Search results for 'Kai Fintel Sabine Iatridovonu' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Kai Fintel Sabine Iatridovonu, Class 5: Modality and Tense.score: 2010.0
    Two ways to locate a modal claim in time • Time of Modality vs. Time of Prejacent • Condoravdi’s (2002) terminology: – temporal orientation – temporal perspective but which is which? 2 Time of modality..
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  2. Kai Fintel (1998). Quantifiers and 'If'‐Clauses. Philosophical Quarterly 48 (191):209-214.score: 240.0
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  3. ortNoopFintelvon Fintel, Kai & Anthony S. Gillies (2008). CIA Leaks. Philosophical Review 117 (1):77-98.score: 240.0
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  4. von Fintel Kai (1999). Npi Licensing, Strawson Entailment, and Context Dependency. Journal of Semantics 16 (2).score: 240.0
     
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  5. Kai von Fintel (2012). Kai von Fintel. In Gillian Russell Delia Graff Fara (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Language. Routledge.score: 144.0
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  6. Anthony S. Gillies (2008). Kai von Fintel. Philosophical Review 117 (1).score: 120.0
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  7. Kai von Fintel & Sabine Iatridou (2003). Epistemic Containment. Linguistic Inquiry 34:173-98.score: 85.5
    This article concerns a new constraint on the interaction of quantifier phrases and epistemic modals. It is argued that QPs cannot bind their traces across an epistemic modal, though it is shown that scoping mechanisms of a differentnature are permitted to cross epistemic modals. The nature and source of this constraint are investigated.
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  8. Gunnar Björnsson & Alexander Almér (2010). The Pragmatics of Insensitive Assessments: Understanding The Relativity of Assessments of Judgments of Personal Taste, Epistemic Modals, and More. In Barbara H. Partee, Michael Glanzberg & Jurģis Šķilters (eds.), The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication; Vol. 6. 1-45.score: 72.0
    In assessing the veridicality of utterances, we normally seem to assess the satisfaction of conditions that the speaker had been concerned to get right in making the utterance. However, the debate about assessor-relativism about epistemic modals, predicates of taste, gradable adjectives and conditionals has been largely driven by cases in which seemingly felicitous assessments of utterances are insensitive to aspects of the context of utterance that were highly relevant to the speaker’s choice of words. In this paper, we offer an (...)
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  9. Kai von Fintel, Tense in Conditionals.score: 45.0
    ∗ These are preliminary notes for a future chapter of a book I am writing, which is going to be a linguistic guide to conditionals. I would be appreciate all the help I can get. I already have Sabine Iatridou and Michela Ippolito to thank, who both know much more about tense and tense in conditionals than I will ever know. I also need to acknowledge my admiration for Jonathan Bennett and his amazingly nutritious Philosophical Guide to Conditionals. (...)
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  10. Akira Akabayashi, Brian T. Slingsby, Noriko Nagao, Ichiro Kai & Hajime Sato (2007). An Eight-Year Follow-Up National Study of Medical School and General Hospital Ethics Committees in Japan. BMC Medical Ethics 8 (1):1-8.score: 30.0
    Background Ethics committees and their system of research protocol peer-review are currently used worldwide. To ensure an international standard for research ethics and safety, however, data is needed on the quality and function of each nation's ethics committees. The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics and developments of ethics committees established at medical schools and general hospitals in Japan. Methods This study consisted of four national surveys sent twice over a period of eight years to two separate (...)
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  11. Hiroaki Miyata, Hiromi Shiraishi & Ichiro Kai (2006). Survey of the General Public's Attitudes Toward Advance Directives in Japan: How to Respect Patients' Preferences. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 7 (1):1-9.score: 30.0
    Background Japanese people have become increasingly interested in the expression and enhancement of their individual autonomy in medical decisions made regarding medical treatment at and toward the end of life. However, while many Western countries have implemented legislation that deals with patient autonomy in the case of terminal illness, no such legislation exists in Japan. The rationale for this research is based on the need to investigate patient's preferences regarding treatment at the end of life in order to re-evaluate advance (...)
