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David Kaplan [41]Stephen Kaplan [35]Mark Kaplan [34]David M. Kaplan [33]
Abraham Kaplan [33]Laura Duhan Kaplan [28]Morton A. Kaplan [25]Jonathan Michael Kaplan [20]

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Profile: David Michael Kaplan (Washington University in St. Louis)
Profile: David Kaplan (University of California, Los Angeles)
Profile: Jonathan Kaplan (Oregon State University)
Profile: David Michael Kaplan (Macquarie University)
Profile: Shawn Kaplan (Adelphi University)
Profile: Michael Kaplan
Profile: Alex A. Kaplan
Profile: Alex Kaplan (Tufts University)
Profile: Sümeyye Kaplan
Profile: Barbara Kaplan
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  1. David Kaplan (1989). Demonstratives. In Joseph Almog, John Perry & Howard Wettstein (eds.), Themes From Kaplan. Oxford University Press 481-563.
  2. David Michael Kaplan & Carl F. Craver (2011). The Explanatory Force of Dynamical and Mathematical Models in Neuroscience: A Mechanistic Perspective. Philosophy of Science 78 (4):601-627.
    We argue that dynamical and mathematical models in systems and cognitive neuro- science explain (rather than redescribe) a phenomenon only if there is a plausible mapping between elements in the model and elements in the mechanism for the phe- nomenon. We demonstrate how this model-to-mechanism-mapping constraint, when satisfied, endows a model with explanatory force with respect to the phenomenon to be explained. Several paradigmatic models including the Haken-Kelso-Bunz model of bimanual coordination and the difference-of-Gaussians model of visual receptive fields are (...)
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  3. Jonathan Kaplan, Massimo Pigliucci & Joshua Banta (2015). Gould on Morton, Redux: What Can the Debate Reveal About the Limits of Data? Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 52:22-31.
    Lewis et al. (2011) attempted to restore the reputation of Samuel George Morton, a 19th century physician who reported on the skull sizes of different folk-races. Whereas Gould (1978) claimed that Morton’s conclusions were invalid because they reflected unconscious bias, Lewis et al. alleged that Morton’s findings were, in fact, supported, and Gould’s analysis biased. We take strong exception to Lewis et al.’s thesis that Morton was “right.” We maintain that Gould was right to reject Morton’s analysis as inappropriate and (...)
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  4. Sam S. Rakover & Kalman J. Kaplan (1990). Metapsychology Missing Links in Behavior, Mind & Science. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
  5. Jonathan Michael Kaplan & Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther (2013). Prisoners of Abstraction? The Theory and Measure of Genetic Variation, and the Very Concept of 'Race'. Biological Theory 7 (1):401-412.
    It is illegitimate to read any ontology about "race" off of biological theory or data. Indeed, the technical meaning of "genetic variation" is fluid, and there is no single theoretical agreed-upon criterion for defining and distinguishing populations (or groups or clusters) given a particular set of genetic variation data. Thus, by analyzing three formal senses of "genetic variation"—diversity, differentiation, and heterozygosity—we argue that the use of biological theory for making epistemic claims about "race" can only seem plausible when it relies (...)
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  6. Jonathan Michael Kaplan & Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther (2014). Realism, Antirealism, and Conventionalism About Race. Philosophy of Science 81 (5):1039-1052.
    This paper distinguishes three concepts of "race": bio-genomic cluster/race, biological race, and social race. We map out realism, antirealism, and conventionalism about each of these, in three important historical episodes: Frank Livingstone and Theodosius Dobzhansky in 1962, A.W.F. Edwards' 2003 response to Lewontin (1972), and contemporary discourse. Semantics is especially crucial to the first episode, while normativity is central to the second. Upon inspection, each episode also reveals a variety of commitments to the metaphysics of race. We conclude by interrogating (...)
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  7. David M. Kaplan & William Bechtel (2011). Dynamical Models: An Alternative or Complement to Mechanistic Explanations? Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (2):438-444.
    Abstract While agreeing that dynamical models play a major role in cognitive science, we reject Stepp, Chemero, and Turvey's contention that they constitute an alternative to mechanistic explanations. We review several problems dynamical models face as putative explanations when they are not grounded in mechanisms. Further, we argue that the opposition of dynamical models and mechanisms is a false one and that those dynamical models that characterize the operations of mechanisms overcome these problems. By briefly considering examples involving the generation (...)
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  8. Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther & Jonathan Michael Kaplan (2013). Ontologies and Politics of Biogenomic 'Race'. Theoria. A Journal of Social and Political Theory (South Africa) 60 (3):54-80.
