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  1. Maggie E. Toplak, Richard F. West & Keith E. Stanovich (2014). Assessing Miserly Information Processing: An Expansion of the Cognitive Reflection Test. Thinking and Reasoning 20 (2):147-168.
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  2. Keith E. Stanovich (2012). Environments for Fast and Slow Thinking. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (4):198-199.
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  3. Keith E. Stanovich (2012). Why Humans Are (Sometimes) Less Rational Than Other Animals: Cognitive Complexity and the Axioms of Rational Choice. Thinking and Reasoning 19 (1):1 - 26.
    (2013). Why humans are (sometimes) less rational than other animals: Cognitive complexity and the axioms of rational choice. Thinking & Reasoning: Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 1-26. doi: 10.1080/13546783.2012.713178.
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  4. Keith E. Stanovich & Maggie E. Toplak (2012). Defining Features Versus Incidental Correlates of Type 1 and Type 2 Processing. Mind and Society 11 (1):3-13.
    Many critics of dual-process models have mistaken long lists of descriptive terms in the literature for a full-blown theory of necessarily co-occurring properties. These critiques have distracted attention from the cumulative progress being made in identifying the much smaller set of properties that truly do define Type 1 and Type 2 processing. Our view of the literature is that autonomous processing is the defining feature of Type 1 processing. Even more convincing is the converging evidence that the key feature of (...)
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  5. Keith E. Stanovich (2011). Normative Models in Psychology Are Here to Stay. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (5):268-269.
    Elqayam & Evans (E&E) drive a wedge between Bayesianism and instrumental rationality that most decision scientists will not recognize. Their analogy from linguistics to judgment and decision making is inapt. Normative models remain extremely useful in the progressive research programs of the judgment and decision making field.
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  6. Keith E. Stanovich (2009). Distinguishing the Reflective, Algorithmic, and Autonomous Minds: Is It Time for a Tri-Process Theory. In Keith Frankish & Jonathan St B. T. Evans (eds.), In Two Minds: Dual Processes and Beyond. Oxford University Press. 55--88.
  7. Keith E. Stanovich (2008). Higher-Order Preferences and the Master Rationality Motive. Thinking and Reasoning 14 (1):111 – 127.
    The cognitive critique of the goals and desires that are input into the implicit calculations that result in instrumental rationality is one aspect of what has been termed broad rationality (Elster, 1983). This cognitive critique involves, among other things, the search for rational integration (Nozick, 1993)—that is, consistency between first-order and second-order preferences. Forming a second-order preference involves metarepresentational abilities made possible by mental decoupling operations. However, these decoupling abilities are separable from the motive that initiates the cognitive critique itself. (...)
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  8. Keith E. Stanovich (2008). Individual Differences in Reasoning and the Algorithmic/Intentional Level Distinction in Cognitive Science. In Jonathan Eric Adler & Lance J. Rips (eds.), Reasoning: Studies of Human Inference and its Foundations. Cambridge University Press. 414--436.
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  9. Keith E. Stanovich & Richard F. West (2008). On the Failure of Cognitive Ability to Predict Myside and One-Sided Thinking Biases. Thinking and Reasoning 14 (2):129 – 167.
    Two critical thinking skills—the tendency to avoid myside bias and to avoid one-sided thinking—were examined in three different experiments involving over 1200 participants and across two different paradigms. Robust indications of myside bias were observed in all three experiments. Participants gave higher evaluations to arguments that supported their opinions than those that refuted their prior positions. Likewise, substantial one-side bias was observed—participants were more likely to prefer a one-sided to a balanced argument. There was substantial variation in both types of (...)
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  10. Richard F. West & Keith E. Stanovich (2008). On the Failure of Cognitive Ability to Predict Myside and One-Sided Thinking Biases. Thinking and Reasoning 14 (2):129-167.
    Two critical thinking skills—the tendency to avoid myside bias and to avoid one-sided thinking—were examined in three different experiments involving over 1200 participants and across two different paradigms. Robust indications of myside bias were observed in all three experiments. Participants gave higher evaluations to arguments that supported their opinions than those that refuted their prior positions. Likewise, substantial one-side bias was observed—participants were more likely to prefer a one-sided to a balanced argument. There was substantial variation in both types of (...)
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  11. Keith E. Stanovich (2007). The Psychology of Decision Making in a Unified Behavioral Science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):41-42.
    The cognitive psychology of judgment and decision making helps to elaborate Gintis's unified view of the behavioral sciences by highlighting the fact that decisions result from multiple systems in the mind. It also adds to the unified view the idea that the potential to self-critique preference structures is a unique feature of human cognition. (Published Online April 27 2007).
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  12. Keith E. Stanovich & Richard F. West (2007). Natural Myside Bias is Independent of Cognitive Ability. Thinking and Reasoning 13 (3):225 – 247.
    Natural myside bias is the tendency to evaluate propositions from within one's own perspective when given no instructions or cues (such as within-participants conditions) to avoid doing so. We defined the participant's perspective as their previously existing status on four variables: their sex, whether they smoked, their alcohol consumption, and the strength of their religious beliefs. Participants then evaluated a contentious but ultimately factual proposition relevant to each of these demographic factors. Myside bias is defined between-participants as the mean difference (...)