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  12. Akira Akabayashi, Brian Taylor Slingsby & Ichiro Kai (2003). Perspectives on Advance Directives in Japanese Society: A Population-Based Questionnaire Survey. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 4 (1):1-9.score: 30.0
    Background In Japan, discussion concerning advance directives (ADs) has been on the rise during the past decade. ADs are one method proposed to facilitate the process of communication among patients, families and health care providers regarding the plan of care of a patient who is no longer capable of communicating. In this paper, we report the results of the first in-depth survey on the general population concerning the preferences and use of ADs in Japan. Method A self-administered questionnaire was sent (...)
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  13. Hajime Sato, Akira Akabayashi & Ichiro Kai (2005). Public Appraisal of Government Efforts and Participation Intent in Medico-Ethical Policymaking in Japan: A Large Scale National Survey Concerning Brain Death and Organ Transplant. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 6 (1):1-12.score: 30.0
    Public satisfaction with policy process influences the legitimacy and acceptance of policies, and conditions the future political process, especially when contending ethical value judgments are involved. On the other hand, public involvement is required if effective policy is to be developed and accepted.
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  14. Akira Akabayashi, Brian Taylor Slingsby, Noriko Nagao, Ichiro Kai & Hajime Sato (2008). A Five Year Follow-Up National Study of Ethics Committees in Medical Organizations in Japan. HEC Forum 20 (1):49-60.score: 30.0
    Compared to institutional and area-based ethics committees, little is known about the structure and activities performed by ethics committees at national medical organizations and societies. This five year follow-up study aimed to determine (1) the creation and function of ethics committees at medical organizations in Japan, and (2) their general strategies to deal with ethical problems. The study sample included the member societies of the Japanese Association of Medical Sciences (n=92 in 1998, n=96 in 2003). Instruments consisted of two sections: (...)
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  15. M. Miyasaka, A. Akabayashi, I. Kai & G. Ohi (1999). An International Survey of Medical Ethics Curricula in Asia. Journal of Medical Ethics 25 (6):514-521.score: 30.0
    SETTING: Medical ethics education has become common, and the integrated ethics curriculum has been recommended in Western countries. It should be questioned whether there is one, universal method of teaching ethics applicable worldwide to medical schools, especially those in non-Western developing countries. OBJECTIVE: To characterise the medical ethics curricula at Asian medical schools. DESIGN: Mailed survey of 206 medical schools in China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Korea, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Australia and New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: A total (...)
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  16. Nobuyuki Iida & Katsunori Kai (eds.) (2008). Shūmatsuki Iryō to Seimei Rinri. Taiyō Shuppan.score: 30.0
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  17. Katsunori Kai (ed.) (2009). Posuto Genomu Shakai to Ijihō. Shinzansha.score: 30.0
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  18. Kai Kaspar, Sabine König, Jessika Schwandt & Peter König (2014). The Experience of New Sensorimotor Contingencies by Sensory Augmentation. Consciousness and Cognition 28:47-63.score: 27.0
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  19. Kai von Fintel, 65. Conditionals.score: 24.0
    This article introduces the classic accounts of the meaning of conditionals (material implication, strict implication, variably strict conditional) and discusses the difference between indicative and subjunctive/counterfactual conditionals. Then, the restrictor analysis of Lewis/Kratzer/Heim is introduced as a theory of how conditional meanings come about compositionally: if has no meaning other than serving to mark the restriction to an operator elsewhere in the conditional construction. Some recent alternatives to the restrictor analysis are sketched. Lastly, the interactions of conditionals (i) with modality (...)
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  20. Kai von Fintel & Anthony S. Gillies (2008). CIA Leaks. Philosophical Review 117 (1):77-98.score: 24.0
    Epistemic modals are standardly taken to be context-dependent quantifiers over possibilities. Thus sentences containing them get truth-values with respect to both a context and an index. But some insist that this relativization is not relative enough: `might'-claims, they say, only get truth-values with respect to contexts, indices, and—the new wrinkle—points of assessment (hence, CIA). Here we argue against such "relativist" semantics. We begin with a sketch of the motivation for such theories and a generic formulation of them. Then we catalogue (...)
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  21. Kai von Fintel, The Presupposition of Subjunctive Conditionals.score: 24.0
    Why are some conditionals subjunctive? It is often assumed that at least one crucial difference is that subjunctive conditionals presuppose that their antecedent is false, that they are counterfactual (Lakoff 1970). The traditional theory has apparently been refuted. Perhaps the clearest counter-example is one given by Alan Anderson (1951: 37): If Jones had taken arsenic, he would have shown just exactly those symptoms which he does in fact show. A typical place to use such a subjunctive conditional would be in (...)