    All eyes are turned towards genomic data and models as the source of knowledge about whether human races exist or not. Will genomic science make the final decision about whether racial realism (e.g., racial population naturalism) or anti-realism (e.g., racial skepticism) is correct? We think not. We believe that the results of even our best and most impressive genomic technologies underdetermine whether bio-genomic races exist, or not. First, different sub-disciplines of biology interested in population structure employ distinct concepts, aims, measures, (...)
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  9.  35
    Massimo Pigliucci & Jonathan Kaplan (2006). Making Sense of Evolution: The Conceptual Foundations of Evolutionary Theory. University of Chicago Press.
    Making Sense of Evolution explores contemporary evolutionary biology, focusing on the elements of theories—selection, adaptation, and species—that are complex and open to multiple possible interpretations, many of which are incompatible with one another and with other accepted practices in the discipline. Particular experimental methods, for example, may demand one understanding of “selection,” while the application of the same concept to another area of evolutionary biology could necessitate a very different definition.
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  10. David Michael Kaplan (2011). Explanation and Description in Computational Neuroscience. Synthese 183 (3):339-373.
    The central aim of this paper is to shed light on the nature of explanation in computational neuroscience. I argue that computational models in this domain possess explanatory force to the extent that they describe the mechanisms responsible for producing a given phenomenon—paralleling how other mechanistic models explain. Conceiving computational explanation as a species of mechanistic explanation affords an important distinction between computational models that play genuine explanatory roles and those that merely provide accurate descriptions or predictions of phenomena. It (...)
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  11. Mark Kaplan (1983). Decision Theory as Philosophy. Philosophy of Science 50 (4):549-577.
    Is Bayesian decision theory a panacea for many of the problems in epistemology and the philosophy of science, or is it philosophical snake-oil? For years a debate had been waged amongst specialists regarding the import and legitimacy of this body of theory. Mark Kaplan had written the first accessible and non-technical book to address this controversy. Introducing a new variant on Bayesian decision theory the author offers a compelling case that, while no panacea, decision theory does in fact have the (...)
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  12. David Michael Kaplan (2012). How to Demarcate the Boundaries of Cognition. Biology and Philosophy 27 (4):545-570.
    Advocates of extended cognition argue that the boundaries of cognition span brain, body, and environment. Critics maintain that cognitive processes are confined to a boundary centered on the individual. All participants to this debate require a criterion for distinguishing what is internal to cognition from what is external. Yet none of the available proposals are completely successful. I offer a new account, the mutual manipulability account, according to which cognitive boundaries are determined by relationships of mutual manipulability between the properties (...)
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  13. David Kaplan (1968). Quantifying In. Synthese 19 (1-2):178-214.
  14. David Kaplan (1990). Words. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 64 (1):93-119.
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  15.  14
    A. Magdalena Hurtado, Kim Hill, Ines Hurtado & Hillard Kaplan (1992). Trade-Offs Between Female Food Acquisition and Child Care Among Hiwi and Ache Foragers. Human Nature 3 (3):185-216.
    Even though female food acquisition is an area of considerable interest in hunter-gatherer research, the ecological determinants of women’s economic decisions in these populations are still poorly understood. The literature on female foraging behavior indicates that there is considerable variation within and across foraging societies in the amount of time that women spend foraging and in the amount and types of food that they acquire. It is possible that this heterogeneity reflects variation in the trade-offs between time spent in food (...)
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  16. Massimo Pigliucci & Jonathan Kaplan (2000). The Fall and Rise of Dr. Pangloss: Adaptationism and the Spandrels Paper 20 Years Later. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15 (2):66-77.
    Twenty years have passed since Gould and Lewontin published their critique of ‘the adaptationist program’ – the tendency of some evolutionary biologists to assume, rather than demonstrate, the operation of natural selection. After the ‘Spandrels paper’, evolutionists were more careful about producing just-so stories based on selection, and paid more attention to a panoply of other processes. Then came reactions against the excesses of the anti-adaptationist movement, which ranged from a complete dismissal of Gould and Lewontin’s contribution to a positive (...)
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  17. Massimo Pigliucci & Jonathan Kaplan (2003). On the Concept of Biological Race and its Applicability to Humans. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1161-1172.
    Biological research on race has often been seen as motivated by or lending credence to underlying racist attitudes; in part for this reason, recently philosophers and biologists have gone through great pains to essentially deny the existence of biological human races. We argue that human races, in the biological sense of local populations adapted to particular environments, do in fact exist; such races are best understood through the common ecological concept of ecotypes. However, human ecotypic races do not in general (...)
