The laws governing degeneration of the genetic code are discussed below. Of fundamental importance in this context is the classification of the amino acids into groups on the basis of the physicochemical behaviour of their residues. From this, it is possible to formulate arithmetic relationships between the number of amino acids in the same group and the number of coding triplets.It is found that the degeneration of the genetic code obeys certain laws, the reasons for this being related to the (...) number and the qualitative properties of the amino acids and triplets. The fact that the three bases of a coding triplet have different priorities must also be a critical factor. (shrink)
The universally valid genetic code is the final result of a multi-stage course of development. Degeneracy, as an important property of the genetic code, was possibly not yet present in the earliest code, first appearing at a later stage of development (Code III). Possibly this step in development is coupled with the presence of a total of four amino acid groups (L,I,E,F). Each group contains a specific number of amino acid(AL, AI, AE, AF). Amino acid groups: (...) — (L) hydrophobic - (I) weakly hydrophobic or polar but uncharged - (E) hydrophilic, acidic - (F) hydrophilic, basic - (D) hydrophobic, aromatic (only in Code IV and Code M. This group is not considered in the calculations below.) In a subsequent stage of development the number of amino acids increases further. At the same time the code becomes more degenerate. The universal genetic code is characterized by three constants of being degenerate. Its immediate predecessor has linear degeneration with two constants. The mitochondrial code represents a transitional form between these two codes. (shrink)
The philosolphy of strict finitism is a research programme containing developmental theory and mathematics as its main branches. The first branch is concerned with the ontogenetic and historicaldevelopment of various concepts of infinity. The frame work is Jean Piaget’s genetic epistemology. Based upon these develop mental studies, the mathematical branch introduces a new concept of infinity into mathematics. Cantor propagated the actual infinite, Brouwer and the constructivists the potential infinite. Still more radical is strict finitism, favoring the natural infinite, i.e. (...) the phenomena of the unsurveyable, unfeasible, unreachable. There exist by this time strict finitistic reconstructions for arithmetic, geometry, calculus, and even for infinitistic set theory. (shrink)
Kate Millett's book, The Loony-Bin Trip, is an extraordinary account of her personal experience with involuntary psychiatric commitment. The drama of her conflict with professional psychiatry is so tense, so enraging, that one is likely to find oneself having to set the book aside from time to time just to calm down.
Oregon is the only state in the United States where a physician may legally prescribe a lethal dose of barbiturate for a patient intending suicide. The Oregon Death with Dignity Act was passed by voters in 1994 and came into effect after much legal wrangling in October of 1997. At the same time, a cabinetmaker named Pat Matheny was struggling with progressive weakness from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS. I met with Pat and his family for a lengthy interview in (...) October 1998 in Coos Bay, Oregon, for a television news report on his decision to get a lethal prescription. Below is an extract from that interview. On the day this introduction was written, 10 March 1999, Pat took the prescribed lethal overdose of barbiturates and died at home. His illness was taking his voice, he could not move his hands or legs, and breathing was becoming very difficult. His mother told me he knew that was for him. (shrink)
CHOMSKY: Any stance we take is based on some conception of what is good for people. This conception will tacitly presuppose a certain belief as to the constitution of human nature -- human needs and human potential. You might as well bring them out as clearly as possible so that they can be discussed.
In an imagined letter to the author of My Gender Workbook, the author of this article recounts classroom discussions about gender identity that led to profound questions regarding the relation between sex, gender, and sexuality. The author argues that more conversation between bisexual and transgender perspectives would continue to unsettle conceptual frameworks for sexuality in helpful ways. The author finds special consequences in this conversation for the concept of gender, especially when it is considered as a reference point for self-exploration (...) and classification. (shrink)
In Search of Immortality: The Political Economy of Anti-aging Medicine Content Type Journal Article Category Original Paper Pages 267-279 DOI 10.1007/s12376-009-0020-x Authors Alan Petersen, Monash University Sociology Program, School of Political and Social Inquiry Clayton VIC 3800 Australia Kate Seear, Monash University Sociology Program, School of Political and Social Inquiry Clayton VIC 3800 Australia Journal Medicine Studies Online ISSN 1876-4541 Print ISSN 1876-4533 Journal Volume Volume 1 Journal Issue Volume 1, Number 3.
