes sans pour autant petre capables d'noncer les règles de grammaire qu'il utilise) Rem: N'est ce pas un pbe de typemÉtacognition??? Enfin, tous les travaux sur le priming sont des elts en faveur de MI: Facilitation in the processing of a stimulus as a function of a recent encounter with the same stimulus. Type de perfce sur lesquels les effets de priming ont ÉtÉ dÉmontrÉs: -Tches de dÉcision lexicale: Le sjt doit dire si la cha"ne de caractères qu'on lui prÉsente est un mot ou pas: Le temps de latence est beaucoup plus court si la cha"ne a dÉjˆ ÉtÉ prÉsentÉe une première fois. -Mesures de temps d'identification de mots en rpÉsentation tachitoscopiques -ComplÉmentation de mots: les sjts ont tendance ˆ complÉter pour crÉer les mots qui leur ont ÉtÉ prÉsentÉs antÉrieurement. L'intÉrêt pour le paradigme de priming se retouve chez les gens qui s'intÉressent ˆ: -reconnaissance de mots et organisation lexicale. les effets de priming permettent de faire des hyps sur l'accès lexical et la reprÉsentation. -M. Épisodique: travux sur les amnÉsiques qui ne se souviennent pas qu'on vient de leur prÉsenter des mots mais qui manifestent une mÉmoire implicite lorsqu'on leur fait faire de la complÉmentation de mots. DISSOCIATION ENTRE M.I. ET M EXPLICITE 1-Si de nombreux travaux montrent que la M explicite est influencÉe par le travail d'Élaboration (profondeur de traitement) en jeu pendant la première phase d'Étude des stimuli, il semble que la MI ne le soit pas. 2-Le changt de modalitÉ (par ex auditif -> visuel) entre la phase d'Étude et la phase de test provoque une attÉnuation importante de l'effet de priming si le test est un test de MI mais pas si c'est un test de ME. 3-Les effets de primings persistent assez largement sur plusieurs jours ce qui n'est pas le cas des perfces ˆ une Épreuve de reconnaissance. 4-Les perfces sur des tests de MI ne semblent pas influencÉes par des manipulations d'interfÉrences proactives ou rÉtroactives dont on sait qu'elles influencent les perfces en ME. 5-Absce de corrÉlation entre perfces ˆ des tests de reconnaissance et perfces ˆ une Épreuve de complÉmentation de mots. SIMILARITES ENTRE PRIMING ET REMEMBERING 1- A certaines conditions les durÉes de rÉtention on des effets parallèles sur les effets de priming et les mesures de ME (REm: en partie contradictoire avec 3 ci dessus) 2-La manipulation du contexte de la liste lors de la phase d'Étude affecte ˆ la fois les perfces en reconnaissance et en identification de mots. 3- ME et MI sont influencÉes par des associations nouvellement acquises entre des paires de mots non reliÉes (Rem: contradictoires avec 4 ci dessus ??) 4- Rem: Le contraire de 1 du pt "dissociation" !!!! dans une manip particulière 5-Johnston et al. ont montrÉ que des mots identifÉs plus rapidement Étaient plus svt jugÉs comme 'old' dans une tche de reconnaissance que les mots identifiÉs plus lentement. Il n'est pas exclu que les phÉnomènes que l'on interprètent comme relevant de MI soient parfois de la ME involontaire cad des cas o les cues fournis dans le test conduisent ˆ un souvenir involontaire mais totalement conscient. LES INTERPRETATIONS THEORIQUES DE MI 1-Les effets de priming sur des test de MI sont attribuables ˆ l'activation temporaires de reprÉsentations ou structures de K prÉ-existantes . Cette activation est supposÉe avoir lieu de manière automatique, indÉpendamment des processus d'Élaboration nÉcessaires pour Établir de nouvelles traces Épisodiques. 2- les difÉrences entre ME et MI sont dues ˆ la nature et aux relations entre les processus d'encodage et de rÉcupÉration. Une version de cette approche est celle qui s'appuie sur la distinction entre processus dirigÉs par les donnÉes et processus dirigÉs par les concepts. Ces derniers reflètent des activitÉs initiÉes par le sjt comme l'Élaboration, l'organisation et la reconstruction, c'est sur ce type de processus que reposerait la ME alors que la MI reposerait sur des processus data-driven. 3-ME et MI renvoient ˆ des systs sous jacents diffÉrents. Pour Cohen & Squire (1984), la ME est supportÉe par une M DECLARATIVE , syst qui est en jeu dans la formation de nouvelles reprÉsentations. La MI repose sur un syst PROCEDURAL dans lequel la M se manifeste par des modifications on line de procÉdures ou opÉrations de traitement. Le syst de M Épisodique est vu comme la base pour le souvenir explicite d'evts rÉcents tandis que la M sÉmantique est responsable des perfces sur des tests de MI. Chacune de ces approches est conforme ˆ certaines des donnÉes recueillies mais pas ˆ d'autres. (shrink)
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  35. J. C. E. Dekker (1986). The Inclusion-Exclusion Principle for Finitely Many Isolated Sets. Journal of Symbolic Logic 51 (2):435-447.score: 81.0
    A nonnegative interger is called a number, a collection of numbers a set and a collection of sets a class. We write ε for the set of (...)