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  18. David Kaplan (1989). Afterthoughts. In J. Almog, J. Perry & H. Wettstein (eds.), Themes From Kaplan. Oxford University Press 565-614.
  19. David Kaplan (1979). On the Logic of Demonstratives. Journal of Philosophical Logic 8 (1):81 - 98.
  20.  15
    Steven E. Kaplan (2001). Ethically Related Judgments by Observers of Earnings Management. Journal of Business Ethics 32 (4):285 - 298.
    Merchant and Rockness (1994, p. 92) characterize earnings management as "probably the most important ethical issue facing the accounting profession" and provide initial evidence of the ethical judgments of various organizational members. The current study extends their work by examining the extent to which an individual''s ethically-related judgments in response to earnings management activities are associated with the individual''s role.In an experimental study, evening MBA students read three hypothetical scenarios involving a manager engaging in earnings management. The scenarios involved a (...)
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  21. David Kaplan (1978). Dthat. In Peter Cole (ed.), Syntax and Semantics. Academic Press 221--243.
  22.  4
    Hillard Kaplan & Kim Hill (1986). Sexual Strategies and Social-Class Differences in Fitness in Modern Industrial Societies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):198.
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  23. David Kaplan (1975). How to Russell a Frege-Church. Journal of Philosophy 72 (19):716-729.
  24.  33
    Susan Ayers & Steven E. Kaplan (2005). Wrongdoing by Consultants: An Examination of Employees' Reporting Intentions. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 57 (2):121 - 137.
    Organizations are increasingly embedded with consultants and other non-employees who have the opportunity to engage in wrongdoing. However, research exploring the reporting intentions of employees regarding the discovery of wrongdoing by consultants is scant. It is important to examine reporting intentions in this setting given the enhanced presence of consultants in organizations and the fact that wrongdoing by consultants changes a key characteristic of the wrongdoing. Using an experimental approach, the current paper reports the results of a study examining employees (...)
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  25. David Kaplan (2005). Reading ‘On Denoting’ on its Centenary. Mind 114 (456):933-1003.
    Part 1 sets out the logical/semantical background to ‘On Denoting’, including an exposition of Russell's views in Principles of Mathematics, the role and justification of Frege's notorious Axiom V, and speculation about how the search for a solution to the Contradiction might have motivated a new treatment of denoting. Part 2 consists primarily of an extended analysis of Russell's views on knowledge by acquaintance and knowledge by description, in which I try to show that the discomfiture between Russell's semantical and (...)
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  26.  14
    Michael Gurven & Hillard Kaplan (2006). Determinants of Time Allocation Across the Lifespan. Human Nature 17 (1):1-49.
    This paper lays the groundwork for a theory of time allocation across the life course, based on the idea that strength and skill vary as a function of age, and that return rates for different activities vary as a function of the combination of strength and skills involved in performing those tasks. We apply the model to traditional human subsistence patterns. The model predicts that young children engage most heavily in low-strength/low-skill activities, middle-aged adults in high-strength/high-skill activities, and older adults (...)
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  27.  6
    Steven E. Kaplan, Janet A. Samuels & Jeffrey Cohen (2015). An Examination of the Effect of CEO Social Ties and CEO Reputation on Nonprofessional Investors’ Say-on-Pay Judgments. Journal of Business Ethics 126 (1):103-117.
    CEO compensation has received much attention from both academics and regulators. However, academics have given scant attention to understanding judgments about CEO compensation by third parties such as investors. Our study contributes to the ethics literature on CEO compensation by examining whether judgments about CEO compensation are influenced by two aspects of a company’s tone at the top—social ties between the CEO and members of the Executive Compensation Committee and the CEO’s Reputation, particularly for financial reporting and disclosures. Although, stock (...)
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  28.  46
    S. Kaplan, M. Weaver & Robert M. French (1990). Active Symbols and Internal Models: Towards a Cognitive Connectionism. [REVIEW] AI and Society 4 (1):51-71.
    In the first section of the article, we examine some recent criticisms of the connectionist enterprise: first, that connectionist models are fundamentally behaviorist in nature (and, therefore, non-cognitive), and second that connectionist models are fundamentally associationist in nature (and, therefore, cognitively weak). We argue that, for a limited class of connectionist models (feed-forward, pattern-associator models), the first criticism is unavoidable. With respect to the second criticism, we propose that connectionist modelsare fundamentally associationist but that this is appropriate for building models (...)
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  29. Alex Rosenberg & David Michael Kaplan (2005). How to Reconcile Physicalism and Antireductionism About Biology. Philosophy of Science 72 (1):43-68.
