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  1.  20
    K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1993). Method in Ecology: Strategies for Conservation. Cambridge University Press.
    In this volume, the authors discuss what practical contributions ecology can and can't make in applied science and environmental problem solving. In the first section, they discuss conceptual problems that have often prevented the formulation and evaluation of powerful, precise, general theories, explain why island biogeography is still beset with controversy and examine the ways that science is value laden. In the second section, they describe how ecology can give us specific answers to practical environmental questions posed in individual case (...)
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  2.  97
    K. S. Shrader-Frechette (2000). Radiobiogical Hormesis, Methodological Value Judgments, and Metascience. Perspectives on Science 8 (4):367-379.
    : Scientists are divided on the status of hypothesis H that low doses of ionizing radiation (under 20 rads) cause hormetic (or non-harmful) effects. Military and industrial scientists tend to accept H, while medical and environmental scientists tend to reject it. Proponents of the strong programme claim this debate shows that uncertain science can be clarified only by greater attention to the social values in(integral)uencing it. While they are in part correct, this paper argues that methodological analyses (not merely attention (...)
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  3.  35
    K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1982). Quark Quantum Numbers and the Problem of Microphysical Observation. Synthese 50 (1):125 - 145.
    The main question addressed in this essay is whether quarks have been observed in any sense and, if so, what might be meant by this use of the term, observation. In the first (or introductory) section of the paper, I explain that well-known researchers are divided on the answers to these important questions. In the second section, I investigate microphysical observation in general. Here I argue that Wilson's analogy between observation by means of high-energy accelerators and observation by means of (...)
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  4. K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1986). Science Policy, Ethics and Economic Methodology. Philosophical Review 95 (4):633-636.
  5.  13
    K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1982). Consensus and the Visual Acuity of Quark Hunters — a Response. Synthese 50 (1):153 - 155.
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  6.  16
    K. S. Shrader-Frechette & Earl D. Mccoy (1994). How the Tail Wags the Dog: How Value Judgments Determine Ecological Science. Environmental Values 3 (2):107 - 120.
    Philosophers, policymakers, and scientists have long asserted that ecological science – and especially notions of homeostasis, balance, or stability – help to determine environmental values and to supply imperatives for environmental ethics and policy. We argue that this assertion is questionable. There are no well developed general ecological theories having predictive power, and fundamental ecological concepts, such as 'community' and 'stability', are used in inconsistent and ambiguous ways. As a consequence, the contribution of ecology to environmental ethics and values lies (...)
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  7. K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1993). Consent and Nuclear Waste Disposal. Public Affairs Quarterly 7 (4):363-377.
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  8.  24
    K. S. Shrader-Frechette (2002). Risky Business: Nuclear Workers, Ethics, and the Market-Efficiency Argument. Ethics and the Environment 7 (1):1-23.
    : Workers generally face higher levels of pollution and risk in their workplace than members of the public. Economists justify the double standard (for workplace versus public exposures to various pollutants) on the grounds of the compensating wage differential (CWD). The CWD, or hazard-pay premium, is the increment in wages, all things being equal, that workers in hazardous environments receive, as compared to other workers. Economists defend the CWD by asserting that workers willingly trade safety for extra money. This essay (...)
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  9.  5
    Earl D. McCoy & K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1994). The Community Concept in Community Ecology. Perspectives on Science 2:455.
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  10.  11
    K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1979). High-Energy Models and the Ontological Status of the Quark. Synthese 42 (1):173 - 189.
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  11.  23
    K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1989). Idealized Laws, Antirealism, and Applied Science: A Case in Hydrogeology. Synthese 81 (3):329 - 352.
    When is a law too idealized to be usefully applied to a specific situation? To answer this question, this essay considers a law in hydrogeology called Darcy''s Law, both as it is used in what is called the symmetric-cone model, and as it is used in equations to determine a well''s groundwater velocity and hydraulic conductivity. After discussing Darcy''s law and its applications, the essay concludes that this idealized law, as well as associated models and equations in hydrogeology, are not (...)
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  12.  11
    K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1979). Philosophy and Science. Teaching Philosophy 3 (2):260-262.
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  13.  11
    K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1980). The Scientific Imagination. Teaching Philosophy 3 (4):499-501.
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  14.  2
    K. S. Shrader-Frechette & Earl D. McCoy (1994). How the Tail Wags the Dog: How Value Judgments Determine Ecological Science. Environmental Values 3 (2):107-120.
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  15. K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1992). Risk and Rationality: Philosophical Foundations for Populist Reforms. Environmental Values 1 (3):269-270.