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  36. Cf Gupta, The Problem of Possibilia.score: 81.0
    Are there, in addition to the various actual objects that make up the world, various possible objects? Are there merely possible people, for example, or merely possible (...)
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  37. Martin Cohen (2005). Wittgenstein's Beetle and Other Classic Thought Experiments. Blackwell Pub..score: 81.0
    A is for Alice and astronomers arguing about acceleration -- B is for Bernard's body-exchange machine -- C is for the Catholic cannibal -- D is for Maxwell (...)'s demon -- E is for evolution (and an embarrassing problem with it) -- F is for the forms lost forever to the prisoners of the cave -- G is for Galileo's gravitational balls -- H is for Hume's shades -- I is for the identity of indiscernibles -- J is for Henri Poincaré and alternative geometries -- K is for the Kritik and Kant's kind of thought experiments -- L is for Lucretius' spear -- M is for Mach's motionless chain -- N is for Newton's bucket -- O is for Olbers' paradox -- P is for Parfit's person -- Q is for the questions raised by thought experiments quotidiennes -- R is for the rule-ruled room -- S is for Salvatius' ship, sailing along its own space-time line -- T is for the time-travelling twins -- U is for the universe, and Einstein's attempts to understand it -- V is for the vexed case of the violinist -- W is for Wittgenstein's beetle -- X is for xenophanes and thinking by examples -- Y is for counterfactuals and a backwards approach to history -- Z is for Zeno and the mysteries of infinity. (shrink)
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  38. Itamar Pitowsky, The Number of Elements in a Subset: A Grover-Kronecker Quantum Algorithm.score: 81.0
    In a fundamental paper [Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 325 (1997)] Grover showed how a quantum computer cannd a single marked object in a database of size (...)
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  39. Stephen Toulmin, M. Dummett, P. B. Medawar, J. O. Urmson, G. J. Warnock, C. K. Grant, Antony Flew, Mary Scrutton, A. C. Ewing, R. C. Cross, Richard Robinson, D. J. Allan, L. Minio-Paluello, D. P. Henry & H. J. N. Horsburgh (1954). New Books. [REVIEW] Mind 63 (249):100-123.score: 81.0
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  40. C. O. Sham, Y. W. Cheng, K. W. Ho, P. H. Lai, L. W. Lo, H. L. Wan, C. Y. Wong, Y. N. Yeung, S. H. Yuen & A. Y. C. Wong (2007). Do-Not-Resuscitate Decision: the Attitudes of Medical and Non-Medical Students. Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (5):261-265.score: 81.0
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  41. Jaroslav Peregrin, Obrat K Jazyku: DruhăKolo.score: 81.0
    W.V.O. Quine: Ontologická relativita W. Sellars: ˝znam jako funkÄŤnĂ klasifikace D. Davidson: O samotnĂ© myšlence pojmovĂ©ho schĂ©matu N. Goodman: Slova, dĂla svÄty R. (...)
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  42. Alexandra Shlapentokh (2002). On Diophantine Definability and Decidability in Some Rings of Algebraic Functions of Characteristic. Journal of Symbolic Logic 67 (2):759-786.score: 81.0
    Let K be a function field of one variable over a constant field C of finite transcendence degree over C. Let M/K be a finite extension (...)and let W be a set of primes of K such that all but finitely many primes of W do not split in the extension M/K. Then there exists a set W' of K-primes such that Hilbert's Tenth Problem is not decidable over $O_{K,W'} = \{x \in K\mid ord_\mathfrak{p} x \geq 0, \forall\mathfrak{p} \notin W'\}$ , and the set (W' $\backslash$ W) ∪ (W $\backslash$ W') is finite. Let K be a function field of one variable over a constant field C finitely generated over Q. Let M/K be a finite extension and let W be a set of primes of K such that all but finitely many primes of W do not split in the extension M/K and the degree of all the primes in W is bounded by bN. Then there exists a set W' of K-primes such that Z has a Diophantine definition over O K ,W', and the set (W' $\backslash$ W) ∪ (W $\backslash$ W') is finite. (shrink)
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  43. A. Asai, S. Fukuhara, O. Inoshita, Y. Miura, N. Tanabe & K. Kurokawa (1997). Medical Decisions Concerning the End of Life: a Discussion with Japanese Physicians. Journal of Medical Ethics 23 (5):323-327.score: 81.0
    OBJECTIVES: Life-sustaining treatment at the end of life gives rise to many ethical problems in Japan. Recent surveys of Japanese physicians suggested that they tend to (...)treat terminally ill patients aggressively. We studied why Japanese physicians were reluctant to withhold or withdraw life-support from terminally ill patients and what affected their decisions. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A qualitative study design was employed, using a focus group interview with seven physicians, to gain an in-depth understanding of attitudes and rationales in Japan regarding medical care at the end of life. RESULTS: Analysis revealed that physicians and patients' family members usually make decisions about life-sustaining treatment, while the patients' wishes are unavailable or not taken into account. Both physicians and family members tend to consider withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining treatment as abandonment or even killing. The strongest reason to start cardiopulmonary resuscitation- and to continue it until patients' family members arrive-seems to be the family members' desire to be at the bedside at the time of death. All physicians participating in our study regarded advance directives that provide information as to patients' wishes about life-sustaining treatment desirable. All expressed concern, however, that it would be difficult to forego or discontinue life-support based on a patient's advance directive, particularly when the patient's family opposed the directive. CONCLUSION: Our group interview suggested several possible barriers to death with dignity and the appropriate use of advance directives in Japan. Further qualitative and quantitative research in this regard is needed. (shrink)