    Physicalism and antireductionism are the ruling orthodoxy in the philosophy of biology. But these two theses are difficult to reconcile. Merely embracing an epistemic antireductionism will not suffice, as both reductionists and antireductionists accept that given our cognitive interests and limitations, non-molecular explanations may not be improved, corrected or grounded in molecular ones. Moreover, antireductionists themselves view their claim as a metaphysical or ontological one about the existence of facts molecular biology cannot identify, express, or explain. However, this is tantamount (...)
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  30. David Kaplan (2011). An Idea of Donnellan. In Joseph Almog & Paolo Leonardi (eds.), Having In Mind: The Philosophy of Keith Donnellan. Oxford, but (C) David Kaplan 122-175.
    This is a story about three of my favorite philosophers—Donnellan, Russell, and Frege—about how Donnellan’s concept of having in mind relates to ideas of the others, and especially about an aspect of Donnellan’s concept that has been insufficiently discussed: how this epistemic state can be transmitted from one person to another.
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  31.  67
    David Kaplan (1973). Bob and Carol and Ted and Alice. In Jaakko Hintikka (ed.), Approaches to Natural Language. D. Reidel Publishing 490--518.
  32.  36
    Jonathan Kaplan (2008). The End of the Adaptive Landscape Metaphor? Biology and Philosophy 23 (5):625-638.
    The concepts of adaptive/fitness landscapes and adaptive peaks are a central part of much of contemporary evolutionary biology; the concepts are introduced in introductory texts, developed in more detail in graduate-level treatments, and are used extensively in papers published in the major journals in the field. The appeal of visualizing the process of evolution in terms of the movement of populations on such landscapes is very strong; as one becomes familiar with the metaphor, one often develops the feeling that it (...)
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  33. Mark Kaplan (1985). It's Not What You Know That Counts. Journal of Philosophy 82 (7):350-363.
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  34. Karen L. Baird, María Julia Bertomeu, Martha Chinouya, Donna L. Dickenson, Michele Harvey-Blankenship, Barbara Ann Hocking, Laura Duhan Kaplan, Jing-Bao Nie, Eileen O'Keefe, Julia Tao Lai Po-wah, Carol Quinn, Arleen L. F. Salles, K. Shanthi, Susana E. Sommer, Rosemarie Tong & Julie Zilberberg (2004). Linking Visions: Feminist Bioethics, Human Rights, and the Developing World. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    This collection brings together fourteen contributions by authors from around the globe. Each of the contributions engages with questions about how local and global bioethical issues are made to be comparable, in the hope of redressing basic needs and demands for justice. These works demonstrate the significant conceptual contributions that can be made through feminists' attention to debates in a range of interrelated fields, especially as they formulate appropriate responses to developments in medical technology, global economics, population shifts, and poverty.
     
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  35. David Kaplan (2011). Words on Words. Journal of Philosophy 108 (9):504-529.
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  36.  14
    Artem Chernikov & Itay Kaplan (2012). Forking and Dividing in NTP₂ Theories. Journal of Symbolic Logic 77 (1):1-20.
    We prove that in theories without the tree property of the second kind (which include dependent and simple theories) forking and dividing over models are the same, and in fact over any extension base. As an application we show that dependence is equivalent to bounded non-forking assuming NTP 2.
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  37. Mark Kaplan (2000). To What Must an Epistemology Be True? Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 61 (2):279-304.
    J. L. Austin famously thought that facts about the circumstances in which it is ordinarily appropriate and reasonable to make claims to knowledge have a great bearing on the propriety of a philosophical account of knowledge. His major criticism of the epistemological doctrines about which he wrote was precisely that they lacked fidelity to our ordinary linguistic practices. In The Significance of Philosophical Scepticism, Barry Stroud argues that Austin was misguided: it is one thing for it to be inappropriate under (...)
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  38. Mark Kaplan (2009). Williamson's Casual Approach to Probabilism. In Duncan Pritchard & Patrick Greenough (eds.), Williamson on Knowledge. Oxford: Oxford University Press
     
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  39.  12
    Thomas Nadelhoffer, Saeideh Heshmati, Deanna Kaplan & Shaun Nichols (2013). Folk Retributivism And The Communication Confound. Economics and Philosophy 29 (2):235-261.
    Retributivist accounts of punishment maintain that it is right to punish wrongdoers, even if the punishment has no future benefits. Research in experimental economics indicates that people are willing to pay to punish defectors. A complementary line of work in social psychology suggests that people think that it is right to punish wrongdoers. This work suggests that people are retributivists about punishment. However, all of the extant work contains an important potential confound. The target of the punishment is expected to (...)