    Only ten to twelve percent of Americans would voluntarily live within a mile of a nuclear plant or hazardous waste facility. But industry spokespersons claim that such risk aversion represents ignorance and paranoia, and they lament that citizen protests have delayed valuable projects and increased their costs. Who is right? In _Risk and Rationality_, Kristin Shrader-Frechette argues that neither charges of irresponsible endangerment nor countercharges of scientific illiteracy frame the issues properly. She examines the debate over methodological norms for risk (...)
     
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  16.  38
    K. S. Shrader-Frechette & E. D. Mccoy (1994). Biodiversity, Biological Uncertainty, and Setting Conservation Priorities. Biology and Philosophy 9 (2):167-195.
    In a world of massive extinctions where not all taxa can be saved, how ought biologists to decide their preservation priorities? When biologists make recommendations regarding conservation, should their analyses be based on scientific criteria, on public or lay criteria, on economic or some other criteria? As a first step in answering this question, we examine the issue of whether biologists ought to try to save the endangered Florida panther, a well known glamour taxon. To evaluate the merits of panther (...)
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  17.  9
    K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1982). Comments on Cushing's Essay. Synthese 50 (1):103 - 108.
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  18.  9
    K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1982). Theory of Science. Teaching Philosophy 5 (1):83-84.
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  19.  4
    K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1988). Eugene C. Hargrove, Ed.: Beyond Spaceship Earth. Environmental Ethics 10 (2):187-189.
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  20.  18
    K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1994). Expert Judgment and Nuclear Risks: The Case for More Populist Policy. Journal of Social Philosophy 25 (s1):45-70.
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  21.  15
    K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1982). Economics, Risk-Cost-Benefit Analysis, and the Linearity Assumption. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982:217 - 232.
    An offshoot of decision analysis, risk-cost-benefit analysis (RCBA) dominates US policymaking regarding science and technology. In this paper a central normative presupposition of RCBA, called "the linearity assumption" is argued against. This is that there is a linear relationship between the actual probability of fatality and the value of avoiding a social risk or the cost of a social risk. The main object of this essay is to show that the presuppositions underlying the linearity assumption are highly questionable. It is (...)
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  22.  2
    K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1982). Environmental Impact Assessment and the Fallacy of Unfinished Business. Environmental Ethics 4 (1):37-47.
    Nearly all current attempts at environmental impact analysis and technology assessment fall victim to an ethical and methodological assumption that Keniston termed “the fallacy of unfinished business.” Related to one version of the naturalistic fallacy, this assumption is that technological and environmental problems have only technical, but not social, ethical, or political solutions. After using several impact analyses to illustrate the policy consequences of the fallacy of unfinished business, I suggest how it might be overcome. Next I present three standard (...)
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  23.  5
    K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1982). Unpopular Essays on Technological Progress. Environmental Ethics 4 (4):363-367.
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  24.  7
    K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1988). Eugene C. Hargrove, Ed.: Beyond Spaceship Earth. Environmental Ethics 10 (2):187-189.
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  25.  6
    K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1982). Environmental Impact Assessment and the Fallacy of Unfinished Business. Environmental Ethics 4 (1):37-47.
    Nearly all current attempts at environmental impact analysis and technology assessment fall victim to an ethical and methodological assumption that Keniston termed “the fallacy of unfinished business.” Related to one version of the naturalistic fallacy, this assumption is that technological and environmental problems have only technical, but not social, ethical, or political solutions. After using several impactanalyses to illustrate the policy consequences of the fallacy of unfinished business, I suggest how it might be overcome. Next I present three standard arguments, (...)
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  26.  5
    K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1980). Recent Changes in the Concept of Matter: How Does 'Elementary Particle' Mean? PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1980:302-316.
    In this paper the author analyzes the recent history of the concept of matter by examining two criteria, in-principle-observability and noncompositeness, for use of the term 'elementary particle'. Arguing that how these criteria are employed sheds light on a change in what matter means, the author draws three conclusions. Since the seventeenth century, in-principle-observability has undergone a progressive devaluation, if not abandonment, in favor of the criterion of theoretical simplicity. As a consequence, the concept of matter has undergone a "third (...)
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  27. K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1989). Ecological Theories and Ethical Imperatives: Can Ecology Provide a Scientific Justification for the Ethics of Environmental Protection. In William R. Shea & Beat Sitter-Liver (eds.), Scientists and Their Responsibility. Watson Pub. International 73--104.
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  28. K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1982). Unpopular Essays on Technological Progress. Environmental Ethics 4 (4):363-367.
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