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  44. K. J. Barwise, R. O. Gandy & Y. N. Moschovakis (1971). The Next Admissible Set. Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (1):108-120.score: 81.0
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  45. F. W. Kroon & W. A. Burkhard (1990). On a Complexity-Based Way of Constructivizing the Recursive Functions. Studia Logica 49 (1):133 - 149.score: 81.0
    Let g E(m, n)=o mean that n is the Gödel-number of the shortest derivation from E of an equation of the form (m)=k. Hao (...)Wang suggests that the condition for general recursiveness mn(g E(m, n)=o) can be proved constructively if one can find a speedfunction s s, with s(m) bounding the number of steps for getting a value of (m), such that mn s(m) s.t. g E(m, n)=o. This idea, he thinks, yields a constructivist notion of an effectively computable function, one that doesn't get us into a vicious circle since we intuitively know, to begin with, that certain proofs are constructive and certain functions effectively computable. This paper gives a broad possibility proof for the existence of such classes of effectively computable functions, with Wang's idea of effective computability generalized along a number of dimensions. (shrink)
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  46. Vincent W. J. Van Gerven Oei (2012). The Poetry of Jean Daive. Continent 2 (2).score: 81.0
    continent. 2.2 (2012): 8298 NOTE: This text is a translation of the original essayTekendichtheid: Over Jean Daives Narration déquilibre 2: ‘Sllt’ ,” published in Parmentier (...) 21.2 (2012): p. 65-71, accompanied by the same selection of poems in Dutch translation. It is not my intention to offer the following notes pertaining to one part of the series Narration déquilibre [ Narrative of equilibrium ], written by the poet, translator, photographer, encyclopedist, and radio maker Jean Daive (1941), as a meticulous overview of the different themes, lines, and figures traversing such a voluminous oeuvre. Rather, they form a set of comments that found their way to the margins of the word processing document while translating the work. However, they depart from Wallace Stevenss idea that if it is the case that philosophy represents theofficial view of being,” poetry can be defined as itsunofficial view.” 1 As Judith Balso argues in Affirmation de la poésie , poetry needs to penetrate the cracks and fissures of the metaphysical framework, beyond the authority and orders of philosophy, if only to undo Platos expulsion of poetry from the city. 2 This unofficial being of poetry finds its materialization inSllt ” (listen to slat , the suppressed ssst of the nocturnal visitor, but also the salut of poetry itself). Let me draw the framework of these annotations. In his work On Interpretation , Aristotle elaborates on the different parts of human speech, and institutes a tripartite division betweenaffects in the soul” ( ta en têi psukhêi pathêmata ), “sonifications,” more commonly translated aswords” ( ta en têi phônei ), andwritten things” ( ta graphomena ), all of which are linearly connected. Affects of the soul are symbolized by sonifications, which are in their turn symbolized by what is written down. Letters ( grammata ) and sounds ( phônai ) are not the same for everyone, contrary to the affects of the soul to which they refer, which they signify as signs ( sêmeia ). The same holds for the relation between words and things. 3 In On Interpretation , Aristotle lays the foundation for the sign as linguistic unity, as well as for the idea, popularized by Ferdinand de Saussure, that whereas the form of words, letters, and sounds is arbitrary, the signification of a sign is stable: the famous interpretation of the sign as a fissured duality of signifier and signified. 4 However, both philosophical and scientific developments have complicated the nature the Aristotelianbacksideand Saussurianfrontsideof linguistic production. Brain scans and electromyograms of the larynx and throat offer us an image of actual sound production and the underlying physical processes, and the work of Jacques Derrida and Jacques Lacan, who both addressed the Saussurian sign, have shown that the unity of sign is not as stable as seems, both on the level of the signifier and signified. It is within this framework that Jean Daive aims to formulate a poetical response to this crisis in the (analysis of) the production of language and signification. He nevertheless follows in the footsteps of Aristotle by forming an idea about the production of language and the production of signification. The first poem in the sectionPANT THREATofSlltimmediately addresses the wide topographical range of the role of poetry. 