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  13. Keith E. Stanovich (2006). Fluid Intelligence as Cognitive Decoupling. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):139-140.
    The dissociation of fluid cognitive functions from g is implicit in the Cattell-Horn-Carroll gF-gC theory. Nevertheless, Blair is right that fluid functions are extremely important. I suggest that the key mental operation assessed by measures of gF is the ability to sustain mental simulation while keeping the relevant representations decoupled from the actual world – an ability that underlies all hypothetical thinking. (Published Online April 5 2006).
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  14. Keith E. Stanovich (2006). Memetics and Money. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):194-195.
    Lea & Webley's (L&W's) Drug Theory solves many puzzles surrounding money-related behavior. I explore supplementing the Drug Theory with ideas from gene-culture coevolution theory and memetic theory. (Published Online April 5 2006).
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  15. Keith E. Stanovich (2005). On the Coexistence of Cognitivism and Intertemporal Bargaining. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (5):661-662.
    Although Ainslie rejects cognitivism as providing an explanation of willpower, a type of nonhomuncular cognitivism is hiding in his own proposal. The key mental mechanism of aggregating individual decisions (bundled reframings) involves representation and decoupling operations encompassed within the analytic system of dual-process mental architectures.
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  16. Keith E. Stanovich (2004). Balance in Psychological Research: The Dual Process Perspective. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (3):357-358.
    Krueger & Funder (K&F) are right that various imbalances characterize social psychology, but I question whether they are characteristic of psychology or cognitive science as a whole. Dual-process theories, popular in the latter fields, emphasize both processing biases and the adaptiveness of human cognition in a more balanced manner.
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  17. Keith E. Stanovich & R. F. West (2003). Evolutionary Versus Instrumental Goals: How Evolutionary Psychology Misconceives Human Rationality. In David E. Over (ed.), Evolution and the Psychology of Thinking: The Debate. Psychology Press. 171--230.
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  18. Keith E. Stanovich & Richard F. West (2003). The Rationality Debate as a Progressive Research Program. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (4):531-533.
    We did not, as Brakel & Shevrin imply, intend to classify either System 1 or System 2 as rational or irrational. Instrumental rationality is assessed at the organismic level, not at the subpersonal level. Thus, neither System 1 nor System 2 are themselves inherently rational or irrational. Also, that genetic fitness and instrumental rationality are not to be equated was a major theme in our target article. We disagree with Bringsjord & Yang's point that the tasks used in the heuristics (...)
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  19. Keith E. Stanovich (2001). Reductionism in the Study of Intelligence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (2):91-92.
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  20. Keith E. Stanovich & Richard F. West (2000). Advancing the Rationality Debate. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):701-717.
    In this response, we clarify several misunderstandings of the understanding/acceptance principle and defend our specific operationalization of that principle. We reiterate the importance of addressing the problem of rational task construal and we elaborate the notion of computational limitations contained in our target article. Our concept of thinking dispositions as variable intentional-level styles of epistemic and behavioral regulation is explained, as is its relation to the rationality debate. Many of the suggestions of the commentators for elaborating two-process models are easily (...)
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  21. Keith E. Stanovich & Richard F. West (2000). Individual Differences in Reasoning: Implications for the Rationality Debate? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):645-665.
    Much research in the last two decades has demonstrated that human responses deviate from the performance deemed normative according to various models of decision making and rational judgment (e.g., the basic axioms of utility theory). This gap between the normative and the descriptive can be interpreted as indicating systematic irrationalities in human cognition. However, four alternative interpretations preserve the assumption that human behavior and cognition is largely rational. These posit that the gap is due to (1) performance errors, (2) computational (...)
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  22. Keith E. Stanovich (1996). Decentered Thought and Consequentialist Decision Making. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):323.
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  23. Keith E. Stanovich (1993). The Developmental History of an Illusion. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (1):80.
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  24. Keith E. Stanovich (1991). Damn! There Goes That Ghost Again! Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (4):696-698.
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  25. Keith E. Stanovich (1990). And Then a Miracle Happens…. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):684-685.
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  26. Richard F. West & Keith E. Stanovich (1988). How Much of Sentence Priming is Word Priming? Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 26 (1):1-4.
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  27. Richard F. West & Keith E. Stanovich (1988). The Neutral Condition in Sentence Context Experiments: Empirical Studies. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 26 (2):87-90.
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  28. Keith E. Stanovich & Dean G. Purcell (1986). Priming Without Awareness: What Was All the Fuss About? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):47-48.
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  29. Keith E. Stanovich (1985). The Black–White Differences Are Real: Where Do We Go From Here? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (2):242-243.
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  30. Keith E. Stanovich, Dorothy J. Feeman & Anne E. Cunningham (1983). The Development of the Relation Between Letter-Naming Speed and Reading Ability. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 21 (3):199-202.
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  31. Keith E. Stanovich, Dean G. Purcell & Richard F. West (1979). The Development of Word Recognition Mechanisms: Inference and Unitization. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 13 (2):71-74.
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  32. Keith E. Stanovich & Robert G. Pachella (1976). The Effect of Stimulus Probability on the Speed and Accuracy of Naming Alphanumeric Stimuli. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 8 (4):281-284.
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