1. Kalle Pajunen (2010). A “Black Box” of Stakeholder Thinking. Journal of Business Ethics 96 (S1):27-32.
    The existence of a firm can be seen as a necessary condition for the existence of stakeholders. However, in the stakeholder literature, the firm has remained a relatively underdeveloped and fuzzy construct. In this essay, we examine how the firm has been conceptualized (explicitly or implicitly) in earlier research and suggest that, at least in stakeholder thinking, the firm can be considered as having an emergent nature. We elaborate this idea by building on the resent philosophical discussions of emergence and, (...)
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  2. Mika Skippari & Kalle Pajunen (2008). The Emergence and Evolution of Stakeholder Activism and Firm Responses During Social Issue Life-Cycle. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 19:495-507.
    Due to increasing stakeholder activism, several firms have recently been driven into a conflict with stakeholders resulting in unexpected consequences. Based on an in-depth case study of a conflict between a forest industry company and environmental activist groups, we develop a framework for analysing the emergence and consequences of a stakeholder conflict. We argue that a conflict ina stakeholder relationship effects not only to this particular stakeholder relationship, but it also evokes dynamic changes in the stakeholder network of the firm (...)
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  3. Kalle Pajunen (2006). Living in Agreement with a Contract: The Management of Moral and Viable Firm–Stakeholder Relationships. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 68 (3):243 - 258.
    In a contractual firm–stakeholder relationship the participants are expected to act according to the agreement and for mutual benefit. By acting against the agreement at the expense of the other participant, however, may result in higher individual profits within a short period of time. Building on the unlocked iterated prisoner’s dilemma (PD) setting, Scanlon’s [Scanlon, T.␣M.: 1998, What We Owe to Each Other (Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass)] version of contractualism, and the social dilemma literature, this article (...)
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