'Cause role, indict say everything. “Maia, neurolinguistics, telepathy India, dance, allometry. Why this transversal of the others like—” The chamber would it be under the tent. Blockage. Aphasia. Brains wherein a chemistry without page. Line that waves. The role of poetry is introduced as acause,” a causa . Further on we readcase role,” car rôlecas role , suggesting also casserole: “The flesh would it have a role in.” But we have to slow down. Poetrys role is to say everything. However, this is not withoutblockageoraphasia,” which is immediately figured by the interrupted, suppressed phrase in—// dit tout dire : the interdiction, interdit , is immediately smothered. What does it say? “Everything.” A stream of terms, from Maia, the eldest of the Pleiades and the mother of messenger and interpreter-translator Hermes (but also a name referring to an ancient form of hieroglyphic writing), to the latest developments in neurolinguistics, telepathic brain waves emitted from the skull, the origin of grammar and the dancing and syncopated rhythm of speech and language. ButWhy this transversal of the others like—”? First we have to return to our cranium, theBrains wherein / a chemistry without page. // Line that // waves.” And further on: “I do not see more than you. Nothing but a wave. / That does not get holes.” In neurology there are no holes, but only wave forms, as yet unsymbolized electrical signals. On the allometric side there are different measurement units. The microseconds of EEGs are transformed into sluggish waves of air pressure, inphonetic language.” In between, “The hand of a simianappears, a supplicating throat that does not only supplicate ( supplie ) but also supplements ( supplée ): “That in which it says,” in which neurology speaks, is alwayslater.” The simian climbs, transversing distances differing from ( allo-métrie ) the minute scales at which neurons fire at each other. This simian ( singe ) is what dwells in the spot previously occupied by the Aristotelian sign ( signe ), between the waving signposts of neurology ( ta en têi psukhêi pathêmata ) and phonetic language ( ta en têi phonêi ). It is the sign of the inherent aphasia of all speech, the mangling, interrupted signals, gaps, and non sequiturs. Whereas Stéphane Mallarmé imagined the sign as swan ( cygne ), caught on the white page, Daive focuses on theunofficial,” mischievous character of the sign, its nearly being human. Here we have to remind ourselves that Saussure in his Course on General Linguistics illustrates the duplicity of the sign by means of a tree: the relation between the concepttreeand the phonological sequence /t-r-i/ is arbitraryarbre . 5 Daives simian is climbing from one to the other, swinging between different branches. The border between signifier and signified, so strongly articulated by Saussure, is permeated through the simple displacement from signe to singe, from the Greek sêmeion to the Englishsimian,” thus providing an actualization of what Lacan described the moment that the signifier enters the signified. Lacan does not consider the sign to be a structural or hermetically closed unity, as suggested by Saussure, but suggests that the signifier constantly insinuates itself in the signified: words and concepts penetrate each other in series. Lacans analysis of the sign is immediately related to the psychoanalytical work of Sigmund Freud concerning dreams and the unconscious: “everywhere [in Freuds complete works] we see a dialectical apprehension of experience, linguistic analysis becoming still more prevalent the more directly the unconscious is involved [....] This linguistic structure that enables us to read dreams is at the crux of thesignifierness of dreams,’ at the crux of the Traumdeutung .” 6 In his reading of the Traumdeutung Lacan points at three semantic mechanisms, Entstellung , Verschiebung , and Verdichtung . This last one isthe superimposed structure of signifiers in which metaphor finds its field; its name, condensing in itself the word Dichtung , shows the mechanisms connaturality with poetry, to the extent that it envelops poetrys own properly traditional function.” 7 This metaphor producing superimposition of signs—“condensation”—functions as process largely during nocturnal dreams, but is also expressed within the work of poetry. This brings as back to the cranium, the chamber under the tent, tentetenter, temptation or test. The brain as the test site of language. What is the architecture in which the simianimage of the permeability of the sign, index to the interpretation of dreams, but alsopre-”conscious state of humanityclimbs around? The first poem of the sectionChoirstates: “He concludes. He remains to resemble / and such. Chambers without table or wall.” This resemblance ( ressembler ) and re-sembling ( re-sembler ), being similar again—“Similar to the attention / like I say to him similar to / the identical”—is at the same time a reassambly ( rassembler ), a construction ofchambers with a sun / entirely.” However, this construction, which Daive relate to phrasing, is in the first place a nocturnal activity: “A slat through the nocturnal / series / heavier loaded / than lit. A day is built, sleeping,” andA longer phrase. A longer night.” This isneurology.” A slat in which this second would remain. Disowned that separates is called I went to bed and I am marching. The practice of the mouth already entered like a construction in my sleep. The slat ( sommier ) does not only refer to the nocturnal construction work of sleep ( sommeil ) and the support of the bed, but also contributes to the summation ( sommer ) of the phrases, series, and secondssecundussequences and persecutions, marching and marking are separated and thus form names, words, albeit in a disowned way: aping. Such subconscious work on the construction of the phrase may also be interpreted as the construction of the sign