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  22. Kai von Fintel & Anthony S. Gillies, The Subjectivity of Conditionals in a New Light.score: 24.0
    Sly Pete and Mr. Stone are playing poker on a Mississippi riverboat. It is now up to Pete to call or fold. My henchman Zack sees Stone’s hand, which is quite good, and signals its content to Pete. My henchman Jack sees both hands, and sees that Pete’s hand is rather low, so that Stone’s is the winning hand. At this point, the room is cleared. A few minutes later, Zack slips me a note which says “If Pete called, he (...)
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  23. Zoltan Szabo, On Presupposition Accommodation.score: 24.0
    These are the comments I gave at Ohio State in October 2006 on Kai von Fintel’s paper on presupposition accommodation.
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  24. Kai von Fintel, 2. An Opinionated Guide to Epistemic Modality and Anthony S. Gillies Introduction.score: 24.0
    way on the information available in the contexts in which they are used, it’s not surprising that there is a minor but growing industry of work in semantics and the philosophy of language concerned with the precise nature of the context-dependency of epistemically modalized sentences. Take, for instance, an epistemic might-claim like..
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  25. Kai von Fintel & Anthony S. Gillies (2007). An Opinionated Guide to Epistemic Modality. In Tamar Gendler & John Hawthorne (eds.), Oxford Studies in Epistemology 2. Oxford. 32-62.score: 24.0
    way on the information available in the contexts in which they are used, it’s not surprising that there is a minor but growing industry of work in semantics and the philosophy of language concerned with the precise nature of the context-dependency of epistemically modalized sentences. Take, for instance, an epistemic might-claim like..
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  26. Kai von Fintel, Epistemic Modals: A Linguistic Perspective.score: 24.0
    Expressions of epistemic modality mark the possibility/necessity of the prejacent proposition relative to some body of evidence/knowledge.
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  27. Kai von Fintel & Anthony S. Gillies, Hedging Your Ifs and Vice Versa.score: 24.0
    “Any theory of conditionals has consequences for less-than-certain judgements. Something is proposed of the form: If A, B is true iff A*B. If a clear-headed person, free from confusions of a logical, linguistic or referential sort, can be nearly sure that A*B yet far from sure that if A, B, or vice versa, then this is strong evidence against the proposal.” (Edgington 1995/2007).
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  28. Kai von Fintel, If and When If -Clauses Can Restrict Quantifiers.score: 24.0
    The interpretation of if -clauses in the scope of ordinary quantifiers has provoked semanticists into extraordinary measures, such as abandoning compositionality or claiming that if has no meaning. We argue that if -clauses have a normal conditional meaning, even in the scope of ordinary quantifiers, and that the trick is to have the right semantics for conditionals.
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  29. Kai von Fintel (2008). What is Presupposition Accommodation, Again? Philosophical Perspectives 22 (1):137-170.score: 24.0
    In his paper “What is a Context of Utterance?”, Christopher Gauker (1998) argues that the phenomenon of informative presuppositions is incompatible with the “pragmatic” view of presuppositions as involving requirements on the common ground, the body of shared assumptions of the participants in a conversation. This is a surprising claim since most proponents of this view have in fact dealt with informative presuppositions by appealing to a process called presupposition accommodation. Gauker’s attack shows the need to clarify the nature of (...)
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  30. Kai von Fintel, What is Presupposition Accommodation?score: 24.0
    In his paper “What is a Context of Utterance?”, Christopher Gauker (1998) argues that the phenomenon of informative presuppositions is incompatible with the “pragmatic” view of presuppositions as involving requirements on the common ground, the body of shared assumptions of the participants in a conversation. This is a surprising claim since most proponents of this view have in fact dealt with informative presuppositions by appealing to a process called presupposition accommodation. Gauker’s attack shows the need to clarify the nature of (...)
