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  1. Emiel Krahmer & Kees van Deemter, Computational Generation of Referring Expressions: A Survey.
    This article offers a survey of computational research on referring expressions generation (REG). It introduces the REG problem and describes early work in this area, discussing what basic assumptions lie behind it, and showing how its remit has widened in recent years. We discuss computational frameworks underlying REG, and demonstrate a recent trend that seeks to link up REG algorithms with well-established Knowledge Representation traditions. Considerable attention is given to recent efforts at evaluating REG algorithms and the lessons that they (...)
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  2. Kees van Deemter, Game Theory and Language Generation.
    This informal position paper brings together some recent developments in formal semantics and pragmatics to argue that the discipline of Game Theory is well placed to become the theoretical backbone of Natural Language Generation. To demonstrate some of the strengths and weaknesses of the Game-Theoretical approach, we focus on the utility of vague expressions. More specifically, we ask what light Game Theory can shed on the question when an NLG system should generate vague language.
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  3. Kees van Deemter, Vagueness Facilitates Search.
    Two questions dominate theoretical research on vagueness. The first is of a logical-semantic nature: What formal models offer the best understanding of vagueness? Many answers to this question have been proposed (e.g. [1], [2] for an overview), but none of these has found general acceptance so far. The second question is of a pragmatic nature and asks Why is language vague? This question has been asked forcefully by the economist Barton Lipman, who has shown that some seemingly plausible answers resist (...)
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  4. Kees van Deemter, What Game Theory Can Do for NLG: The Case of Vague Language.
    This informal position paper brings together some recent developments in formal semantics and pragmatics to argue that the discipline of Game Theory is well placed to become the theoretical backbone of Natural Language Generation. To demonstrate some of the strengths and weaknesses of the Game-Theoretical approach, we focus on the utility of vague expressions. More specifically, we ask what light Game Theory can shed on the question when an NLG system should generate vague language.
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  5. Kees van Deemter, Finetuning NLG Through Experiments with Human Subjects: The Case of Vague Descriptions.
    This discussion paper describes a sequence of experiments with human subjects aimed at finding out how an nlg system should choose between the different forms of a gradable adjective. This case study highlights some general questions that one faces when trying to base nlg systems on empirical evidence: one question is what task to set a subject so as to obtain the most useful information about that subject, another question has to do with differences between subjects.
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  6. Kees van Deemter, Brigitte Krenn, Paul Piwek, Marc Schroeder, Martin Klesen & Stefan Baumann, Fully Generated Scripted Dialogue for Embodied Conversational Agents'.
    (Near-final version.) Accepted for publication in Artificial Intelligence Journal.
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  7. Kees van Deemter, Albert Gatt, Ielka van der Sluis & Richard Power (2012). Assessing the Incremental Algorithm: A Response to Krahmer Et Al. Cognitive Science 36 (5):842-845.
    This response discusses the experiment reported in Krahmer et al.’s Letter to the Editor of Cognitive Science. We observe that their results do not tell us whether the Incremental Algorithm is better or worse than its competitors, and we speculate about implications for reference in complex domains, and for learning from ‘‘normal” (i.e., non-semantically-balanced) corpora.
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  8. Kees van Deemter, Albert Gatt, Roger P. G. van Gompel & Emiel Krahmer (2012). Toward a Computational Psycholinguistics of Reference Production. Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (2):166-183.
    This article introduces the topic ‘‘Production of Referring Expressions: Bridging the Gap between Computational and Empirical Approaches to Reference’’ of the journal Topics in Cognitive Science. We argue that computational and psycholinguistic approaches to reference production can benefit from closer interaction, and that this is likely to result in the construction of algorithms that differ markedly from the ones currently known in the computational literature. We focus particularly on determinism, the feature of existing algorithms that is perhaps most clearly at (...)
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  9. Imtiaz H. Khan, Kees van Deemter & Graeme Ritchie (2011). Managing Ambiguity in Reference Generation: The Role of Surface Structure. Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (2):211-231.
    This article explores the role of surface ambiguities in referring expressions, and how the risk of such ambiguities should be taken into account by an algorithm that generates referring expressions, if these expressions are to be optimally effective for a hearer. We focus on the ambiguities that arise when adjectives occur in coordinated structures. The central idea is to use statistical information about lexical co-occurrence to estimate which interpretation of a phrase is most likely for human readers, and to avoid (...)
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  10. Kees van Deemter, Albert Gatt, Ielka van der Sluis & Richard Power (2011). Generation of Referring Expressions: Assessing the Incremental Algorithm. Cognitive Science 36 (5):799-836.
    A substantial amount of recent work in natural language generation has focused on the generation of ‘‘one-shot’’ referring expressions whose only aim is to identify a target referent. Dale and Reiter's Incremental Algorithm (IA) is often thought to be the best algorithm for maximizing the similarity to referring expressions produced by people. We test this hypothesis by eliciting referring expressions from human subjects and computing the similarity between the expressions elicited and the ones generated by algorithms. It turns out that (...)
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  11. Kees van Deemter (2010). Not Exactly: In Praise of Vagueness. Oxford University Press.
  12. Kees van Deemter (2009). Utility and Language Generation: The Case of Vagueness. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophical Logic 38 (6):607-632.
    This paper asks why information should ever be expressed vaguely, re-assessing some previously proposed answers to this question and suggesting some new ones. Particular attention is paid to the benefits that vague expressions can have in situations where agreement over the meaning of an expression cannot be taken for granted. A distinction between two different versions of the above-mentioned question is advocated. The first asks why human languages contain vague expressions, the second question asks when and why a speaker should (...)
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  13. Albert Gatt & Kees van Deemter (2007). Lexical Choice and Conceptual Perspective in the Generation of Plural Referring Expressions. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 16 (4):423-443.
    A fundamental part of the process of referring to an entity is to categorise it (for instance, as the woman). Where multiple categorisations exist, this implicitly involves the adoption of a conceptual perspective. A challenge for the automatic Generation of Referring Expressions is to identify a set of referents coherently, adopting the same conceptual perspective. We describe and evaluate an algorithm to achieve this. The design of the algorithm is motivated by the results of psycholinguistic experiments.
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  14. Kees Van Deemter (1998). Domains of Discourse and the Semantics of Ambiguous Utterances: A Reply to Gauker. Mind 107 (426):433-445.
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  15. Kees Van Deemter (1996). The Sorites Fallacy and the Context-Dependence of Vague Predicates. In Makoto Kanazawa, Christopher Pinon & Henriette de Swart (eds.), Quantifiers, Deduction, and Context. Csli.
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  16. Kees Van Deemter (1994). What's New? A Semantic Perspective on Sentence Accent. Journal of Semantics 11 (1-2):1-32.
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  17. Kees van Deemter (1992). Towards a Generalization of Anaphora. Journal of Semantics 9 (1):27-51.
    This paper deals with anaphoric properties of both pronominal and nonpronominal Noun Phrases within the framework of Discourse Representation Theory (DRT). A generalized notion of anaphora is advocated, in which the notion of anaphora is extended to cover relations between anaphor and antecedent other than referential identity. This paper tries to make insights gained in DRT, as well as in other theories of anaphora, applicable to a wide range of ‘new’ phenomena in the area of context dependent interpretation.
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  18. Kees Van Deemter (1990). Forward References in Natural Language. Journal of Semantics 7 (3):281-300.
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  19. Kees van Deemter (1984). Generalized Quantifiers: Finite Versus Infinite. In Johan Van Benthem & Alice Ter Meulen (eds.), Generalized Quantifiers in Natural Language. Foris Publications.
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