itself, which for Sausurre is always split by a bar ( barre ). Lacan pertinently points out the arbre and barre are anagrammatically derivable from each other, something which, as I stated before, has its repercussions on the couple signe - singe . However, this bar is at the same time a blockade: “They block his memory / with a slat.” Again we find a confirmation that chamber and blockade, speaking and aphasia, are intimately connected and mutually imply each other. Daive speaks of adismembermentof words, asubordination complex”—a subordination, subjugation, which is aringing” ( sommier also refers to the bell cage) and clinking—“putting down the money / knowing / that a comma displaces itself / according to / the time that.” This phrase reminds us of the Saussurian metaphor of the sign as coin, and Gertrude Steins description of writing sentences as coin in a loancoining alone . 8 The ringing, pealing, appeal of this word forging may be subdivided in several chemical alarms, electric signals in the brains, firing neurons, “these accumulations of sleep.” But then, sunrise: “A lightness compensates / for the linen / that strangles you. But I will untie you / with one or two lapses.” As soon as the sun lights up the chamber, we are closing in on speech, “The practice of the mouth / already entered like a construction / in my sleep.” Also the flesh enters the scene of articulation—“Pieces of flesh push left of the sun”—the place of the vocalization of language: “Vocalization or your menace / the language will modulate the sounds / associated to the unwinding of a sequence.” Here we are concerned with the notation and intonation of the lengthlongueurlangue-er , languageness of language and enter the domain of the celestial sounds and music as carreau, tile, foundation, and basis of poetry: carreau leK rôlecarol , “the angel will hide himself in a sonority / but before / a simian will have / transformed / into audition.” The production of sound, speaking, is already first hearing ourselves speak, toplay our personage / vocally / with our laryngeal sacks.” The simian (singe) and the angel (ange), the sign of the sound, collaborate, engage in conversation, “Speaking / in the sense that they currently give / to this word.” Speaking, fluently, currently ( courrament ), running ( courant ) early, is a scale. A spectrum of sounds penetratespénètrefénêtrethe manner of speaking, the air pressure from the diaphragm (read also chambrecamera , the throat as opening of the chamber): “Along a manner / the place of the effort / a pressure of air, this response / that takes the consonance.” So according to Daive, both ends of language production are affected by interruptions, penetrations, commas; both inside the room and outside. There is always too muchbaggage / a simians overloaded back.” The sign is always overloaded, also more ambiguous and polyvalent than the speakers intension. Language is constantly excessive. A condition is placed like a plank. It is a balance. I weigh an umbrella, three saws a tire. Not to name this package pointer plows. Just like the slat, the plank is part of the chambers construction, which is gradually built up. FromPlank I: Everything / is / lacunauntilThanks for the planking. It finishes / everything.” This space, built from planks, is provisional, conditional. “A condition is placed like / a plank. / It is a balance.” Here we arrive at one of the possible readings of the title of the series, Narration déquilibre : a narrative of equilibrium, a balance, or, as Werner Hamacher suggests, “This […] equilibrium would hold the balance between speaking and halting, mere saying and conscious thematization, between sudden thought and coherent story, interruption and the flow of speech, between the impossibility to speak and its beginning.” 9 Or elsewhere, “Comparable to a deafness”— surditésur-dité , an over-saying and blockade at the same time. This oscillation between speech and lacuna, between umbrellaparapluieoui , three sawssciessi 10and a tirepneupneumaa breath of air, forms apackage,” an affirmation and a halting voice. “In the chamber. / A package hangs from the ceiling / thickening. Day after day.” Joseph Beuys. FOND VII/2 (1967/84) This package, slowly expanding inside the chamber, is in itself already charged, both inflated, “pneumatic,” and in the shape ofseveral layers of felt.” Elsewhere Daive speaks of abattery.” It is difficult not to interpret this as a reference to the formal language of the German artist Joseph Beuys, in which natural materials like felt, rubber, and metal form a balance in stackedbatteries”—“Tree or heating / which you cited.”—and thus imply a relation between natural materials and immaterialenergy”—the charge of concrete streams of air flowing from my mouth. This is a relation that can be traced to an early point in the history of Western poetry, the Old-Irish poetical treatise Auraicept na n-Éces , which equates the construction materials for the tower of Babelclay, water, wool, blood, wood, glue, flax, acacias, bitumento the different types of words. 