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  40.  5
    Lewis J. Kleinsmith & Stephen Kaplan (1964). Interaction of Arousal and Recall Interval in Nonsense Syllable Paired-Associate Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 67 (2):124.
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  41.  6
    Uri Kaplan (2016). Updating the Vinaya: Formulating Buddhist Monastic Laws and Pure Rules in Contemporary Korea. Contemporary Buddhism 17 (2):252-274.
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  42.  1
    Benjamin C. Trumble, Steven J. C. Gaulin, Matt D. Dunbar, Hillard Kaplan & Michael Gurven (forthcoming). No Sex or Age Difference in Dead-Reckoning Ability Among Tsimane Forager-Horticulturalists. Human Nature.
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  43.  5
    Hillard S. Kaplan, Jane B. Lancaster, Sara E. Johnson & John A. Bock (1995). Does Observed Fertility Maximize Fitness Among New Mexican Men? Human Nature 6 (4):325-360.
    Our objective is to test an optimality model of human fertility that specifies the behavioral requirements for fitness maximization in order (a) to determine whether current behavior does maximize fitness and, if not, (b) to use the specific nature of the behavioral deviations from fitness maximization towards the development of models of evolved proximate mechanisms that may have maximized fitness in the past but lead to deviations under present conditions. To test the model we use data from a representative sample (...)
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  44.  68
    D. Kaplan & R. Montague (1960). A Paradox Regained. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 1 (3):79-90.
  45.  17
    Elizabeth Dreike Almer, Audrey A. Gramling & Steven E. Kaplan (2008). Impact of Post-Restatement Actions Taken by a Firm on Non-Professional Investors' Credibility Perceptions. Journal of Business Ethics 80 (1):61 - 76.
    The frequency of earnings restatements has been increasing over the last decade. Restating previous earnings erodes perceived trustworthiness and competence of management, giving firms strong incentives to take actions to enhance perceived credibility of future financial reports [Farber, D. B.: 2005, The Accounting Review 80(2), 539–561.]. Using an experimental case, we examine the ability of post-restatement actions taken by a firm to positively influence non-professional investors’ perceptions of management’s financial reporting credibility. Our examination considers credibility judgments following two types of (...)
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  46.  2
    Itay Kaplan & Benjamin D. Miller (2014). An Embedding Theorem Of. Journal of Mathematical Logic 14 (2):1450010.
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  47.  1
    Christopher von Rueden, Michael Gurven, Hillard Kaplan & Jonathan Stieglitz (2014). Leadership in an Egalitarian Society. Human Nature 25 (4):538-566.
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  48.  27
    Steven Kaplan, Kurt Pany, Janet Samuels & Jian Zhang (2009). An Examination of the Association Between Gender and Reporting Intentions for Fraudulent Financial Reporting. Journal of Business Ethics 87 (1):15-30.
    We report the results of a study that examines the association between gender and individuals’ intentions to report fraudulent financial reporting using non-anonymous and anonymous reporting channels. In our experimental study, we examine whether reporting intentions in response to discovering a fraudulent financial reporting act are associated with the participants’ gender, the perpetrator’s gender, and/or the interaction between the participants’ and perpetrator’s gender. We find that female participants’ reporting intentions for an anonymous channel are higher than for male participants; the (...)
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  49.  80
    Mark Kaplan (2010). In Defense of Modest Probabilism. Synthese 176 (1):41 - 55.
    Orthodox Probabilists hold that an inquirer ought to harbor a precise degree of confidence in each hypothesis about which she is concerned. Modest Probabilism is one of a family doctrines inspired by the thought that Orthodox Probabilists are thereby demanding that an inquirer effect a precision that is often unwarranted by her evidence. The purpose of this essay is (i) to explain the particular way in which Modest Probabilism answers to this thought, and (ii) to address an alleged counterexample to (...)
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  50.  11
    Steven E. Kaplan & Susan P. Ravenscroft (2004). The Reputation Effects of Earnings Management in the Internal Labor Market. Business Ethics Quarterly 14 (3):453-478.
    The current study is designed to propose and test a model about the ethical reputation of a target manager who must decide whether to engage in earnings management. We employ an experimental approach to examine the potential negative reputation effects within the internal labor market of a firm that occur as a consequence of earnings management. We examine participants’ responses to a hypothetical (target) manager when both the target’s behavior and the corporate incentives were manipulated. Participants assessed how ethical they (...)
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