As a teacher and philosopher, Dr.Kate Lindemann has spent much of herprofessional life thinking about morality inhuman relationships. Critical analyses aboundabout the obligations and particularresponsibilities of health care providers topatients, teachers to students, etc. Suchanalyses often emphasize the inherentinequality, and thusvulnerability, of those who are the recipientsof care or knowledge. Though familiar with theethics of care as a moral framework, Dr.Lindemann's perspectives on such relationshipswere profoundly affected and foreveraltered after acquiring a brain injury in1998. The current manuscript describes how (...) herviews on caring acts as not only dynamic butreciprocal have been shaped by her experiencesduring rehabilitation andas a person now living with disability. (shrink)
`This book contributes to the growing debates about social theory and its role through a discussion of the ways in which gender and race contributed to the exclusion of important thinkers from the sociological canon' - John Hughes, Lancaster University Who makes up the `canon' of sociology - and who doesn't? And does sociology need a canon in the first place? Beyond Social Theory offers an innovative and passionate contribution to current debates on the history and development of sociology and (...) the exclusion of theorists - who are female, black, or both - from the mainstream of social theorizing. With compelling biographical sketches bringing the dynamics behind the `canon' to life, Kate Reed focuses sharp analysis on the exclusion of theorists on race and gender from important debates on inequality. An important contribution to the debate on non-exclusionary theory, this book critically examines existing accounts of the history of the discipline, situating the development of social theory within a wider social and political context. (shrink)
Materializing absence, Jenny Hockey, Carol Komaromy and Kate Woodthorpe -- Never say die: CPR in hospital space, Susie Page -- Making hospice space, Ken Worpole -- Dying spaces in dying places, Carol Komaromy -- The materialities of absence after stillbirth: historical perspectives, Jan Bleyen -- Distributed personhood and the transformation of agency: an anthropological perspective on inquests, Susan Langer -- Behind closed doors? corpses and mourners in English and American funeral premises, Sheila Harper -- Private grief in public spaces: (...) interpreting memorialisation in the contemporary cemetary, Kate Woodthorpe -- Wandering lines and cul-de-sacs: trajectories of ashes in the United Kingdom, Leonie Kellaher, Jenny Hockey and David Prendergast -- Natural burial: the de-materialising of death?, Andy Clayden, Jenny Hockey and Mark Powell -- What will the neighbours say? reactions to field and garden burial, Tony Walter and Clare Gittings -- Memorialising the suicide victim: "walking the walk," Caroline Simone -- Potent reminders: an examination of responses to roadside memorials in Ireland, Una McConville and Regina McQuillan -- Geographies of the spirit world, Douglas J. Davies -- Recovering presence, Jenny Hockey, Carol Komaromy and Kate Woodthorpe. (shrink)
Jones, Kate Aboriginal people who live with the effects of extreme poverty face high barriers to a quality of life that other Australians enjoy. Aboriginal people have poor health that is directly linked to unmet housing needs, absent or structurally impaired kitchen, bathroom and laundry facilities, malnutrition, unemployment, and poor education retention.
Jones, Kate Patients need both time and support if they are to participate in a model of shared medical decision making with their physicians. This paper explores the implications of patient centred care, identifies a significant barrier to patient participation in decision making, and suggests recommendations for an ethical approach to the provision of decision making support.
Jones, Kate An underlying tenet guiding this article is that every person is unique. Whilst a philosophical uncertainty exists in knowing how to discuss important issues for people facing death, we can be guided by our faith, ethical reflection, and the published and public material of dying people, and their carers.
Jones, Kate Wide spread media newsprint articles suggest our emergency medical departments are in a state of crisis. The purpose of this article is to examine a snapshot of emergency medicine performance data to provide some context in which to respond to this issue.
Jones, Kate The shortage of registered nurses in Australia necessitates that management move their attention towards those organisational dynamics, which improve the retention of nurses, reducing the potential for high turnover from hospital to hospital. Organisational culture should be considered in the favor of nurses, considering that the model of acute care service provision used by hospitals expects registered nurses to be the professional body entrusted to provide around the clock and continuous patient care.
Jones, Kate The insights into the physiology of the chronic pain are presented, considering the fact that the physiology of pain and the range of personal factors that influence pain are complex. Even though substantial evidence suggests that strategies could be applied to assist chronic pain patients to endure some of the effects of long-term pain, a pain management strategy that works for one person might not be effective for another.
Jones, Kate One of the tensions touching the physician - patient relationship today is the physician's ability to correctly interpret what the patient psychologically and emotionally needs from the medical consultation following the diagnosis of chronic or serious illness. The analysis of the issue goes beyond the concern of what information is given to a patient and begins with the importance of good communication.