11 We are thus faced with an alchemical transformation of a chemical process into language. Daive suggests sorcery: “I will be you sorceress.” Sorceresssorcièresource , source but also incantation and literally singing-into. The nocturnal construction is ready, the accumulations of sleep have been completed, the alarm resounds, the poet awakens. “The repeater of the revolution / transforms himself into pure logarithm / of stellar speeds.” This is nothing but an image of this poet, the repeater—“If candles evoke anew / several sequences, this idea / of repetition. We studied the filth / or what it spaces.” but also re-peater, the one who reaches anew for a turnover, a revolution, a transvaluation which transforms, like a battery or through incantation, into pure logarithm, a logos-rhythmosa rhythm, a spacing of words and speech, the incarnate comma of stellar speedsthe progression of candle to sun, from night to day, the sleepy acceleration, running early, toChambers with a sun / entirely”—but also a Stellen , the Aristotelian thesthaitesting of language. Every poetic statement is a test, a risk, ventures a leap. Each stroke of the pen is monkey business. NOTES 1. Wallace Stevens. “The Figure of the Youth as Virile Poet.” in Collected Poetry and Prose . New York: Library of America. 1997.p. 667. 2. Judith Balso. Affirmation de la poésie . Paris: Nous. 2011. p. 25. 3. Aristotle. On Interpretation . 16a3-8. 4. Ferdinand de Saussure. Course in General Linguistics . Trans. Wade Baskin. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1966. p. 67. 5. Ibid. p. 67. 6. Jacques Lacan. “The Instance of the Letter in the Unconscious,” in Écrits . trans. Bruce Fink. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. 2006. p. 424. 7. Ibid. p. 425. 8. Gertrude Stein. How To Write . Mineola, NY: Dover, p. 116. The metaphor of the coin is however much older: “Customary use, though, is the most steady teacher of speaking, and speech must be like a coin: it must bear a public stamp.” (Quintilian, Institutio oratoria 1.6.1-3, quoted from Erik Gunderson. Nox Philologiae: Aulus Gellius and the Fantasy of the Roman Library . [Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. 2009], p. 56). 9. Werner Hamacher. “Anataxis. Komma. Balance,” in Jean Daive. Erzählung des Gleichgewichts 4: W . trans. Werner Hamacher. Basel: Urs Engeler. 2006. p. 134. 10. In Stéphane Mallarmés celebrated poem Un Coup de dés , there are precisely three instances of the word si . For an analysis of this word (which also opens the si-nge ) see Quentin Meillassouxs recently published analysis of the work, The Number and the Sirene: A Decipherment of Mallarmés Coup de Dés . trans. Robin Mackay. New York: Sequence Press. 2012. 11. George Calder (ed.) Auraicept na n-Éces: The ScholarsPrimer . Edinburgh: John Grant. 1917. p. 23. Selections from Narration déquilibre 2: ‘SlltJean Daive From Jean Daive. Narration déquilibre: Antériorité du scandale, ‘Sllt’, Vingt-quatre images seconde . Paris: Hachette/P.O.L, 1982. Translated by Vincent W.J. van Gerven Oei. Marcel Broodthaers. Pense Bête (1964) Choir Similar to the attention like I say to him similar to the identical. He concludes. He remains to resemble and such. Chambers without table or wall. Chambers with a sun entirely. Then the children show that the sun is entire. As if I find myself right now. Similar to repeating which the attention instructs (was it a raft produced by our elbows?). I am here. Then the children learn that the morning has no difference and that the phrase is identical because of the object preparation. I am here loving it, but also eating is the phrase of here or speaking. Because we need to respond now. Responding, that is continuing and waiting, that is the return of the event. In fact, it is like a lady, but it is different who mentions for the first time that three could do. My willow is more. A quantity at the corner of the telegram and my grammar. Being regarding the blue. And first now. Or only now. No. First of the part of now, here. That is to say of each of which the first grasps thinking truly necessary cake and rural. Thanks for the planking. It finishes everything. *** Commentary of a portrait in reality of a progression reproduced in our manuscript. Plank I: Everything is lacuna would look for the trace or better the loss of notebooks. This is explainable in several ways: I edit I dont transcribe the interruption of the outline under the dictate of an addition then the problem and if we are lacuna or piece detached from our suppositions at last the signature amputates from the beginning. So everything supposes something provisory. Plank II: The orthography varies handy like the division of apparatuses. Plank III: He has come in his achievement of which I speak. So we have to understand the words he has come in his achievement like a world after me absent from the preceding passages. Henceforth, I am simply a man. But certainly in the past participle (did he speak or did he come?) the text adds to my nature. The eyes, in other words what precedes me evoke the clouds whereof the word theory spoke. The contemplation designs here also the blissful hereafter. Plank IV: Carried along to the encounter of the lake and the purified, the simple and not send off the precursor in a different way. Plank V: Who are you? The response (its not me) is a first way of understanding only the manner of none other. Plank VI: He is the limit of a letter. But who is the manner of all things. Now redress the test of the road and divide who has cried. A shoe is in your midst, the natural figure who is hiding in the house. It is the next day of paradise. *** Trembles at the accent which he disintegrates more or less. […] Which are the traces? A hotel room that he has paid daily for twenty years. […] Whereas he no longer walks. In the chamber. A package hangs from the ceiling thickening. Day after day. A table on a slope of sagging sand to paint no more. […] A broken watch. So he starts to paint oil cans. The Raving Beauty . Red, blue, yellow. Colors that assure him of his end. Three trunks, therefore painted. The Raving Beauty . […] He turns to the direction