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  31. Kai von Fintel (1997). Bare Plurals, Bare Conditionals, and Only. Journal of Semantics 14 (1):1-56.score: 24.0
    The compositional semantics of sentences like Only mammals give live birth and The flag flies only if the Queen is home is a tough problem. Evidence is presented to show that only here is modifying an underlying proposition (its ‘prejacent’). After discussing the semantics of only, the question of the proper interpretation of the prejacent is explored. It would be nice if the prejacent could be analyzed as having existential quantificational force. But that is difficult to maintain, since the prejacent (...)
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  32. Kai von Fintel & Anthony S. Gillies (2009). `Might' Made Right. In Andy Egan & Brian Weatherson (eds.), Epistemic Modality. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    The simplest story about modals—might, must, possibly, necessary, have to, can, ought to, presumably, likelier, and the rest—is also the canon: modals are context-dependent quantifiers over a domain of possibilities. Different flavors of modality correspond to quantification over different domains of possibilities. Logical modalities quantify over all the possibilities there are, physical modalities over possibilities compatible with the..
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  33. Kai von Fintel (1994). Restrictions on Quantifier Domains. Dissertation, University of Massachusetts at Amhertsscore: 24.0
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  34. Kai von Fintel & Anthony S. Gillies (2010). Must . . . Stay . . . Strong! Natural Language Semantics 18 (4):351-383.score: 24.0
    It is a recurring mantra that epistemic must creates a statement that is weaker than the corresponding flat-footed assertion: It must be raining vs. It’s raining. Contrary to classic discussions of the phenomenon such as by Karttunen, Kratzer, and Veltman, we argue that instead of having a weak semantics, must presupposes the presence of an indirect inference or deduction rather than of a direct observation. This is independent of the strength of the claim being made. Epistemic must is therefore quite (...)
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  35. Kai von Fintel & Lisa Matthewson, Universals in Semantics.score: 24.0
    This article surveys the state of the art in the field of semantic universals. We examine potential semantic universals in three areas: (i) the lexicon, (ii) semantic “glue” (functional morphemes and composition principles), and (iii) pragmatics. At the level of the lexicon, we find remarkably few convincing semantic universals. At the level of functional morphemes and composition principles, we discuss a number of promising constraints, most of which require further empirical testing and/or refinement. In the realm of pragmatics, we predict (...)
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  36. Kai von Fintel (1998). Quantifiers and 'If'-Clauses. Philosophical Quarterly 48 (191):209-214.score: 24.0
    which he calls general indicatives, are correctly analysed as open indicative conditionals prefixed by universal quantifiers. So they are both analysed as (∀x)(if x gets a chance, x bungee-jumps), where x ranges over girls. This analysis is attributed to Geach.2 Barker then shows that this syntactic analysis, together with other premises, entails that the open conditional occurring under the universal quantifier has to be analysed as having the import of material implication.
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  37. Kai von Fintel, How to Say Ought in Foreign: The Composition of Weak Necessity Modals.score: 24.0
    1 This paper has been presented at the workshop “Time and Modality: A Round Table on Tense, Mood, and Modality”, Paris, December 2005, at a CUNY linguistics colloquium in May 2006, and at the 6th Workshop on Formal Linguistics in Florian´opolis, Brazil, August 2006. We thank the audiences at those presentations, in particular Orin Percus, Tim Stowell, Marcel den Dikken, Anna Szabolcsi, Chris Warnasch, Roberta Pires de Oliveira, Renato Miguel Basso, and Ana M¨uller. We thank Noam Chomsky, Cleo Condoravdi, and (...)
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  38. Kai von Fintel, What to Do If You Want to Go to Harlem: Anankastic Conditionals and Related Matters.score: 24.0
    At first glance, this is an entirely unremarkable kind of sentence. It is easy to find naturally occuring exponents. Its meaning is also clear: taking the A train is a necessary condition for going to Harlem. Hence the term “anankastic conditional”, Ananke being the Greek protogonos of inevitability, compulsion and necessity.
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  39. Kai von Fintel, Anatomy of a Modal.score: 24.0
    What do we convey with (2)? We somehow manage to say at least the following: going to the North End is (part of ) a way of finding good cheese and going to the North End is relatively easy. Furthermore, we are leaving it open whether there are other places (in Boston) to get good cheese, that is, with (2) we are not claiming that the North End is the only place to find good cheese.