of the noise reflects in front of a bluish metal. His fingers on the glass, but also in a motor. […] A car in the course of a velocity taken fromBang! *** If they are seated or underground surrounded by women who damage my smile. I know that they have cemented all the books. If candles evoke anew several sequences, this idea of repetition. We studied the filth or what it spaces. Those forgotten things. Word by word, what they kindle in my hair. A slat through the nocturnal series heavier loaded than lit. A day builds up, sleeping because newspapers would have filled the tubs. So there would be a last book and its first phrase: “The repeater of the revolution transforms himself into pure logarithm of stellar speeds.” PANT THREAT 'Cause role, indict say everything. “Maia, neurolinguistics, telepathy India, dance, allometry. Why this transversal of the others like—” The chamber would it be under the tent. Blockage. Aphasia. Brains wherein a chemistry without page. Line that waves. *** I do not see more than you. Nothing but a wave. That does not get pierced. Hears itself. Neurology. The hand of a simian. His throat supplicates us. We will have children, trees. We will grow up we will climb. That in which it says. Later. Neurology. The simians are coming, closing in, doubling. The kilometer. That. Phonetic language. The kilometer. *** A longer phrase. A longer night. I will not return. More often you would move back your head. There are two years of that. An entry will not explode. Nearly. Return. Neurology. *** The flesh would it play a role in. Speaking garage. For. Us. Yes. Case role. Of. *** Diaphragm would confirm the question. Along a manner the place of the effort a pressure of air, this response that takes the consonance. *** Pieces of flesh pushing left of the sun an arm what comes, turns. You say it is not will come. Logarithms the back of my chair responding to the portrait, this simian left of the sun he extends his hand toward you. He will not kill twice. He will shoot twice. *** Tile the. They will throw stones at me found in a hotel room. Even the animals will talk very slowly to the bombs. For the optional use of the brain. I will be your sorceress. A habit. They will enter unto your sleep. Unto my flesh. A habit. *** You sang to deafen the future's use. The battery. A chord imparts the smoke. In his turn a simian will open the radiator. *** Tree or heating which you cited. Nearly appearing in passing in a book. Comparable to a deafness that would imply a progression toward the octave. *** The simians are sitting on stones at the level of terrestrial existence. Their image surpasses our idea of harmonic functions. Their image regulated on what they leave behind. *** A slat in which this second would remain. Disowned that separates is called I went to bed and I am marching. The practice of the mouth already entered like a construction in my sleep. *** A lightness compensates for the linen that strangles you. But I will untie you with one or two lapses. *** I overhear a conversation. The simian says to the angel that typifies himself. Then offers him a cigaret. *** Speaking in the sense that they currently give to this word. *** They block his memory with a slat. Then they run for it. *** K role the angel will hide himself in a sonority but first a simian will have transformed it into hearing. Then you arrive, dont I follow attaining or lets see we will play our personage vocally with our laryngeal sacks. Presence eludes itself, an inquiry will specify the person. *** Running early a scale penetrates the manner you are not determined hence your baggage a simians overloaded backSchematic but sensible. You throw a part of the man. A paper toThat of a painted eyelash if not faster. *** Subordination a ringing that he subdivides in chemical alertseveral these accumulations of sleep. *** Eyes like caps, putting down the money knowing that a comma displaces itself according to the time that. *** Vocalization or your menace the language will modulate the sounds associated to the unwinding of a sequence. Stamping then it yawns. Noting the length of language. *** A subordination complex maybe added itself then to his manual on the dismemberment of words. *** A condition is placed like a plank. It is a balance. I weigh an umbrella, three saws a tire. Not to name this package pointer plows. *** In the receiverhim”. And several layers of felt. That looks like the package that we are. Inflatable. When our chamber inflated itself, pneumatic w?ns? pon? ta?m. (shrink)
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  47. Robert I. Soare (2004). Computability Theory and Differential Geometry. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 10 (4):457-486.score: 81.0
    Let M be a smooth, compact manifold of dimension n5 and sectional curvature | K | ≤ 1. Let Met (M) = Riem(M)/Diff(M) be the space (...)of Riemannian metrics on M modulo isometries. Nabutovsky and Weinberger studied the connected components of sublevel sets (and local minima) for certain functions on Met (M) such as the diameter. They showed that for every Turing machine T e , eω, there is a sequence (uniformly effective in e) of homology n-spheres {P k e } kω which are also hypersurfaces, such that P k e is diffeomorphic to the standard n-sphere S n (denoted P k ediff S n ) iff T e halts on input k, and in this case the connected sum N k e =MP k ediff M , so N k eMet(M), and N k e is associated with a local minimum of the diameter function on Met(M) whose depth is roughly equal to the settling time σ e (k) of T e on inputs y i } ∈ ω of c.e. sets so that for all i the settling time of the associated Turing machine for A i dominates that for A i + 1 , even when the latter is composed with an arbitrary computable function. From this, Nabutovsky and Weinberger showed that the basins exhibit a "fractal" like behavior with extremely big basins, and very much smaller basins coming off them, and so on. This reveals what Nabutovsky and Weinberger describe in their paper on fractals as "the astonishing richness of the space of Riemannian metrics on a smooth manifold, up to reparametrization." From the point of view of logic and computability, the Nabutovsky-Weinberger results are especially interesting because: (1) they use c.e. sets to prove structural complexity of the geometry and topology, not merely undecidability results as in the word problem for groups, Hilbert's Tenth Problem, or most other applications; (2) they use nontrivial information about c.e. sets, the Soare sequence {A i } iω above, not merely G öodel's c.e. noncomputable set K of the 1930's; and (3) without using computability theory there is no known proof that local minima exist even for simple manifolds like the torus T 5 (see §). (shrink)
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  48. A. Carbone (2002). The Cost of a Cycle is a Square. Journal of Symbolic Logic 67 (1):35-60.score: 81.0
    The logical flow graphs of sequent calculus proofs might contain oriented cycles. For the predicate calculus the elimination of cycles might be non-elementary and this was (...)shown in [Car96]. For the propositional calculus, we prove that if a proof of k lines contains n cycles then there exists an acyclic proof with O(k n+l ) lines. In particular, there is a polynomial time algorithm which eliminates cycles from a proof. These results are motivated by the search for general methods on proving lower bounds on proof size and by the design of more efficient heuristic algorithms for proof search. (shrink)
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  49. Óscar Correas (2003). Los derechos humanos Y el estado moderno. (¿Qué hace moderno al derecho moderno?). Anales de la Cátedra Francisco Suárez 37:271-285.score: 81.0
    The object of this t e xt is to present human rights as subjec t i ve rights, and therefore, as an appropriate fo r m of (...)
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  50. Richard Beigel, Harry Buhrman, Peter Fejer, Lance Fortnow, Piotr Grabowski, Luc Longpré, Andrej Muchnik, Frank Stephan & Leen Torenvliet (2006). Enumerations of the Kolmogorov Function. Journal of Symbolic Logic 71 (2):501 - 528.score: 81.0
    A recursive enumerator for a function h is an algorithm f which enumerates for an input x finitely many elements including h(x), f is a k(n (...))-enumerator if for every input x of length n, h(x) is among the first k(n) elements enumerated by f. If there is a k(n)-enumerator for h then h is called k(n)-enumerable. We also consider enumerators which are only A-recursive for some oracle A. We determine exactly how hard it is to enumerate the Kolmogorov function, which assigns to each string x its Kolmogorov complexity: • For every underlying universal machine U, there is a constant a such that C is k(n)-enumerable only if k(n) ≥ n/a for almost all n. • For any given constant k, the Kolmogorov function is k-enumerable relative to an oracle A if and only if A is at least as hard as the halting problem. • There exists an r.e., Turing-incomplete set A such for every non-decreasing and unbounded recursive function k, the Kolmogorov function is k(n)-enumerable relative to A. The last result is obtained by using a relativizable construction for a nonrecursive set A relative to which the prefix-free Kolmogorov complexity differs only by a constant from the unrelativized prefix-free Kolmogorov complexity. Although every 2-enumerator for C is Turing hard for K, we show that reductions must depend on the specific choice of the 2-enumerator and there is no bound on the quantity of their queries. We show our negative results even for strong 2-enumerators as an oracle where the querying machine for any x gets directly an explicit list of all hypotheses of the enumerator for this input. The limitations are very general and we show them for any recursively bounded function g: • For every Turing reduction M and every non-recursive set B, there is a strong 2-enumerator f for g such that M does not Turing reduce B to f. • For every non-recursive set B, there is a strong 2-enumerator f for g such that B is not wtt-reducible to f. Furthermore, we deal with the resource-bounded case and give characterizations for the class ${\rm S}_{2}^{{\rm P}}$ introduced by Canetti and independently Russell and Sundaram and the classes PSPACE, EXP. • ${\rm S}_{2}^{{\rm P}}$ is the class of all sets A for which there is a polynomially bounded function g such that there is a polynomial time tt-reduction which reduces A to every strong 2-enumerator for g. • PSPACE is the class of all sets A for which there is a polynomially bounded function g such that there is a polynomial time Turing reduction which reduces A to every strong 2-enumerator for g. Interestingly, g can be taken to be the Kolmogorov function for the conditional space bounded Kolmogorov complexity. • EXP is the class of all sets A for which there is a polynomially bounded function g and a machine M which witnesses APSPACEf for all strong 2-enumerators f for g. Finally, we show that any strong O(log n)-enumerator for the conditional space bounded Kolmogorov function must be PSPACE-hard if P = NP. (shrink)
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