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  40. Kai von Fintel (1993). Exceptive Constructions. Natural Language Semantics 1 (2):123-148.score: 24.0
    For the first time a uniform compositional derivation is given for quantified sentences containing exceptive constructions. The semantics of exceptives is primarily one of subtraction from the domain of a quantifier. The crucial semantic difference between the highly grammaticized but-phrases and free exceptives is that the former have the Uniqueness Condition as part of their lexical meaning whereas the latter are mere set subtractors. Several empirical differences between the two types of exceptives are shown to follow from this basic lexical (...)
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  41. Kai von Fintel (1999). NPI Licensing, Strawson Entailment, and Context Dependency. Journal of Semantics 16 (2):97-148.score: 24.0
    The Fauconnier-Ladusaw analysis of negative polarity licensing (that NPIs are licensed in the scope of downward entailing operators) continues to be the benchmark theory of negative polarity. In this paper, I consider some of the moves that are needed to maintain its basic intuition in some recalcitrant arenas: negative polarity licensing by only, adversatives, superlatives, and conditionals. We will see that one has to (i) use a notion of entailment that I call Strawson Entailment, which deals with presuppositions in a (...)
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  42. Kai von Fintel, Whatever.score: 24.0
    Our immediate intuition about (1) is that –ever indicates speaker’s ignorance. We hear the speaker as signaling that she doesn’t know what Arlo is cooking, while at the same time asserting that no matter what Arlo is cooking, there’s a lot of garlic in it. The FR without –ever in (2) carries no such signal of ignorance.
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  43. Kai von Fintel, Dynamic Context.score: 24.0
    A primary goal of research in the semantics/pragmatics interface is to investigate the division of labor between the truth-conditional component of the meaning of an expression and other factors of a more pragmatic nature. One favorite strategy, associated foremost with Grice (1967, 1989), is to keep to a rather austere semantics and to derive the overall meaning of an utterance by predictable additional inferences, called ``implicatures,'' which are seen as based on certain principles of rational and purposeful interaction. In this (...)
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  44. Kai von Fintel, How to Count Situations (Notes Towards a User's Manual).score: 24.0
    Author’s Note These notes expand on remarks in my paper “A Minimal Theory of Adverbial Quantification” about the difficulties with counting situations. In May 1997, I talked about this topic in an MIT seminar on events co-taught with Irene Heim. These are the slightly updated class notes from that seminar. I have no new thoughts on the issues, but perhaps these notes are still useful. [References still to be added – for now I just appended an old list of references (...)
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  45. Kai von Fintel, Quantifier Domain Selection and Pseudo-Scope.score: 24.0
    * This work has been evolving for a while now. Some parts trace back to the few pages on the context-dependency of quantifiers in my dissertation. Reading Recanati’s paper on domains of discourse made me rethink some of my earlier conclusions without in the end actually changing them much. Other parts formed the material for several discussions in my seminar on context-dependency at MIT in the fall of 1995, which included several sessions exploring the issues raised in an early version (...)
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  46. Kai von Fintel, Amount Relatives and the Meaning of Chains.score: 24.0
    The relative clause specifies the amount/number of books referred to. It functions as a cardinality modifier. It denotes the number of books on the table. The noun books moves from the RC-internal position into the external head position. We will see that it is semantically active in both positions!
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  47. Kai von Fintel, Conditional Strengthening.score: 24.0
    (i) Inferences from the (assumed) truth of the asserted sentence. Hearers may have conditional beliefs (if p, q) and upon hearing p asserted they can infer q by Modus Ponens (with suitable caveats about the reliability of their initial conditional belief and the new information that p).
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  48. Kai von Fintel, How Multi-Dimensional is Quotation?score: 24.0
    dimensions. As a commenter, I should probably concentrate on the central claim and, if possible, probe its solidity. So, that’s what I’ll be doing.
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  49. Kai von Fintel, Singleton Indefinites (Re. Schwarzschild 2000).score: 24.0
    Every member of the club was convinced that if a (particular) friend of his from Texas had died in the fire, he would have inherited a fortune.
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  50. Kai von Fintel, More on Lousy Teachers and Beautiful Dancers.score: 24.0
    Standard assumption: lousy must be an intensional adjective (i.e. it takes the intension of its noun as its argument). BUT: we have not seen a credible meaning for lousy of this type, and it seems the McConnell-Ginet/Larson suspicion is quite right that there couldn’t be such a meaning.
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